Publications by authors named "Emrah Okur"

8 Publications

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An investigation of the mechanisms underlying the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib resistance in PC3 prostate cancer cell line.

Cytotechnology 2020 Feb 20;72(1):121-130. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Dumlupınar University, Kütahya, Turkey.

The phenomenon of acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is a long-standing conundrum in cancer treatment. To help delineate drug resistance mechanisms and pave the way for the development of novel strategies, we generated a PC3 prostate cancer cell line resistant to proteasome inhibitor bortezomib for the first time. The resistant cells were found to have an IC value of 359.6 nM, whereas the IC value of parental cells was 82.6 nM after 24 h of treatment with varying doses of bortezomib. The resistant cells were also partly cross-resistant to the novel proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib; however, they were not resistant to widely used chemotherapeutic agent vincristine sulfate, indicating that enhanced cellular drug efflux via the multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters is not the molecular basis of the resistance. Since both bortezomib and carfilzomib target and inhibit the chymotrypsin-related activity residing in the β5 subunit of the proteasome (PSMB5), we next examined its expression and found surprisingly no significant alteration in the expression profile of the mature form. However, a significant increase in the accumulation of the precursor form of PSMB5 in response to 100 nM bortezomib was observed in the parental cells without a significant accumulation in the resistant cells. The results presented here thus suggest that the molecular mechanisms causing resistance to proteasome inhibitors need to be examined in-depth to overcome the resistance to ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-019-00362-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7002631PMC
February 2020

A novel and effective inhibitor combination involving bortezomib and OTSSP167 for breast cancer cells in light of label-free proteomic analysis.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2019 02 14;35(1):33-47. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, Kütahya Health Sciences University, Kütahya, Turkey.

Purpose: The 26S proteasome plays important roles in many intracellular processes and is therefore a critical intracellular cellular target for anticancer treatments. The primary aim of the current study was to identify critical proteins that may play roles in opposing the antisurvival effect of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib together with the calcium-chelator BAPTA-AM in cancer cells using label-free LC-MS/MS. In addition, based on the results of the proteomic technique, a novel and more effective inhibitor combination involving bortezomib as well as OTSSP167 was developed for breast cancer cells.

Methods And Results: Using label-free LC-MS/MS, it was found that expressions of 1266 proteins were significantly changed between the experimental groups. Among these proteins were cell division cycle 5-like (Cdc5L) and drebrin-like (DBNL). We then hypothesized that inhibition of the activities of these two proteins may lead to more effective anticancer inhibitor combinations in the presence of proteasomal inhibition. In fact, as presented in the current study, Cdc5L phosphorylation inhibitor CVT-313 and DBNL phosphorylation inhibitor OTSSP167 were highly cytotoxic in 4T1 breast cancer cells and their IC values were 20.1 and 43 nM, respectively. Under the same experimental conditions, the IC value of BAPTA-AM was found 19.9 μM. Using WST 1 cytotoxicity assay, it was determined that 10 nM bortezomib + 10 nM CVT-313 was more effective than the control, the single treatments, or than 5 nM bortezomib + 5 nM CVT-313. Similarly, 10 nM bortezomib + 10 nM OTSSP167 was more cytotoxic than the control, the monotherapies, 5 nM bortezomib + 5 nM OTSSP167, or than 5 nM bortezomib + 10 nM OTSSP167, indicating that bortezomib + OTSSP167 was also more effective than bortezomib + CVT-313 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the 3D spheroid model proved that bortezomib + OTSSP167 was more effective than the monotherapies as well as bortezomib + CVT-313 and bortezomib + BAPTA-AM combinations. Finally, the effect of bortezomib + OTSSP167 combination was tested on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and it similarly determined that 20 nM bortezomib +40 nM OTSSP167 combination completely blocked the formation of 3D spheroids.

Conclusions: Altogether, the results presented here indicate that bortezomib + OTSSP167 is a novel and effective combination and may be tested further for cancer treatment in vivo and in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-018-9435-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Differential effects of p38 MAP kinase inhibitors SB203580 and SB202190 on growth and migration of human MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line.

Cytotechnology 2017 Aug 9;69(4):711-724. Epub 2017 Apr 9.

Vatan Clinic, Medical School, İstanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) belongs to the MAPK superfamily, phosphorylating serine and/or threonine residues of the target proteins. The activation of p38 MAPK leads to cell growth, differentiation, inflammation, survival or apoptosis. In this study, we tested the effect of two highly specific and potent inhibitors of p38 MAPK (namely, SB203580 and SB202190) on human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 to elucidate the controversial role of p38 MAPK on cell proliferation and/or cell migration/metastasis further. It was determined that the IC value of SB203580 was 85.1 µM, while that of SB202190 was 46.6 µM, suggesting that SB202190 is slightly more effective than SB203580. To verify the effect of each inhibitor on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, the cells were treated with various doses of SB203580 and SB202190 and examined using iCELLigence system. No significant effect of 1 and 5 µM of both inhibitors were seen on cell proliferation as compared to the DMSO-treated control cells for up to 96 h. On the other hand, both SB203580 and SB202190 significantly prevented cell proliferation at a concentration of 50 µM. SB202190 was again more effective than SB203580. Afterwards, we tested the effect of each inhibitor on cell migration using wound assay. Both SB203580 and SB202190 significantly reduced cell migration in a time-dependent manner at a concentration of 50 µM. However, interestingly it was observed that a low and noncytotoxic dose of 5 µM of SB203580 and SB202190 also did cause significant cell migration inhibition at 48 h of the treatment, corroborating the fact that p38 MAPK pathway has a critical role in cell migration/metastasis. Then, we tested whether each p38 MAPK inhibitor has any effect on cell adhesion during a treatment period of 3 h using iCELLigence system. A concentration of only 50 µM of SB202190 reduced cell adhesion for about 1.5 h (p < 0.001); after that period of time, cell adhesion in 50 µM SB202190-treated cells returned to the level of the control cells. To determine the mechanism of growth and cell migration inhibitory effects of p38 MAPK inhibitors, the activation/inactivation of various proteins and enzymes was subsequently analyzed by PathScan Intracellular Signaling Array kit. The ERK1/2 phosphorylation level was not modified by low concentrations (1 or 5 µM) of SB202190 and SB203580; while a high concentration (50 µM) of both inhibitors caused significant reductions in the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, it was determined that both p38 MAPK inhibitors caused significant increases on the Ser15 phosphorylation of mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 under these experimental conditions; while SB202190 was more potent than SB203580.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-017-0079-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5507849PMC
August 2017

A novel combination treatment for breast cancer cells involving BAPTA-AM and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib.

Oncol Lett 2016 Jul 17;12(1):323-330. Epub 2016 May 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Dumlupınar University, Kütahya 43100, Turkey.

Glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BIP) is a well-known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein regulating ER stress by facilitating protein folding, assembly and Ca binding. GRP78 is also a member of the heat shock protein 70 gene family and induces tumor cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics. Bortezomib is a highly specific 26S proteasome inhibitor that has been approved as treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. The present study first examined the dose- and time-dependent effects of bortezomib on GRP78 expression levels in the highly metastatic mouse breast cancer 4T1 cell line using western blot analysis. The analysis results revealed that GRP78 levels were significantly increased by bortezomib at a dose as low as 10 nM. Time-dependent experiments indicated that the accumulation of GRP78 was initiated after a 24 h incubation period following the addition of 10 nM bortezomib. Subsequently, the present study determined the half maximal inhibitory concentration of intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (13.6 µM) on 4T1 cells. The combination effect of BAPTA-AM and bortezomib on the 4T1 cells was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and WST-1 assays and an iCELLigence system. The results revealed that the combination of 10 nM bortezomib + 5 µM BAPTA-AM is more cytotoxic compared with monotherapies, including 10 nM bortezomib, 1 µM BAPTA-AM and 5 µM BAPTA-AM. In addition, the present results revealed that bortezomib + BAPTA-AM combination causes cell death through the induction of apoptosis. The present results also revealed that bortezomib + BAPTA-AM combination-induced apoptosis is associated with a clear increase in the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/Jun amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK. Overall, the present results suggest that bortezomib and BAPTA-AM combination therapy may be a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.4597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4906623PMC
July 2016

Data for a proteomic analysis of p53-independent induction of apoptosis by bortezomib.

Data Brief 2014 Dec 19;1:56-9. Epub 2014 Oct 19.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Uludağ University, Bursa, Turkey.

This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, "A proteomic analysis of p53-independent induction of apoptosis by bortezomib in 4T1 breast cancer cell line" by Yerlikaya et al. [1]. The research article presented 2-DE and nLC-MS/MS based proteomic analysis of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib-induced changes in the expression of cellular proteins. The report showed that GRP78 and TCEB2 were over-expressed in response to treatment with bortezomib for 24 h. In addition, the report demonstrated that Hsp70, the 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 and sequestosome 1 were increased at least 2 fold in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. The data here show for the first time the increased expressions of Card10, Dffb, Traf3 and Trp53bp2 in response to inhibition of the 26S proteasome. The information presented here also shows that both Traf1 and Xiap (a member of IAPs) are also downregulated simultaneously upon proteasomal inhibition. The increases in the level of Card10 and Trp53bp2 proteins were verified by Western blot analysis in response to varying concentrations of bortezomib for 24 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2014.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459767PMC
December 2014

A proteomic analysis of p53-independent induction of apoptosis by bortezomib in 4T1 breast cancer cell line.

J Proteomics 2015 Jan 8;113:315-25. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Uludağ University, Bursa, Turkey.

Unlabelled: The 26S proteasome is a proteolytic enzyme found in both cytoplasm and nucleus. In this study, we examined the differential expression of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib-induced proteins in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. It was found that GRP78 and TCEB2 were over-expressed in response to treatment with bortezomib for 24h. Next, we analyzed the expression of intracellular proteins in response to treatment with 100nM bortezomib for 24h by label-free LC-MS/MS. These analyses showed that Hsp70, the 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 and sequestosome 1 were increased at least 2 fold in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. The proteins identified by label-free LC-MS/MS were then analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) Tool to determine biological networks affected by inhibition of the 26S proteasome. The analysis results showed that post-translational modifications, protein folding, DNA replication, energy production and nucleic acid metabolism were found to be among the top functions affected by the 26S proteasome inhibition. The biological network analysis indicated that ubiquitin may be the central regulator of the pathways modulated after bortezomib-treatment. Further investigation of the mechanism of the proteins modulated in response to the proteasomal inhibition may lead to the design of more effective and novel therapeutic strategies for cancer.

Biological Significance: Although the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is approved and used for the treatment of human cancer (multiple myeloma), the mechanism of action is not entirely understood. A number of studies showed that proteasome inhibitors induced apoptosis through upregulation of tumor suppressor protein p53. However, the role of tumor suppressor protein p53 in bortezomib-induced apoptosis is controversial and not well-understood. The tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in at least 50% of human cancers and is strongly induced by proteasomal inhibition. Some also reported that the proteasome inhibitor can induce apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. Also, it is reported that Noxa, a target of p53, is induced in response to proteasomal inhibition in a p53-independent manner. However, we have also previously reported that neither Puma nor Noxa are induced by proteasomal inhibition in p53-null 4T1 breast cancer cells, which is commonly used for in vivo breast cancer tumor models. The current results provided additional targets of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and may therefore help in understanding the p53-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction by proteasome inhibitors. In addition, the results presented in this current study report for the first time that proteasomal subunit Psmd14, anti-apoptotic GRP78, anti apoptotic protein Card10, Dffb, Traf3 and Trp53bp2 are regulated and overexpressed in response to proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies targeting these anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic proteins as well as inhibiting the proteasome simultaneously may be more effective against cancer cells. The proteins identified here present new avenues for the development of anti-cancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2014.09.010DOI Listing
January 2015

The p53-independent induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells in response to proteasome inhibitor bortezomib.

Tumour Biol 2012 Oct 4;33(5):1385-92. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Art and Science Faculty, Department of Biology, Dumlupınar University, Kütahya, Turkey.

An important hallmark of cancer cells is acquired resistance toward apoptosis. The apoptotic pathway is the most well-defined cell death program and is characterized by several morphological and biochemical features. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a critical regulator of apoptosis in many cell types. p53 stimulates a wide network of signals that act through either extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. However, a number of studies have shown that apoptosis can be induced in a p53-independent manner as well. In this study, we examined the mechanism of apoptosis in p53-null breast cancer cells in response to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Initially, we determined the p53 status of 4T1 breast carcinoma and 4THMpc (a highly mestatic derivative of 4T1) cells and verified that both cells are p53 deficient. It was subsequently shown that apoptosis can be induced in both cells in a dose-dependent manner in response to bortezomib treatment, based on DNA fragmentation evidence. Western blot analyses of ubiquitin-protein conjugates additionally showed that the proteasome is potently inhibited by bortezomib in p53-null 4T1 and 4THMpc cells. The results presented in the current study also show that caspase-3 is significantly activated in response to the treatment with bortezomib, implying that induction of apoptosis in these p53-deficient cells is occurring via caspase-3. The additional results presented here suggest that the pro-apoptotic proteins Bad, Noxa, and Puma are not critical regulators of apoptosis induction in p53-null 4T1 and 4THMpc cells. Similarly, there was no difference in the expression level of Mcl-1 in treated cells, suggesting that this anti-apoptotic protein is also uninvolved in the apoptotic response resulting from bortezomib treatment. In contrast, a very significant upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Hsp25/27 was detected in these p53-deficient cells after treatment with bortezomib. If the increased expression of Hsp25/27 protein levels are muting the apoptotic effects of the bortezomib treatment, then the apoptosis-inducing effects of such proteasome inhibitors might be increased with approaches simultaneously inhibiting Hsp25/27 protein in p53-deficient cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-012-0386-3DOI Listing
October 2012

Combined effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and Hsp70 inhibitors on the B16F10 melanoma cell line.

Mol Med Rep 2010 Mar-Apr;3(2):333-9

Department of Biology, Art and Science Faculty, Dumlupinar University, Kütahya 43100, Turkey.

Studies have shown that the 26S proteasome is involved in cell cycle control, transcription, DNA repair, immune response and protein synthesis. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and heat shock protein (Hsp)70 inhibitors on the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The IC50 value of bortezomib was found to be 2.46 nM, while that of the Hsp70 inhibitor quercetin was 45 µM in the B16F10 cells. This indicates that bortezomib is more effective than quercetin in inhibiting cell growth. In response to treatment with 10 nM bortezomib for 24 h, cells underwent rounding, shrinkage and detachment. Unexpectedly, such morphological changes were not observed in cells treated with 20 µM quercetin alone, nor in cells treated with bortezomib + quercetin, indicating that quercetin inhibited the cytotoxic effects of bortezomib. Quantitation of cell viability also indicated that quercetin interfered with the cytotoxic effects of bortezomib. However, the combination of quercetin with another proteasome inhibitor, MG132, caused significant cell death as compared to single-agent treatment. A DNA ladder assay also confirmed the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the apoptosis-inducing effect of bortezomib. However, quercetin did not prevent the induction of apoptosis by MG132; on the contrary, it potentiated the apoptosis-inducing effect of MG132. These results suggest that the combination of quercetin with clinically beneficial proteasome inhibitors (except bortezomib) may have increased efficacy in the treatment of cancer. We also tested the combination of two other Hsp70 inhibitors, KNK-437 and schisandrin-B, in combination with bortezomib. Neither of these combinations was more effective than single-agent treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr_00000262DOI Listing
August 2013