Publications by authors named "Emmanuelle Richard"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of Three Medetomidine-Based Anesthetic Protocols in Free-Ranging Wild Boars ().

Front Vet Sci 2021 29;8:655345. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway.

Three medetomidine-based drug protocols were compared by evaluating time courses, reliability and physiological effects in wild boars. A total of 21 cage-trapped wild boars () were immobilized using one of the following drug combinations; MTZ: medetomidine (0.2 mg/kg) + tiletamine-zolazepam (2.0 mg/kg), MK: medetomidine (0.15 mg/kg) + ketamine (5 mg/kg), and MKB: medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) + ketamine (5.0 mg/kg) + butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg). Induction time, recovery time, and physiological variables were recorded and arterial blood gas analysis measured twice, before and after 15 min of oxygen supplementation (0.5-1.0 L/min). For reversal, 4 mg of atipamezole per mg of medetomidine was administered intramuscularly. The boars recovered in the cage and were released once ataxia resolved. The MK group had significantly longer recovery times (mean 164 min ± 79 SD) compared to the other groups. MKB elicited longer and incomplete induction compared to the other groups (mean induction time 20 min ± 10 SD), decreasing the efficiency of the capture and increasing the risk of hyperthermia. Both ketamine-based protocols required additional ketamine intramuscularly to prolong the anesthesia after 20-40 min from induction. Agreement between the pulse oximeter and the blood gas analyzer was low, with the pulse oximeter underestimating the real values of arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation, particularly at higher readings. Mild acute respiratory acidosis (PaCO 45-60 mmHg) and mild to moderate hypoxemia (PaO 69-80 mmHg) occurred in most boars, regardless of the treatment group but especially in the MKB group. The acid-base status improved and hypoxemia resolved in all boars during oxygen supplementation, with the PaO rising above the physiological reference range (81.6-107.7 mmHg) in many individuals. MK and MKB induced safe and reliable immobilization of wild boars for at least 20 min. Supplemental oxygen delivery is recommended in order to prevent hypoxemia in wild boars immobilized with the protocols used in the present study. Long and ataxic recoveries occurred in most animals, regardless of the protocol, but especially in the MKB group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.655345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039318PMC
March 2021

Should I stay or should I go? Determinants of immediate and delayed movement responses of female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to drive hunts.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(3):e0228865. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Direction de la Recherche et de l'Appui Scientifique-Unité Ongulés Sauvages, Office Français de la Biodiversité, Birieux, France.

Hunting can be used as a tool for wildlife management, through limitation of population densities and dissuading game from using sensitive areas. The success of these approaches requires in depth knowledge of prey movement. Indeed, movement decisions of game during hunting may affect the killing success of hunters as well as the subsequent location of surviving animals. We thus investigated red deer movement responses to drive hunts and their causal factors. We studied 34 hunting events in the National Estate of Chambord (France) and thereby provided a fine-scale characterization of the immediate and delayed movement responses of red deer to drive hunts. Red deer responded to drive hunts either by immediately fleeing the hunted area, or by initially remaining before ultimately fleeing after the hunters had departed. A few hours after the hunt, all individuals were located in distant areas (> 2 kilometres) from the hunted area. Immediate flight responses were less common when drive hunts occurred in areas with dense understorey. However, neither beater/dog densities nor site familiarity influenced the immediate flight decision. Following a drive hunt, red deer remained outside the hunted areas for periods twice as long compared to periods when no hunting occurred (34 hours vs. 17 hours). Such knowledge of game movement rates in response to drive hunts may help the development of informed management policy for hunted red deer populations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228865PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062277PMC
June 2020

Many, large and early: Hunting pressure on wild boar relates to simple metrics of hunting effort.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jan 3;698:134251. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune sauvage, DRE-Unité Ongulés Sauvages, Monfort 01330, Birieux, France. Electronic address:

Wild boar populations have increased dramatically over the last decades throughout Europe and in France in particular. While hunting is considered the most efficient way to control game populations, many local conflicts persist after the hunting period due to remaining high densities of wild boar despite the large number of animals culled every year. Therefore, increasing the efficiency of hunting is a timely issue. Herein, we assessed how hunting effort can be measured, and we determined whether the hunting effort carried out by hunters explains the observed hunting pressure. We measured the characteristics and results of all hunts that occurred in the experimental forest of Châteauvillain-Arc-en-Barrois (Northeastern France), and we modelled the number of animals culled as a function of the hunting effort, measured by the number of beaters, hunters, and dogs, as well as the size of the hunting area. We also accounted for variables suspected to affect the hunting efficiency achieved with a given effort, such as time of day (AM/PM), the month during which hunting occurred. We found that more posted hunters, larger hunted areas, and hunts carried out early in the season, i.e. before February, increased the number of culled animals. Our model can be used by wildlife managers to adjust hunting effort in order to reach the hunting pressure expected to meet management objectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134251DOI Listing
January 2020

Interacting effects of age, density, and weather on survival and current reproduction for a large mammal.

Ecol Evol 2014 Oct 18;4(19):3851-60. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2, Canada.

Individual-based study of natural populations allows for accurate and precise estimation of fitness components and the extent to which they might vary with ecological conditions. By tracking the fates of all 701 horses known to have lived on Sable Island, Canada, from 2009 to 2013 (where there is no predation, human interference, or interspecific competition for food), we present a detailed analysis of structured population dynamics with focus on interacting effects of intraspecific competition and weather on reproduction and survival. Annual survival of adult females (0.866 ± 0.107 [[Formula: see text] ± SE]) was lower than that of 3-year-olds (0.955 ± 0.051), although annual fecundity (producing a foal in a year that was observed during our census) was higher in adults (0.616 ± 0.023) compared to 3-year-olds (0.402 ± 0.054). Milder winters and lower densities during gestation increased fecundity. Density negatively impacted survival for all age and sex categories; however, highest adult female survival was observed during high-density years coupled with a harsh winter, the result expected if pregnancy loss during winter or loss of foals in spring improved survival. Three-year-old females, which reproduced at lower rates, experienced higher survival than adults. Our results contrast with a previous study of feral horses that suggested recently feral ungulates might be artificially selected to reproduce even when costs to survival are high. In part, this may be because of the comparably long history of feralization (250 years; at least 25 generations) for Sable Island horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4301048PMC
October 2014

Toward an identification of resources influencing habitat use in a multi-specific context.

PLoS One 2011 27;6(12):e29048. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

Unité Mixte de Recherche 5558, Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Bâtiment 711, Villeurbanne, France.

Interactions between animal behaviour and the environment are both shaping observed habitat use. Despite the importance of inter-specific interactions on the habitat use performed by individuals, most previous analyses have focused on case studies of single species. By focusing on two sympatric populations of large herbivores with contrasting body size, we went one step beyond by studying variation in home range size and identifying the factors involved in such variation, to define how habitat features such as resource heterogeneity, resource quality, and openness created by hurricane or forest managers, and constraints may influence habitat use at the individual level. We found a large variability among individual's home range size in both species, particularly in summer. Season appeared as the most important factor accounting for observed variation in home range size. Regarding habitat features, we found that (i) the proportion of area damaged by the hurricane was the only habitat component that inversely influenced roe deer home range size, (ii) this habitat type also influenced both diurnal and nocturnal red deer home range sizes, (iii) home range size of red deer during the day was inversely influenced by the biomass of their preferred plants, as were both diurnal and nocturnal core areas of the red deer home range, and (iv) we do not find any effect of resource heterogeneity on home range size in any case. Our results suggest that a particular habitat type (i.e. areas damaged by hurricane) can be used by individuals of sympatric species because it brings both protected and dietary resources. Thus, it is necessary to maintain the openness of these areas and to keep animal density quite low as observed in these hunted populations to limit competition between these sympatric populations of herbivores.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0029048PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3246435PMC
May 2012

High red deer density depresses body mass of roe deer fawns.

Oecologia 2010 May 24;163(1):91-7. Epub 2009 Dec 24.

Unité Mixte de Recherche no 5558, Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Université Lyon 1, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 696220 Villeurbanne Cedex, France.

Many previous studies have pointed out that, when resources are limited, the potential for competition should be high among sympatric species that display overlaps in habitat and nutritional niches. However, reliable evidence of competition between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has not been yet reported for life history traits directly measuring performance such as body mass, reproduction, or survival. From long-term monitoring of deer populations in the reserve of La Petite Pierre (France), we measured the sex-specific responses of roe deer fawn body mass to changes in red deer density after accounting for possible confounding effects of date of shooting, climatic conditions, and roe deer density. As expected under the hypothesis of competition, red deer density in a given year had a marked negative influence on body mass of roe deer fawns born the same year and the following year. Fawn mass of roe deer males and females responded in similar ways to changes in red deer density. Our study provides the first evidence of a negative response of roe deer performance to high red deer density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-009-1538-zDOI Listing
May 2010