Publications by authors named "Emre Acaroglu"

123 Publications

Improvement of Life After PVCR in Complete Paraplegic Patients with Posttraumatic Severe Kyphosis.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Ufuk University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: To determine the effect of PVCR in patients with paraplegia by using the American Spinal Injury Association Score and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire.

Material And Methods: Twelve patients with posttraumatic paraplegia and severe angular kyphosis ( 60⁰) had undergone PVCR between 6-24 months after the trauma for severe pain, persistent vertebral instability and difficulty in adherence to rehabilitation. ASIA scores and SRS-22 questionnaire results obtained in the preoperative and postoperative periods and the last control were statistically compared to assess the presence of any change.

Results: The average age of twelve patients included in this study was 35,6±10,2 (21-51) years. Female/male ratio was 2/10 (20,0%). The mean follow-up duration was 50,3±17,6 (24-86) months. None of the patients had additional changes in neuromonitoring records during surgery. The mean preoperative kyphotic angle of the patients was 66,58°±7,1⁰ (60⁰-82⁰) which decreased to 7,0⁰±5,4⁰ in the postoperative period (p 0,05). The mean ASIA score, which was 43,3±5,1 preoperatively, increased to 44,4±4,4 in the postoperative period. The SRS-22 score, which was 2,4±0,3 in the preoperative period, increased to 4,2±0,4 in the early postoperative period. This increase was found to be statistically significant (p 0,05). The SRS-22 score was 4,1±0,4 at last follow-up and was not statistically different from the early postoperative value (p 0,05).

Conclusion: In the light of these data, it can be stated that PVCR is a safe and reliable procedure in paraplegic patients with rigid posttraumatic kyphosis and increases patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.32554-20.2DOI Listing
December 2020

Variation of Minimum Clinically Important Difference by Age, Gender, Baseline Disability, and Change of Direction in Adult Spinal Deformity Population: Is It a Constant Value?

World Neurosurg 2021 02 28;146:e1171-e1176. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The minimum clinically important difference (MCID), an important concept to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, might not be a single "magical" constant for any given health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scale. Thus, we analyzed the effects of various factors on MCIDs for several HRQoL measures in an adult spinal deformity population.

Methods: Surgical and nonsurgical patients from a multicenter adult spinal deformity database who had completed pretreatment and 1-year follow-up questionnaires (Core Outcome Measures Index [COMI], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form questionnaire, 22-item Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes questionnaire, and an anchor question of "back health"-related change during the previous year) were evaluated. The MCIDs for each HRQoL measure were calculated using an anchor-based method and latent class analysis for the overall population and subpopulations stratified by age, gender, and baseline scores (ODI and COMI) separately for patients with positive versus negative perceptions of change.

Results: Patients with a baseline ODI score of <20, 20-40, and >40 had an MCID of 2.24, 11.35, and 26.57, respectively. Similarly, patients with a baseline COMI score of <2.75, 2.8-5.4, and >5.4 had an MCID of 0.59, 1.38, and 3.67 respectively. The overall MCID thresholds for deterioration and improvement were 0.27 and 2.62 for COMI, 2.23 and 14.31 for ODI, and 0.01 and 0.71 for 22-item Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes questionnaire, respectively.

Conclusions: The results from the present study have demonstrated that MCIDs change in accordance with the baseline scores and direction of change but not by age or gender. The MCID, in its current state, should be considered a concept rather than a constant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.11.124DOI Listing
February 2021

Diverse approaches to scoliosis in young children.

EFORT Open Rev 2020 Oct 26;5(10):753-762. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Management of scoliosis in young children needs a comprehensive approach because of its complexity. There are many debatable points; however, only serial casting, growing rods (including traditional and magnetically controlled) and anterior vertebral body tethering will be discussed in this article.Serial casting is a time-gaining method for postponing surgical interventions in early onset scoliosis, despite the fact that it has some adverse effects which should be considered and discussed with the family beforehand.Use of growing rods is a growth-friendly surgical technique for the treatment of early onset spine deformity which allows chest growth and lung development. Magnetically controlled growing rods are effective in selected cases although they sometimes have a high number of unplanned revisions.Anterior vertebral body tethering seems to be a promising novel technique for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in immature cases. It provides substantial correction and continuous curve control while maintaining mobility between spinal segments. However, long-term results, adverse effects and their prevention should be clarified by future studies. Cite this article: 2020;5:753-762. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190087.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2058-5241.5.190087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608509PMC
October 2020

Prediction of satisfaction after correction surgery for adult spinal deformity: differences between younger and older patients.

Eur Spine J 2020 12 1;29(12):3051-3062. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Spine Surgery Unit, Bordeaux University Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Achieving an adequate level of patient's satisfaction with results is one of the goals of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. However, it is unclear whether the same factors affect satisfaction in all patient populations. Patients' age influences the postoperative course and prevalence of complications after ASD surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors predicting satisfaction 2 years after ASD surgery in younger and older patients.

Methods: A total of 119 patients under 40 years old, 155 patients 40 to 65 years old, and 148 patients over 65 years old at surgery who were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery were included. Multivariate analysis was used to determine independent related factors with maximum AUC for satisfaction 2 years after surgery in each group. A propensity-matched cohort under equivalent demographic and clinical characteristics was used to confirm the results.

Results: Logistic regression analyses revealed satisfaction among the under-40 group corresponded to prior spine surgery, complications, and self-image. That among the 40-to-65 group corresponded to neurologic complication, revision surgery, pain, and sagittal vertical axis restoration. Among the over-65 group satisfaction correlated with revision surgery, standing ability, and lumbar lordosis index restoration. Propensity score matching confirmed that sagittal alignment correction led to substantial satisfaction.

Conclusions: In younger patients, avoiding complications and improving patients' self-image were essential for substantial satisfaction levels. In older patients, revision, standing ability, as well as sagittal spinopelvic alignment restoration, were the key factors. Surgeons should consider the differences in goals of each patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06611-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Blended Learning Is a Feasible and Effective Tool for Basic Pediatric Spinal Deformity Training.

Global Spine J 2021 Mar 2;11(2):219-223. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Distance Education Institute, de-institute.com/moodle30.

Study Design: Descriptive study.

Objective: Assessing the applicability of blended learning to specific domains of spine surgery.

Methods: After the needs assessment, a blended pediatric spine deformity course program was designed. A total of 33 participants, including orthopedic and neurosurgeons, registered for the course and all of them completed an online entrance quiz. Thus, they were eligible to have online part of course, which included the theoretical part of the course and also a discussion forum where the discussions about the topics facilitated by faculty. Thirteen of 33 subjects participated second part of the blended pediatric spine deformity course. This face-to-face (F2F) part consisted of case discussions for each topic and discussions facilitated by faculty members. The same quiz was also taken before and after the F2F part. All quiz results were compared statistically.

Results: There were 11 lectures within the online part and 6 case discussions in the F2F part. The quiz scores were improved significantly by having a complete blended pediatric deformity course ( < .05).

Conclusions: The current study has demonstrated that blended learning format, including online and F2F, is feasible and effective in training for a domain of spine surgery, pediatric deformity in this specific context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220916502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882832PMC
March 2021

Decision Analysis in Quest of the Ideal Treatment in Adult Spinal Deformity Adjusted for Minimum Clinically Important Difference.

World Neurosurg 2020 10 1;142:e278-e289. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Surgery appears to yield better results in adult spinal deformity treatment when fixed minimum clinically important difference values are used to define success. Our objective was to analyze utilities and improvement provided by surgical versus nonsurgical treatment at 2 years using Oswestry Disability Index with treatment-specific minimum clinically important difference values.

Methods: From a multicenter database including 1452 patients, 698 with 2 years of follow-up were analyzed. Mean age of patients was 50.95 ± 19.44 years; 580 patients were women, and 118 were men. The surgical group comprised 369 patients, and the nonsurgical group comprised 329 patients. The surgical group was subcategorized into no complications (192 patients), minor complications (97 patients) and major complications (80 patients) groups to analyze the effect of complications on results. Minimum clinically important differences using Oswestry Disability Index were 14.31, 14.96, and 2.48 for overall, surgical, and nonsurgical groups. Utilities were calculated by visual analog scale mapping.

Results: Surgical treatment provided higher utility (0.583) than nonsurgical treatment (0.549) that was sensitive to complications, being 0.634, 0.564, and 0.497 in no, minor, and major complications. Probabilities of improvement, unchanged, and deterioration were 38.3%, 39.2%, and 22.5% for surgical treatment and 39.4%, 10.5%, and 50.1% for nonsurgical treatment. Improvement in the surgical group was also sensitive to complications with rates of 40.1%, 39.3%, and 33.3%.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that surgical treatment has less disease burden and less chance of deterioration, but equal chances for improvement at 2 years of follow-up. As it appears to be a better modality in the absence of complications, future efforts need be directed to decreasing the complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.208DOI Listing
October 2020

Clinical Performance and Concurrent Validity of the Adult Spinal Deformity Surgical Decision-making Score.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Jul;45(14):E847-E855

Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Spine Unit 1, Bordeaux University Hospital, France.

Study Design: Multicenter, retrospective study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the performance and concurrent validity of the adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making (ASD-SDM) score compared to decision-making factors in the ASD population.

Summary Of Background Data: The ASD-SDM score, which has been recently proposed, is a scoring system to guide the selection of treatment modality for the ASD population. To secure the justification for its clinical use, it is necessary to verify its clinical performance and concurrent validity.

Methods: A multicenter prospective ASD database was retrospectively reviewed. The data were analyzed separately in younger (≤40 years) and older (≥41 years) age groups. The discriminating capacity of the ASD-SDM score in cases who selected surgical and nonsurgical management was compared using area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC). Concurrent validity was examined using Spearman correlation coefficients, comparing factors that are reported to be associated with the decision-making process for ASD, including baseline symptomatology, health-related quality of life measures, and the severity of radiographic spinal deformity.

Results: There were 338 patients (mean age: 26.6 years; 80.8% female; 129 surgical and 209 nonsurgical) in the younger age group and 750 patients (mean age: 63.5 years; 84.3% female; 410 surgical and 340 nonsurgical) in the older age group. In both younger and older patients, the ASD-SDM score showed a significantly higher performance for discriminating the surgical and nonsurgical cases (AUROC: 0.767, standard error [SE]: 0.026, P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.712-0.813; AUROC: 0.781, SE: 0.017, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.747-0.812, respectively) compared to the decision-making factors analyzed. In addition, the ASD-SDM showed significant correlations with multiple decision-making factors.

Conclusion: The ASD-SDM score alone can effectively grade the indication for surgical management whilst considering multiple decision-making factors.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003434DOI Listing
July 2020

Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome: Rare Precedented Reason of Postoperative Plegia After Spinal Deformity Surgery: Report of 2 Cases.

World Neurosurg 2020 09 2;141:203-209. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Orthopedic Spine Section, Ankara Spine Center, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Complications in spinal deformity surgery vary from insignificant to severe. Apart from direct mechanical insult, ischemia can also cause spinal cord injury. Ischemic injury may be detected during surgery or may manifest itself postoperatively. We present 2 cases of anterior spinal artery syndrome.

Case Description: In the first case, a 12-year-old girl developed anterior spinal artery syndrome resulting in total quadriplegia 8 hours after spinal deformity surgery. She was treated with a steroid, immunoglobulin, and low-molecular-weight heparin. She showed complete recovery at 1 year postoperatively both clinically and radiographically. In the second case, a 62-year-old woman experienced sudden loss of motor evoked potentials intraoperatively during dural tear repair after sagittal and coronal alignment was established. The paraplegic patient was diagnosed with anterior spinal artery syndrome at the thoracic level postoperatively. She was treated with a steroid and heparin. At 1 year postoperatively, she has gained much of her strength and has myelomalacia in her spinal cord.

Conclusions: Anterior spinal artery syndrome is a serious condition with a generally poor prognosis. Though treatment should be directed at the underlying cause, the best strategy is to prevent it from occurring. Peroperative blood pressure control, intraoperative neuromonitoring, avoidance from mechanical stress during surgery, and close neurologic and hemodynamic monitorization postoperatively should be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.216DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy level on lordosis distribution and shape.

Eur Spine J 2020 06 23;29(6):1388-1396. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Spine Surgery Unit, Pellegrin University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Little is known about the qualitative results (postoperative upper/lower lumbar arches distribution and lumbar apex or inflection point positioning) of lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomies (L-PSO) depending on the level of L-PSO.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of adult deformity patients undergoing single-level L-PSO. We analyzed several variables in preoperative and postoperative sagittal radiographs: L-PSO level, Roussouly classification (R-type), inflection point (InfP), lumbar apex (LApex), spinopelvic parameters, lordosis distribution index (LDI = L4-S1/L1-S1), and number of levels in the lordosis (NVL). Comparisons between PSO levels were performed to determine lordosis distribution and sagittal shape using ANOVA test and Chi-squared statistics.

Results: A total of 126 patients were included in this study. L5-PSO mainly increased the lower lumbar arch, thereby increasing LDI. L4 increased upper/lower arches similarly. PSOs at and above L3 increased the upper lumbar arch, thereby decreasing LDI (P < 0.001). L4-PSO added 1 vertebra into the lordosis (NVL =  + 1.2 ± 2.2). PSOs above L3 added 2 vertebrae into the lordosis (NVL =  + 2.3 ± 1.4). Overall P = 0.007. PSOs above L4 shifted the LApex cranially in 70% of the cases (mean 1.12 levels) and the InfP in 85% of the cases (mean 2.4 levels). L5-PSO shifted the LApex caudally in 70% of the cases (mean - 1.1 levels) and the InfP in 50% of the cases (mean - 1.6 levels). Overall P < 0.006. The L-PSO level was not associated with a specific Roussouly-type P > 0.05.

Conclusions: The level of L-PSO influenced upper/lower lumbar arches distribution, and lumbar apex and inflection point positioning. The correct level should be chosen based on the individual assessment of each patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06421-8DOI Listing
June 2020

The effect of increasing body mass index on the pain and function of patients with adult spinal deformity.

J Spine Surg 2019 Dec;5(4):535-540

L'Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Both adult spinal deformity (ASD) and obesity are growing concerns internationally. This study therefore aims to determine the effect of increasing body mass index (BMI) on the pain and function of patients with ASD.

Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a multicentre European database was undertaken. Initially a univariate analysis was performed on the effect of BMI on the initial presentation of functional scores in patients with ASD. The functional scores included the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) back and leg score, Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) back score, SRS22 total score, Short Form 36 (SF-36) [general health, physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS)] and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score (including all domains). Subsequently a multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, comorbidities, employment status, smoking status and radiological parameters [coronal cobb, coronal balance, sagittal balance, global tilt, and pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI - LL) mismatch] was performed.

Results: A total of 1,004 patients were included in this study (166 male, 838 female). On univariate analysis a statistically significant (P<0.05) moderate correlation between NRS leg pain, ODI (walking, standing, sex life, social life and total score), SF-36 (physical component), sagittal balance, global tilt and age were recognised (P<0.05). A statistically significant low correlation was identified for all other outcomes, except coronal balance (P=0.640). On multivariate analysis BMI remained significantly related to all functional outcomes except ODI-pain and ODI-travelling (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Increasing BMI has a significant adverse effect on the pain and functioning of patients with ASD. Clinicians should recognise this association and treat patients accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jss.2019.11.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989938PMC
December 2019

Mid-term results of displaced acetabulum fractures surgically treated using anterior intra-pelvic approach (modified Stoppa).

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2020 Jan;26(1):130-136

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Memorial Hospital, Ankara-Turkey.

Background: This study aims to evaluate the radiological and clinical mid-term results of the patients with displaced acetabular fractures surgically treated with open reduction and internal fixation using an anterior intra-pelvic approach (AIP).

Methods: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 12 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated surgically via the AIP approach. Patients were analyzed for Letournel's acetabular fracture classification, associated injuries, time to surgery, additional surgical procedures needed, perioperative and postoperative complications, radiologic and functional results.

Results: Of the 12 patients, the male/female ratio was 1/2; the mean age was 40.5±16.2 (16-64) years. The mean follow-up time was 59.8±32.2 (12-124) months. Seven patients had both column fractures, three patients had anterior column + posterior hemitransverse fractures, one patient had transverse + posterior wall and one patient had anterior column fracture. The mean time to surgery was 6.6±4.4 (2-16) days. The mean intraoperative blood transfusion was 830 (300-2000) ml. Intra-operative and post-operative complications were noted in eight patients. The mean Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score was 14.5±2.7 (10-18). Six patients with an anatomical reduction of the fracture showed excellent/good functional and radiologic outcomes. Three patients with a non-anatomic reduction developed post-traumatic arthrosis that was treated with total hip arthroplasty.

Conclusion: AIP approach provides a satisfactory exposure for the surgical treatment of displaced anterior wall/column and both column acetabular fractures. Clinical outcome is directly related to the reduction quality. Patients with poor reduction are most likely to develop mid-term complications, such as hip joint arthrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/tjtes.2019.03835DOI Listing
January 2020

Ideal sagittal profile restoration and ideal lumbar apex positioning play an important role in postoperative mechanical complications after a lumbar PSO.

Spine Deform 2020 06 8;8(3):491-498. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Spine Surgery Unit, Pellegrin University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

Objective: To determine the influence of postoperative ideal lordosis distribution and ideal sagittal harmony on mechanical complications in patients undergoing one-level lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (L-PSO). Many variables have been associated with mechanical complications after L-PSO. However, the impact of restoring the ideal inflexion point, lumbar apex, and sagittal shape is still underexplored.

Methods: Analyzed risk factors were: age and patient-related variables, PSO level, interbody cages, rod material/diameter, number of rods, upper instrumented vertebra, lower instrumented vertebra, PI-LL mismatch, global tilt (GT), postoperative level of lumbar apex (LApex), postoperative level of inflexion point (InfxP), and postoperative type of Roussouly sagittal profile (R-type). These last variables were compared to ideal (based on pelvic incidence). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risks for mechanical complications with a minimum 2-year follow-up.

Results: A total of 87 patients were included. Mean follow-up was 4.5 ± 1.7 years. 40.2% of the patients suffered postoperative mechanical complications (7 PJK, 4 PJF, 18 pseudoarthrosis/rod breakage, 6 screw pullout). Mean time for complications was 584 ± 416 days from surgery. Univariate analysis showed that age (63 vs 57 years; P = 0.04), BMI (28.1 vs 25.9; P = 0.024), preoperative-GT (50.7° vs 38.7°; P < 0.001), postoperative-GT (28.9° vs 23.4°; P = 0.018), postoperative LApex location mismatched from ideal (77.8% vs 22.2%; P = 0.036), and postoperative R-type mismatched from ideal (67.6% vs 22.6%; P < 0.001) were significantly related to mechanical complications. The independent factors selected by multivariate analysis were: postoperative R-type mismatched from ideal OR 11.3 (95% CI   3.9-32.6; P < 0.001), age OR 1.05 (95% CI 1-1.1; P = 0.03), and LApex matching OR 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.97; P = 0.04). The further the LApex was from its ideal position, the higher the risk of mechanical complications (P = 0.036).

Conclusions: Over other multiple suspected risk factors, proper lumbar apex position and ideal sagittal shape restoration played an important role in postoperative mechanical complications after L-PSO.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-019-00005-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Does the Application of Topical Intrawound Vancomycin Powder Affect Deep Surgical Site Infection and the Responsible Organisms after Spinal Surgery?: A Retrospective Case Series with a Historical Control Group.

Asian Spine J 2020 Feb 5;14(1):72-78. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Ankara Spine Center, Ankara, Turkey.

Study Design: Retrospective case series with a historical control group.

Purpose: To compare the deep wound infection rates in patients undergoing spinal surgery with the application of topical intrawound vancomycin powder (TIVP) in the surgical site in addition to standard systemic prophylaxis with those in a matched historical cohort of patients for whom TIVP was not used.

Overview Of Literature: Surgical site infection (SSI) after spine surgery is debilitating and is responsible for a significant increase in the health care costs, hospital stay, and morbidities. Although the application of TIVP before surgical closure is a promising method for reducing the SSI rate after spine surgery, its use is controversial, and currently, research trials are focusing on identifying its safety, efficacy, and the potential patient population.

Methods: A group of 88 patients who underwent posterior spinal surgery with TIVP administration (treatment group) was compared to a historical control group of 70 patients who had received only standard systemic intravenous prophylaxis (control group) for the analysis of deep SSI rate and the involved organisms.

Results: The overall rate of deep SSIs was 2.5% (4/158). All the SSIs were observed in patients who had posterior instrumentation and fusion for ≥3 levels. In the treatment group, the SSI rate was 3.4% (3/88), and the bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (n=2) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1). In the control group, the infection rate was 1.4% (1/70), and the isolated bacteria were Morganella morganii and Staphylococcus epidermidis. No statistically significant association was found between the SSI rates of the treatment and control groups.

Conclusions: Although the difference in the SSI rates was not statistically significant, the present results suggest that TIVP administration could not reduce the risk of deep SSIs after spinal surgery. Moreover, TIVP administration might also affect the underlying pathogens by increasing the propensity for gram-negative species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2018.0298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010508PMC
February 2020

Mental health status and sagittal spinopelvic alignment correlate with self-image in patients with adult spinal deformity before and after corrective surgery.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 31;29(1):63-72. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Spine Surgery Unit 1, Bordeaux University Pellegrin Hospital, Place Amélie Raba-Léon, 33076, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Preoperative patient self-image (SI) in adult spinal deformity (ASD) is the most relevant factor for surgical decision-making. Postoperative SI has an important role in a patient's satisfaction with surgery. However, few studies are available to describe these variables. The aim was to investigate the factors that correlate with SI before and 2 years after ASD surgery.

Methods: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected multicentric data. Patients who underwent ASD surgery with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were enrolled (n = 391). They were divided into high-SI and low-SI groups, both preoperatively and postoperatively, according to SRS-22R SI/appearance subdomain scores at baseline and at 2 years, respectively. Independently related factors for SI were determined using logistic regression analysis.

Results: Crucial factors for SI at baseline were the scores on the SRS-22R function/activity (OR: 2.61), SRS-22R mental health (OR: 2.63) subdomains, and relative spinopelvic alignment (RSA, OR: 0.95). SF-36 MCS (OR: 1.07) at baseline as well as sagittal vertical axis (SVA, OR: 0.99) at 2 years, and complications (OR: 0.44) were independent predictive factors for SI at 2 years. The patients who transitioned from the preoperative low-SI group to the postoperative high-SI group achieved larger global sagittal alignment restoration and had lesser complications than those who did not.

Conclusions: Mental status and sagittal spinopelvic alignment are key determinants of SI. The results indicate that considering mental status, preventing complications, and global sagittal alignment, restoration is crucial for achieving substantial SI scores after ASD surgery. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06200-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Restoring the ideal Roussouly sagittal profile in adult scoliosis surgery decreases the risk of mechanical complications.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 22;29(1):54-62. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Spine Surgery Unit, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: There are still no data proving whether restoring the ideal sagittal profile (according to Roussouly classification) in adult scoliosis (AS) patients leads to any additional benefit, especially regarding mechanical complications.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of operated AS patients recorded in a prospective multicenter database. Demographic and radiographic (preoperative and 6-week postoperative) data were analyzed. Patients with and without mechanical complications were compared looking especially at the surgical restoration of the ideal (based on Pelvic Incidence) sagittal profile. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify causes of mechanical complications at 2-year minimum follow-up.

Results: Ninty-six AS patients were analyzed. Thirty-nine patients suffered a mechanical complication (18 PJK, 11 pseudoarthrosis, 10 screw pull-out), and 57 patients had no mechanical complications. Postoperatively, 72% of patients not matching the ideal Roussouly-type suffered mechanical complications compared to 15% of matched patients (P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that older patients 64.9 ± 13 versus 40.7 ± 15.6 years (P < 0.001), higher postoperative Global Tilt (27° vs. 14.7°) and Pelvic Tilt (25° vs. 16°) (P < 0.001), upper instrumented vertebra at the thoracolumbar junction (62% vs. 21%) (P < 0.001), fixation to the Iliac (76% vs. 6%) (P < 0.001), and postoperative Roussouly-type mismatch (72% vs. 15%) (P < 0.001) significantly increased the rate of mechanical complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected: postoperative Roussouly-type mismatch (OR = 41.9; 95%CI = 5.5-315.7; P < 0.001), iliac instrumentation (OR = 19.4; 95%CI = 2.6-142.5; P = 0.004), and age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.02-1.16; P = 0.004), as the most important variables.

Conclusions: Adult scoliosis surgery should restore the ideal Roussouly sagittal profile to decrease the rate of mechanical complications, especially in patients older than 65, instrumented to the pelvis. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06176-xDOI Listing
January 2020

Adult Spinal Deformity Over 70 Years of Age: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

Int J Spine Surg 2019 Aug 31;13(4):336-344. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Ankara Spine Center, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD) in elderly patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the factors leading to the surgical treatment by comparing the baseline characteristics of operative versus nonoperative patients, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgery, and to compare operative and nonoperative management of elderly ASD patients at the end of the 2-year follow-up period.

Methods: Retrospective review of a multicenter, prospective ASD database was performed. Patients over 70 years of age with ASD who were scheduled to undergo surgical treatment and who were treated and/or followed without surgical intervention participated in the study. Demographic, clinical, surgical, and radiological characteristics and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) (Core Outcome Measures Index [COMI], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Short-Form-36 Mental Component Summary [SF-36 MCS], Short-Form-36 Physical Component Summary [SF36-PCS], and Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22]) parameters of such group of patients were evaluated pre- and posttreatment.

Results: A total 90 patients (females: 71, males: 29; operative: 61, nonoperative: 29) made up the study group. The comparison between the operative and the nonoperative groups at baseline showed statistical significance for all the HRQOL parameters and the major coronal Cobb angle ( < .05). The calculated optimal cutoff values to diverge operative and nonoperative groups for COMI, ODI, SF-36 PCS, and SRS-22 were 5.7, 37.0, 37.5, and 3.2, respectively ( < .05). All operative patients were treated with posterior surgery. Overall, 135 complications (71 major, 64 minor) and 1 death were observed. Surgically treated patients were found to be improved both clinically and in HRQOL parameters 2 years after surgery for all HRQOL parameters except SF-36 MCS, even in the presence of complications ( < .05), while nonoperative patients have not changed or deteriorated at the end of 2 years.

Conclusions: Despite a relatively high incidence of complications, the likelihood of achieving a clinically significant and relevant HRQOL improvement was superior for patients who were treated surgically in the present population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14444/6046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724754PMC
August 2019

Opioids and analgesics use after adult spinal deformity surgery correlates with sagittal alignment and preoperative analgesic pattern.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 6;29(1):73-84. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Orthopedic Spinal Surgery Unit 1, Bordeaux Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: To assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and sagittal parameters of adult spinal deformity (ASD)-operated patients in the context of their analgesic consumption especially opioids (narcotics) over the first year postoperative period.

Methods: In total, 372 patients from a multicenter database were stratified into 3 groups at baseline: 241 patients in the minimal group (no analgesic, or NSAIDs/narcotics weekly or less), 64 in the NSAIDs every day group and 67 in the narcotics every day group. HRQOL and back and leg pain scores were evaluated at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Also several sagittal alignment parameters were assessed.

Results: Significant improvements in pain and HRQOL scores were observed across all 3 groups by 1 year (P < 0.05) postoperatively. While the minimal group had the best pre- and postoperative HRQOL scores, the NSAID group demonstrated the best improvement in HRQOL. Only the minimal group displayed continued improvement from 6 months to 1 year. 90%, 65% and 40% of minimal, NSAID and narcotic groups of patients, respectively, no longer took any analgesics at 1 year postoperatively. Alternatively, 36% of patients in the narcotics group continued to take narcotics at 1 year. Residual malalignment increased NSAIDs consumption in different groups at 1 year.

Conclusion: This study evaluated the analgesics use after ASD surgery in relation to the clinical and radiological outcomes. Despite important postoperative opioids consumption in the narcotics group, clinical outcome yet improved. Malalignment parameters demonstrated a predictive value in regard to NSAIDs' usage. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06141-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Development of predictive models for all individual questions of SRS-22R after adult spinal deformity surgery: a step toward individualized medicine.

Eur Spine J 2019 Sep 19;28(9):1998-2011. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Economics and Business, Center for Research in Health and Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Office 23.111 Merce Rodoreda Building (Ciutadella Campus), Ramon Trias Fargas, 25-27, 08005, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) instruments are essential in value-driven health care, but patients often have more specific, personal priorities when seeking surgical care. The Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R), an HRQL instrument for spinal deformity, provides summary scores spanning several health domains, but these may be difficult for patients to utilize in planning their specific care goals. Our objective was to create preoperative predictive models for responses to individual SRS-22R questions at 1 and 2 years after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery to facilitate precision surgical care.

Methods: Two prospective observational cohorts were queried for ASD patients with SRS-22R data at baseline and 1 and 2 years after surgery. In total, 150 covariates were used in training machine learning models, including demographics, surgical data and perioperative complications. Validation was accomplished via an 80%/20% data split for training and testing, respectively. Goodness of fit was measured using area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves.

Results: In total, 561 patients met inclusion criteria. The AUROC ranged from 56.5 to 86.9%, reflecting successful fits for most questions. SRS-22R questions regarding pain, disability and social and labor function were the most accurately predicted. Models were less sensitive to questions regarding general satisfaction, depression/anxiety and appearance.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explicitly model the prediction of individual answers to the SRS-22R questionnaire at 1 and 2 years after deformity surgery. The ability to predict individual question responses may prove useful in preoperative counseling in the age of individualized medicine. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06079-xDOI Listing
September 2019

Adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making score. Part 2: development and validation of a scoring system to guide the selection of treatment modalities for patients above 40 years with adult spinal deformity.

Eur Spine J 2020 01 17;29(1):45-53. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

L'Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: We aimed to develop and internally validate a scoring system, the adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making (ASD-SDM) score, to guide the decision-making process for ASD patients aged above 40 years.

Methods: A multicentre prospective ASD database was retrospectively reviewed. The scoring system was developed using data from a derivation set and was internally validated in a validation set. The performance of the ASD-SDM score for predicting surgical management was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: A total of 702 patients were included for analysis in the present study. The scoring system developed based on 562 patients, ranging from 0 to 12 points, included five parameters: leg pain scored by the numerical rating scale; pain and self-image domains in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 score; coronal Cobb angle; and relative spinopelvic alignment. Surgical indication was graded as low (score 0 to 4), moderate (score 5 to 7), and high (score 8 to 12) groups. In the validation set of 140 patients, the AUC for predicting surgical management according to the ASD-SDM score was 0.797 (standard error = 0.037, P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval = 0.714 to 0.861), and in the low, moderate, and high surgical indication groups, 23.7%, 43.5%, and 80.4% of the patients, respectively, were treated surgically.

Conclusions: The ASD-SDM score demonstrated reliability, with higher scores indicating a higher probability of surgery. This index could aid in the selection of surgery for ASD patients in clinical settings. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-06068-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Development and validation of risk stratification models for adult spinal deformity surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Jun 28:1-13. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

15Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery has a high rate of major complications (MCs). Public information about adverse outcomes is currently limited to registry average estimates. The object of this study was to assess the incidence of adverse events after ASD surgery, and to develop and validate a prognostic tool for the time-to-event risk of MC, hospital readmission (RA), and unplanned reoperation (RO).

Methods: Two models per outcome, created with a random survival forest algorithm, were trained in an 80% random split and tested in the remaining 20%. Two independent prospective multicenter ASD databases, originating from the European continent and the United States, were queried, merged, and analyzed. ASD patients surgically treated by 57 surgeons at 23 sites in 5 countries in the period from 2008 to 2016 were included in the analysis.

Results: The final sample consisted of 1612 ASD patients: mean (standard deviation) age 56.7 (17.4) years, 76.6% women, 10.4 (4.3) fused vertebral levels, 55.1% of patients with pelvic fixation, 2047.9 observation-years. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that 12.1% of patients had at least one MC at 10 days after surgery; 21.5%, at 90 days; and 36%, at 2 years. Discrimination, measured as the concordance statistic, was up to 71.7% (95% CI 68%-75%) in the development sample for the postoperative complications model. Surgical invasiveness, age, magnitude of deformity, and frailty were the strongest predictors of MCs. Individual cumulative risk estimates at 2 years ranged from 3.9% to 74.1% for MCs, from 3.17% to 44.2% for RAs, and from 2.67% to 51.9% for ROs.

Conclusions: The creation of accurate prognostic models for the occurrence and timing of MCs, RAs, and ROs following ASD surgery is possible. The presented variability in patient risk profiles alongside the discrimination and calibration of the models highlights the potential benefits of obtaining time-to-event risk estimates for patients and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.3.SPINE181452DOI Listing
June 2019

Artificial Intelligence Based Hierarchical Clustering of Patient Types and Intervention Categories in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Towards a New Classification Scheme that Predicts Quality and Value.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 Jul;44(13):915-926

Center for Research in Health and Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively-collected, multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) databases.

Objective: To apply artificial intelligence (AI)-based hierarchical clustering as a step toward a classification scheme that optimizes overall quality, value, and safety for ASD surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Prior ASD classifications have focused on radiographic parameters associated with patient reported outcomes. Recent work suggests there are many other impactful preoperative data points. However, the ability to segregate patient patterns manually based on hundreds of data points is beyond practical application for surgeons. Unsupervised machine-based clustering of patient types alongside surgical options may simplify analysis of ASD patient types, procedures, and outcomes.

Methods: Two prospective cohorts were queried for surgical ASD patients with baseline, 1-year, and 2-year SRS-22/Oswestry Disability Index/SF-36v2 data. Two dendrograms were fitted, one with surgical features and one with patient characteristics. Both were built with Ward distances and optimized with the gap method. For each possible n patient cluster by m surgery, normalized 2-year improvement and major complication rates were computed.

Results: Five hundred-seventy patients were included. Three optimal patient types were identified: young with coronal plane deformity (YC, n = 195), older with prior spine surgeries (ORev, n = 157), and older without prior spine surgeries (OPrim, n = 218). Osteotomy type, instrumentation and interbody fusion were combined to define four surgical clusters. The intersection of patient-based and surgery-based clusters yielded 12 subgroups, with major complication rates ranging from 0% to 51.8% and 2-year normalized improvement ranging from -0.1% for SF36v2 MCS in cluster [1,3] to 100.2% for SRS self-image score in cluster [2,1].

Conclusion: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering can identify data patterns that may augment preoperative decision-making through construction of a 2-year risk-benefit grid. In addition to creating a novel AI-based ASD classification, pattern identification may facilitate treatment optimization by educating surgeons on which treatment patterns yield optimal improvement with lowest risk.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000002974DOI Listing
July 2019

Factors influencing patient satisfaction after adult scoliosis and spinal deformity surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 May;31(3):408-417

1Spine Surgery Unit 1, Bordeaux University Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Objective: Achieving high patient satisfaction with management is often one of the goals after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. However, literature on associated factors and their correlations with patient satisfaction is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and radiographic factors independently correlated with patient satisfaction in terms of management at 2 years after surgery.

Methods: A multicenter prospective database of ASD surgery was retrospectively reviewed. The demographics, complications, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) subdomains, and radiographic parameters were examined to determine their correlation coefficients with the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire (SRS-22R) satisfaction scores at 2 years (Sat-2y score). Subsequently, factors determined to be independently associated with low satisfaction (Sat-2y score ≤ 4.0) were used to construct 2 types of multivariate models: one with 2-year data and the other with improvement (score at 2 years - score at baseline) data.

Results: A total of 422 patients who underwent ASD surgery (mean age 53.1 years) were enrolled. All HRQOL subdomains and several coronal and sagittal radiographic parameters had significantly improved 2 years after surgery. The Sat-2y score was strongly correlated with the SRS-22R self-image (SI)/appearance subdomain (r = 0.64), followed by moderate correlation with subdomains related to standing (r = 0.53), body pain (r = 0.49-0.55), and function (r = 0.41-0.55) at 2 years. Conversely, the correlation between radiographic or demographic parameters with Sat-2y score was weak (r < 0.4). Multivariate analysis to eliminate confounding factors revealed that a worse Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score for standing (≥ 2 points; OR 4.48) and pain intensity (≥ 2 points; OR 2.07), SRS-22R SI/appearance subdomain (< 3 points; OR 2.70) at 2 years, and a greater sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (> 5 cm; OR 2.68) at 2 years were independent related factors for low satisfaction. According to the other model, a lower improvement in ODI for standing (< 30%; OR 2.68), SRS-22R pain (< 50%; OR 3.25) and SI/appearance (< 50%; OR 2.18) subdomains, and an inadequate restoration of the SVA from baseline (< 2 cm; OR 3.16) were associated with low satisfaction.

Conclusions: Self-image, pain, standing difficulty, and sagittal alignment restoration may be useful goals in improving patient satisfaction with management at 2 years after ASD surgery. Surgeons and other medical providers have to take care of these factors to prevent low satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.2.SPINE181486DOI Listing
May 2019

Development of Deployable Predictive Models for Minimal Clinically Important Difference Achievement Across the Commonly Used Health-related Quality of Life Instruments in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 Aug;44(16):1144-1153

Center for Research in Health and Economics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively-collected, multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) databases.

Objective: To predict the likelihood of reaching minimum clinically important differences in patient-reported outcomes after ASD surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: ASD surgeries are costly procedures that do not always provide the desired benefit. In some series only 50% of patients achieve minimum clinically important differences in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Predictive modeling may be useful in shared-decision making and surgical planning processes. The goal of this study was to model the probability of achieving minimum clinically important differences change in PROs at 1 and 2 years after surgery.

Methods: Two prospective observational ASD cohorts were queried. Patients with Scoliosis Research Society-22, Oswestry Disability Index , and Short Form-36 data at preoperative baseline and at 1 and 2 years after surgery were included. Seventy-five variables were used in the training of the models including demographics, baseline PROs, and modifiable surgical parameters. Eight predictive algorithms were trained at four-time horizons: preoperative or postoperative baseline to 1 year and preoperative or postoperative baseline to 2 years. External validation was accomplished via an 80%/20% random split. Five-fold cross validation within the training sample was performed. Precision was measured as the mean average error (MAE) and R values.

Results: Five hundred seventy patients were included in the analysis. Models with the lowest MAE were selected; R values ranged from 20% to 45% and MAE ranged from 8% to 15% depending upon the predicted outcome. Patients with worse preoperative baseline PROs achieved the greatest mean improvements. Surgeon and site were not important components of the models, explaining little variance in the predicted 1- and 2-year PROs.

Conclusion: We present an accurate and consistent way of predicting the probability for achieving clinically relevant improvement after ASD surgery in the largest-to-date prospective operative multicenter cohort with 2-year follow-up. This study has significant clinical implications for shared decision making, surgical planning, and postoperative counseling.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003031DOI Listing
August 2019

Adult spinal deformity surgical decision-making score : Part 1: development and validation of a scoring system to guide the selection of treatment modalities for patients below 40 years with adult spinal deformity.

Eur Spine J 2019 07 7;28(7):1652-1660. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Bordeaux University Hospital, L'Institut de la Colonne Vertébrale, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: We aimed to develop and internally validate a simple scoring system: the adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgical decision-making (ASD-SDM) score, which is specific to the decision-making process for ASD patients aged below 40 years.

Methods: A multicentre prospective ASD database was retrospectively reviewed. The scoring system was developed using data from a derivation cohort and was internally validated in a validation cohort. The accuracy of the ASD-SDM score was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: A total of 316 patients were randomly divided into derivation (253 patients, 80%) and validation (63 patients, 20%) cohorts. A 10-point scoring system was created from four variables: self-image score in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 score, coronal Cobb angle, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis mismatch, and relative spinopelvic alignment, and the surgical indication was graded into low (score 0-4), moderate (score 5-7), and high (score 8-10) surgical indication groups. In the validation cohort, the AUC for selecting surgical management according to the ASD-SDM score was 0.789 (SE 0.057, P < 0.001, 95% CI 0.655-0.880). The percentage of patients treated surgically were 21.1%, 55.0%, and 80.0% in the low, moderate, and high surgical indication groups, respectively.

Conclusions: The ASD-SDM score, to the best of our knowledge, is the first algorithm to guide the decision-making process for the ASD population and could be one of the indices for aiding the selection of treatment for ASD. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-019-05932-3DOI Listing
July 2019

The Influence of Diagnosis, Age, and Gender on Surgical Outcomes in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity.

Global Spine J 2018 Dec 29;8(8):803-809. Epub 2018 Apr 29.

ARTES Spine Center, Ankara, Turkey.

Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a multicentric database.

Objectives: To determine the clinical impact of diagnosis, age, and gender on treatment outcomes in surgically treated adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients.

Methods: A total of 199 surgical patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included and analyzed for baseline characteristics. Patients were separated into 2 groups based on improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters by minimum clinically important difference. Statistics were used to analyze the effect of diagnosis, age, and gender on outcome measurements followed by a multivariate binary logistic regression model for these results with statistical significance.

Results: Age was found to affect SF-36 PCS (Short From-36 Physical Component Summary) score significantly, with an odds ratio of 1.017 (unit by unit) of improving SF-36 PCS score on multivariate analysis ( < .05). The breaking point in age for this effect was 37.5 years (AUC = 58.0, = .05). A diagnosis of idiopathic deformity would increase the probability of improvement in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) by a factor of 0.219 and in SF-36 PCS by 0.581 times ( < .05). Gender was found not to have a significant effect on any of the HRQOL scores.

Conclusions: Age, along with a diagnosis of degenerative deformity, may have positive effects on the likelihood of improvement in SF-36 PCS (for age) and ODI (for diagnosis) in surgically treated patients with ASD and the breaking point of this effect may be earlier than generally anticipated. Gender does not seem to affect results. These may be important in patient counseling for the anticipated outcomes of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568218772568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293420PMC
December 2018

Cryo-Compression Therapy After Elective Spinal Surgery for Pain Management: A Cross-Sectional Study With Historical Control.

Neurospine 2018 Dec 9;15(4):348-352. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

Ankara Spine Center, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Postoperative dynamic cryo-compression (DC) therapy has been proposed as a method of reducing pain and the inflammatory response in the early postoperative period after orthopedic joint reconstruction surgery. Our aim was to analyze the analgesic efficacy of DC therapy after adult lumbar spinal surgery.

Methods: DC was applied for 30 minutes every 6 hours after surgery. Pain was measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) in the preoperative period, immediately after surgery, and every 6 hours postoperatively for the first 72 hours of the hospital stay. Patients' pain medication requirements were monitored using the patient-controlled analgesia system and patient charts. Twenty patients who received DC therapy were compared to 20 historical controls who were matched for demographic and surgical variables.

Results: In the postanesthesia care unit, the mean VAS back pain score was 5.87 ± 0.9 in the DC group and 6.95±1.0 (p=0.001) in the control group. The corresponding mean VAS scores for the DC vs. control groups were 3.8±1.1 vs. 5.4±0.7 (p < 0.001) at 6 hours postoperatively, and 2.7±0.7 vs. 6.25±0.9 (p<0.001) at discharge, respectively. The cumulative mean analgesic consumption of paracetamol, tenoxicam, and tramadol in the DC group vs. control group was 3,733.3±562.7 mg vs. 4,633.3±693.5 mg (p<0.005), 53.3±19.5 mg vs. 85.3±33.4 mg (p<0.005), and 63.3±83.4 mg vs. 393.3±79.9 mg (p<0.0001), respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated a positive association between the use of DC therapy and accelerated improvement in patients during early rehabilitation after adult spine surgery compared to patients who were treated with painkillers only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14245/ns.1836070.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347345PMC
December 2018

Radiographic Axial Malalignment is Associated With Pretreatment Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: Implementation of a Novel Radiographic Software Tool.

Spine Deform 2018 Nov - Dec;6(6):745-752

Spine Surgery Unit, Vall d'Hebron Hospital, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: Retrospective study of prospectively collected data.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between apical vertebral axial rotation and pretreatment patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL), disability, and pain in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) using a novel radiographic software tool.

Summary Of Background Data: Recent studies have demonstrated that in ADS, sagittal and coronal plane deformity are weakly to moderately associated with HRQOL, disability, and pain. However, as ADS is a three-dimensional spinal deformity, the impact of axial malalignment on HRQOL is yet to be determined.

Methods: A total of 74 ADS patients were enrolled. HRQOL measures included the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2) and Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22r). Disability and pain measures included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scale back and leg pain. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle (CA), sagittal spinopelvic parameters, lateral and anteroposterior (AP) translation of the apical vertebra. The amount of apical vertebral axial rotation was measured on digital AP radiograph images using a novel software technology. Subjects were stratified into four clinical groups based on the degree of apical vertebral axial rotation.

Results: Apical vertebral axial rotation showed no association with lateral (r = 0.21; p = .15) and AP (r = 0.08, p = .80) translation of the apical vertebra. A significant moderate association was found between apical vertebral axial rotation and Cobb angle (r = 0.57; p < .05). Patients in the group with the highest degree of apical vertebral axial rotation reported significantly worse ODI and SRS-22r Subtotal and Pain scores (p < .05), irrespective of sagittal spinopelvic parameters.

Conclusions: This is the first study that reports on the association between apical vertebral axial rotation and pretreatment HRQOL, disability, and pain in ADS. This study suggests that increased apical vertebral axial rotation is associated with suboptimal pretreatment health status scores.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2018.03.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Can Right-Handed Surgeons Insert Upper Thoracic Pedicle Screws in much Comfortable Position? Right-Handedness Problem on the Left Side.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2018 Sep 31;61(5):568-673. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Orthopedics, Memorial Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Thoracic pedicles have special and specific properties. In particular, upper thoracic pedicles are positioned in craniocaudal plane. Therefore, manipulation of thoracic pedicle screws on the left side is difficult for right-handed surgeons. We recommend a new position to insert thoracic pedicle screw that will be much comfortable for spine surgeons.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 33 patients who underwent upper thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation. In 15 patients, a total of 110 thoracic pedicle screws were inserted to the upper thoracic spine (T1-6) with classical position (anesthesiologist and monitor were placed near to patient's head. Surgeons were standing classically near to patient's body while patients were lying in prone position). In 18 patients, a total of 88 thoracic pedicle screws were inserted to the upper thoracic spine with the new standing position-surgeons stand by the head of the patient and the anesthesia monitor laterally and under patient's belt level. All the operations performed by the same senior spine surgeons with the help of C-arm. Postoperative computed tomography scans were obtained to assess the screw placement. The screw malposition and pedicle wall violations were divided and evaluated separately. Cortical penetration were measured and graded at either : 1-2 mm penetration, 2-4 mm penetration and >4 mm penetration.

Results: Total 198 screws were inserted with two different standing positions. Of 198 screws 110 were in the classical positioning group and 88 were in the new positioning group. Incorrect screw placement was found in 33 screws (16.6%). The difference between total screw malposition by both standing positions were found to be statistically significant (p=0.011). The difference between total pedicle wall violations by both standing positions were found to be statistically significant (p=0.003).

Conclusion: Right-handedness is a problem during the upper thoracic pedicle screw placement on the left side. Changing the surgeon's position standing near to patient's head could provide a much comfortable position to orient the craniocaudal plane of the thoracic pedicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2018.0059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6129754PMC
September 2018

The Global Spine Care Initiative: care pathway for people with spine-related concerns.

Eur Spine J 2018 09 27;27(Suppl 6):901-914. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe the development of an evidence-based care pathway that can be implemented globally.

Methods: The Global Spine Care Initiative (GSCI) care pathway development team extracted interventions recommended for the management of spinal disorders from six GSCI articles that synthesized the available evidence from guidelines and relevant literature. Sixty-eight international and interprofessional clinicians and scientists with expertise in spine-related conditions were invited to participate. An iterative consensus process was used.

Results: After three rounds of review, 46 experts from 16 countries reached consensus for the care pathway that includes five decision steps: awareness, initial triage, provider assessment, interventions (e.g., non-invasive treatment; invasive treatment; psychological and social intervention; prevention and public health; specialty care and interprofessional management), and outcomes. The care pathway can be used to guide the management of patients with any spine-related concern (e.g., back and neck pain, deformity, spinal injury, neurological conditions, pathology, spinal diseases). The pathway is simple and can be incorporated into educational tools, decision-making trees, and electronic medical records.

Conclusion: A care pathway for the management of individuals presenting with spine-related concerns includes evidence-based recommendations to guide health care providers in the management of common spinal disorders. The proposed pathway is person-centered and evidence-based. The acceptability and utility of this care pathway will need to be evaluated in various communities, especially in low- and middle-income countries, with different cultural background and resources. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-5721-yDOI Listing
September 2018

The Global Spine Care Initiative: World Spine Care executive summary on reducing spine-related disability in low- and middle-income communities.

Eur Spine J 2018 09 27;27(Suppl 6):776-785. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery (retired), New York University, Piermont, NY, USA.

Purpose: Spinal disorders, including back and neck pain, are major causes of disability, economic hardship, and morbidity, especially in underserved communities and low- and middle-income countries. Currently, there is no model of care to address this issue. This paper provides an overview of the papers from the Global Spine Care Initiative (GSCI), which was convened to develop an evidence-based, practical, and sustainable, spinal healthcare model for communities around the world with various levels of resources.

Methods: Leading spine clinicians and scientists around the world were invited to participate. The interprofessional, international team consisted of 68 members from 24 countries, representing most disciplines that study or care for patients with spinal symptoms, including family physicians, spine surgeons, rheumatologists, chiropractors, physical therapists, epidemiologists, research methodologists, and other stakeholders.

Results: Literature reviews on the burden of spinal disorders and six categories of evidence-based interventions for spinal disorders (assessment, public health, psychosocial, noninvasive, invasive, and the management of osteoporosis) were completed. In addition, participants developed a stratification system for surgical intervention, a classification system for spinal disorders, an evidence-based care pathway, and lists of resources and recommendations to implement the GSCI model of care.

Conclusion: The GSCI proposes an evidence-based model that is consistent with recent calls for action to reduce the global burden of spinal disorders. The model requires testing to determine feasibility. If it proves to be implementable, this model holds great promise to reduce the tremendous global burden of spinal disorders. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-5722-xDOI Listing
September 2018