Publications by authors named "Emmanuelle Duceppe"

31 Publications

Expert consensus on peri-operative myocardial injury screening in noncardiac surgery: A literature review with expert consensus.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

From the Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel, University Hospital of Basel, University of Basel; Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, University Basel, Basel (CP), Division of Anaesthesiology, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pharmacology, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland (CP, BBP), Geneva Perioperative Basic, Translational and Clinical Research Group (BB-P), BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science and Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK (NLM), Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (ED), Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain (EP), Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (AD), Departments of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA (PN), Department of Cardiology, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (TO), Institute of Laboratory Medicine, County Hospital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland (A-HL), Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (GLB).

Peri-operative myocardial injury, detected by dynamic and elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations, is a common complication of noncardiac surgery that is strongly associated with 30-day mortality. Although active screening for peri-operative myocardial injury has been suggested in recent guidelines, clinical implementation remains tentative due to a lack of examples on how to tackle such an interdisciplinary project at a local level. Moreover, consensus on which assay and cTn cut-off values should be used has not yet been reached, and guidance on whom to screen is lacking. In this article, we aim to summarise local examples of successfully implemented cTn screening practices and review the current literature in order to provide information and suggestions for patient selection, organisation of a screening programme, caveats and a potential management pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0000000000001486DOI Listing
March 2021

Preoperative levels of natriuretic peptides and the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation after noncardiac surgery: a prospective cohort study.

CMAJ 2020 Dec;192(49):E1715-E1722

Department of Intensive Care and Perioperative Medicine (Szczeklik, Fronczek, Polok, Górka), Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; Population Health Research Institute (LeManach, Conen, Duceppe, Pettit, Devereaux) and Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (LeManach, Conen, Heels-Ansdell), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.; Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine (McAlister), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Department of Surgery (Srinathan), University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man.; Iberoamerican Cochrane Center (Alonso-Coello), Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB-Sant Pau-CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain; Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine (Biccard), Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Nephrology (Roshanov), Department of Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont.

Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with clinically significant short- and long-term complications after noncardiac surgery. Our aim was to describe the incidence of clinically important POAF after noncardiac surgery and establish the prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in this context.

Methods: The Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) Study was a prospective cohort study involving patients aged 45 years and older who had inpatient noncardiac surgery that was performed between August 2007 and November 2013. We determined 30-day incidence of clinically important POAF (i.e., resulting in angina, congestive heart failure, symptomatic hypotension or requiring treatment) using logistic regression models to analyze the association between preoperative NT-proBNP and POAF.

Results: In 37 664 patients with no history of atrial fibrillation, we found that the incidence of POAF was 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9%-1.1%; 369 events); 3.2% (95% CI 2.3%-4.4%) in patients undergoing major thoracic surgery, 1.3% (95% CI 1.2%-1.5%) in patients undergoing major nonthoracic surgery and 0.2% (95% CI 0.1%-0.3%) in patients undergoing low-risk surgery. In a subgroup of 9789 patients with preoperative NT-proBNP measurements, the biomarker improved the prediction of POAF risk over conventional prognostic factors (likelihood ratio test < 0.001; fraction of new information from NT-proBNP was 16%). Compared with a reference NT-proBNP measurement set at 100 ng/L, adjusted odds ratios for the occurrence of POAF were 1.31 (95% CI 1.15-1.49) at 200 ng/L, 2.07 (95% CI 1.27-3.36) at 1500 ng/L and 2.39 (95% CI 1.26-4.51) at 3000 ng/L.

Interpretation: We determined that the incidence of clinically important POAF after noncardiac surgery was 1.0%. We also found that preoperative NT-proBNP levels were associated with POAF independent of established prognostic factors. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00512109.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721376PMC
December 2020

Incidence and predictors of splanchnic vein thrombosis and mortality following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar 17;19(3):797-804. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Intraabdominal surgery is a known risk factor for splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). SVT incidence, management, and prognosis after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery are unknown.

Objectives: To determine the incidence and prognosis of SVT following hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and describe current practices in anticoagulation for postoperative SVT.

Patients/methods: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of adults undergoing hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. Multivariable analyses for predictors of SVT, major bleeding, and 90-day mortality were performed.

Results: Of 1815 patients included, 89 (4.9%) had cirrhosis and 1532 (84.4%) had active cancer. The most frequent surgeries were pancreaticoduodenectomy (40.6%), open (30.7%), and laparoscopic (11.0%) liver resection. Sixty (3.3%) patients experienced SVT within 90 days of surgery. Among patients with SVT, 23.3% were symptomatic and 75.0% were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. Planned duration of anticoagulation averaged 3 to 6 months. By multivariable analysis, SVT predictors were: operative time (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per hour increase 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.46), cirrhosis (aOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.28-8.10), and postoperative intraabdominal infection (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.72-5.19). Postoperative major bleeding occurred in 22.1% of patients and 4.0% died within 90 days. Predictors of postoperative mortality were age (aOR per 10-year increase 1.79, 95% CI 1.38-2.30), operative time (aOR 1.31 (1.17-1.45), cirrhosis (aOR 4.42, 95% CI 1.96-9.96), postoperative intraabdominal infection (aOR 2.66, 95% CI 1.55-4.57), postoperative major bleeding (aOR 4.12, 95% CI 2.36-7.30), and postoperative SVT (aOR 3.15, 95% CI 1.42-6.97).

Conclusion: SVT occurred in 1 in 30 patients after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and was associated with a 3-fold independent increase in 90-day mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15198DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of Perioperative Active Body Surface Warming Systems on Analgesic and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Anesth Analg 2020 11;131(5):1430-1443

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact.

Background: Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of surgery, and active body surface warming (ABSW) systems are used to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. Prior data on certain outcomes are equivocal (ie, blood loss) or limited (ie, pain and opioid consumption). The objective of this study was to provide an updated review on the effect of ABSW on clinical outcomes and temperature maintenance.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating ABSW systems compared to nonactive warming controls in noncardiac surgeries. Outcomes studied included postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption (primary outcomes) and other perioperative clinical variables such as temperature changes, blood loss, and wound infection (secondary outcomes). We searched Ovid MEDLINE daily, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science from inception to June 2019. Quality of evidence (QoE) was rated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. Subgroup analysis sought to determine the effect of preoperative + intraoperative warming versus intraoperative warming alone. Metaregression evaluated the effect of year of publication, use of neuromuscular blockers, anesthesia, and surgery type on outcomes.

Results: Fifty-four articles (3976 patients) were included. Pooled results demonstrated that ABSW maintained normothermia compared to controls, during surgery (30 minutes postinduction [mean difference {MD}: 0.3°C, 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.2-0.4, moderate QoE]), end of surgery (MD: 1.1°C, 95% CI, 0.9-1.3, high QoE), and up to 4 hours postoperatively (MD: 0.3°C, 95% CI, 0.2-0.5, high QoE). ABSW was not associated with difference in pain scores (<24 hours postoperatively, moderate to low QoE) or perioperative opioid consumption (very low QoE). ABSW increased patient satisfaction (MD: 2.2 points, 95% CI, 0.9-3.6, moderate QoE), reduced blood transfusions (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0, moderate QoE), shivering (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.4, high QoE), and wound infections (OR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.2-0.7, high QoE). No significant differences were found for fluid administration (low QoE), blood loss (very low QoE), major adverse cardiovascular events (very low QoE), or mortality (very low QoE). Subgroup analysis and metaregression suggested increased temperature benefit with pre + intraoperative warming, use of neuromuscular blockers, and recent publication year. ABSW seemed to confer less temperature benefit in cesarean deliveries and neurosurgical/spinal cases compared to abdominal surgeries.

Conclusions: ABSW is effective in maintaining physiological normothermia, decreasing wound infections, shivering, blood transfusions, and increasing patient satisfaction but does not appear to affect postoperative pain and opioid use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005145DOI Listing
November 2020

Tranexamic acid and rosuvastatin in patients at risk of cardiovascular events after noncardiac surgery: a pilot of the POISE-3 randomized controlled trial.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2020 21;6:104. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON Canada.

Background: Surgical bleeding is associated with postoperative cardiovascular complications. The efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in noncardiac surgery are still uncertain. Statins may prevent perioperative cardiovascular complications. We conducted a pilot to assess the feasibility of a perioperative trial of TXA and rosuvastatin.

Methods: Using a factorial design, we randomized patients at cardiovascular risk undergoing noncardiac surgery to intravenous TXA (1 g at the start and end of surgery) or placebo, and oral rosuvastatin (40 mg before and 20 mg daily for 30 days after surgery) or placebo. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, follow-up, and compliance to interventions. Clinical outcomes were secondarily explored.

Results: After 3 months, we changed the design to a partial factorial due to the difficult recruitment of statin-naive patients. Over 6 months, 100 patients were randomized in the TXA trial (49 TXA, 51 placebo), 34 in the rosuvastatin trial (18 rosuvastatin, 16 placebo). Ninety-two percent (95% CI 80-98) of TXA and 86% (95% CI 74-94) of TXA-placebo patients received the 2 study doses. Thirty-three percent (95% CI 13-59) of rosuvastatin patients and 37% (95% CI 15-65) of rosuvastatin-placebo patients discontinued the study drug. A major cardiovascular complication occurred at 30 days in 1 TXA and 6 TXA-placebo patients, and 1 rosuvastatin and no rosuvastatin-placebo patients.

Conclusions: Our pilot study supports the feasibility of a perioperative TXA trial in noncardiac surgery. Feasibility of a perioperative rosuvastatin trial is uncertain because of a high prevalence of statin use in the target population and concerns about compliance.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.govNCT02546648.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-020-00643-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7372857PMC
July 2020

Preoperative -Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiovascular Events After Noncardiac Surgery.

Ann Intern Med 2020 06;172(12):843

McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (E.D., D.H., P.D.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/L20-0269DOI Listing
June 2020

Prospective observational study of postoperative infection and outcomes after noncardiac surgery: analysis of prospective data from the VISION cohort.

Br J Anaesth 2020 07 30;125(1):87-97. Epub 2020 May 30.

William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Infection is a frequent cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for postoperative infections remain poorly characterised.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective international cohort study of patients aged ≥45 yr who had noncardiac surgery (VISION), including data describing infection within 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative infection. The secondary outcome was 30 day mortality. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to identify baseline risk factors for infection. Results are presented as n (%) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Some denominators vary according to rates of missing data.

Results: Among 39 996 surgical patients, 3905 (9.8%) experienced 5152 postoperative infections and 715 (1.8%) died. The most frequent infection was surgical site infection (1555/3905 [39.8%]). Infection was most strongly associated with general surgery (OR: 3.74 [3.11-4.49]; P<0.01) and open surgical technique (OR: 2.03 [1.82-2.27]; P<0.01); 30 day mortality was greater amongst patients who experienced infection (262/3905 [6.7%] vs 453/36 091 patients who did not [1.3%]; OR: 3.47 [2.84-4.22]; P<0.01). Mortality was highest amongst patients with CNS infections (OR: 14.72 [4.41-49.12]; P<0.01).

Conclusions: Infection is a common and important complication of noncardiac surgery, which is associated with high mortality. Further research is needed to identify more effective measures to prevent infections after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2020.03.027DOI Listing
July 2020

Cardiovascular Risk in Men with Prostate Cancer: Insights from the RADICAL PC Study.

J Urol 2020 06 3;203(6):1109-1116. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Purpose: We describe the cardiovascular risk profile in a representative cohort of patients with prostate cancer treated with or without androgen deprivation therapy.

Materials And Methods: We prospectively characterized in detail 2,492 consecutive men (mean age 68 years) with prostate cancer (newly diagnosed or with a plan to prescribe androgen deprivation therapy for the first time) from 16 Canadian sites. Cardiovascular risk was estimated by calculating Framingham risk scores.

Results: Most men (92%) had new prostate cancer (intermediate risk 41%, high risk 50%). The highest level of education achieved was primary school in 12%. Most (58%) were current or former smokers, 22% had known cardiovascular disease, 16% diabetes, 45% hypertension, 31% body mass index 30 kg/m or greater, 24% low levels of physical activity, mean handgrip strength was 37.3 kg and 69% had a Framingham risk score consistent with high cardiovascular risk. Participants in whom androgen deprivation therapy was planned had higher Framingham risk scores than those not intending to receive androgen deprivation therapy, and this risk was abolished after adjustment for confounders.

Conclusions: Two-thirds of men with prostate cancer are at high cardiovascular risk. There is a positive association between a plan to use androgen deprivation therapy and baseline cardiovascular risk factors. However, this association is explained by confounding factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000714DOI Listing
June 2020

Preoperative N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiovascular Events After Noncardiac Surgery: A Cohort Study.

Ann Intern Med 2020 01 24;172(2):96-104. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

McMaster University and Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (F.K.B., M.M., G.P., M.W., R.W., A.L., S.Y., P.D.).

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries.

Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery.

Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery.

Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]).

Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings.

Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI.

Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M19-2501DOI Listing
January 2020

Preoperative Vitamin D Concentration and Cardiac, Renal, and Infectious Morbidity after Noncardiac Surgery.

Anesthesiology 2020 01;132(1):121-130

From the Department of Outcomes Research (A.T., A.S.A., C.H., P.S., K.M., A.K., K.R., D.I.S.) Department of General Anesthesiology (A.T., K.M., A.K., K.R.) Anesthesiology Institute, and the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences (A.S.A.), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio the Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (P.J.D., E.D.) the Department of Medicine (A.P., M.T.), McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Canada (P.J.D., E.D.) Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom (R.P.) the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (M.T.V.C., W.K.K.W.) the Department of Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (S.S.) the Department of Medicine, Western University, London, Canada (A.X.G.) the Department of Cardiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, United Kingdom (R.S.).

Background: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery.

Methods: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications.

Results: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml min 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004).

Conclusions: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003000DOI Listing
January 2020

Incidence of Splanchnic Vein Thrombosis After Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Surg Res 2020 01 22;245:500-509. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Abdominal surgery may increase the risk of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). We determined the incidence of SVT after abdominal surgery and identified groups at highest risk.

Materials And Methods: MEDLINE and Embase were searched for clinical studies evaluating the incidence of postoperative SVT after abdominopelvic surgery. Study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two reviewers. Clinical heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analyses (i.e., type of intra-abdominal procedure and organ group).

Results: Of 5549 abstracts screened, 48 were analyzed. Pooled incidence of SVT (n = 50,267) was 2.68% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.24 to 3.11] (1347 events), I = 96%. Pooled incidence of SVT in high-risk procedures were splenectomy with devascularization (24%), hepatectomy in patients with cirrhosis (9%), and pancreatectomy with venous resection (5%). Pooled incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SVT was 1.02% (95% CI: 0.97% to 1.07%) and 0.98% (95% CI 0.88% to 1.07%), respectively. Most common causes of SVT-related mortality were irreversible thrombosis, bowel ischemia, liver failure, and gastrointestinal bleed. Most studies included were at a high risk of bias due to lack of prospective data collection and lack of SVT screening for all participants.

Conclusions: Incidence of SVT after abdominal surgery is low but remains a relevant complication. Patients undergoing procedures involving surgical manipulation of the venous system and splenectomy are at the highest risk. Given the life-threatening risks associated with SVT, there is a need for larger prospective studies on the incidence and impact of SVT after abdominal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.07.086DOI Listing
January 2020

Association between complications and death within 30 days after noncardiac surgery.

CMAJ 2019 07;191(30):E830-E837

Background: Among adults undergoing contemporary noncardiac surgery, little is known about the frequency and timing of death and the associations between perioperative complications and mortality. We aimed to establish the frequency and timing of death and its association with perioperative complications.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years and older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery at 28 centres in 14 countries. We monitored patients for complications until 30 days after surgery and determined the relation between these complications and 30-day mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: We included 40 004 patients. Of those, 715 patients (1.8%) died within 30 days of surgery. Five deaths (0.7%) occurred in the operating room, 500 deaths (69.9%) occurred after surgery during the index admission to hospital and 210 deaths (29.4%) occurred after discharge from the hospital. Eight complications were independently associated with 30-day mortality. The 3 complications with the largest attributable fractions (AF; i.e., potential proportion of deaths attributable to these complications) were major bleeding (6238 patients, 15.6%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-3.1; AF 17.0%); myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery [MINS] (5191 patients, 13.0%; adjusted HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6; AF 15.9%); and sepsis (1783 patients, 4.5%; adjusted HR 5.6, 95% CI 4.6-6.8; AF 12.0%).

Interpretation: Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, 99.3% of deaths occurred after the procedure and 44.9% of deaths were associated with 3 complications: major bleeding, MINS and sepsis. Given these findings, focusing on the prevention, early identification and management of these 3 complications holds promise for reducing perioperative mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00512109.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.190221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6663503PMC
July 2019

Incidence and predictors of myocardial and kidney injury following endovascular aortic repair: a retrospective cohort study.

Can J Anaesth 2019 Nov 1;66(11):1338-1346. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Intensive Care and Perioperative Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ul. Skawińska 8, 31 - 066, Kraków, Poland.

Purpose: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to determine the incidence and predictors of myocardial injury and acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: We included 267 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR at two tertiary centres in Canada and Poland. The primary outcome was myocardial injury during hospital stay after EVAR defined as a troponin elevation (ultra-sensitivity troponin I Vidas ≥ 19 ng·L, non-high-sensitivity troponin I Vidas ≥ 0.01 µg·L, high-sensitivity troponin T ≥ 20 ng·L, non-high-sensitivity troponin T ≥ 0.03 ng·mL). The secondary outcome was AKI defined using the stage 1 of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria.

Results: Myocardial injury occurred in 78/267 patients (29%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.1 to 34.9) and with AKI occurring in 25/267 (9.4%; 95% CI, 6.4 to 13.5). In a multivariable analysis, the following variables were associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury: age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.65 per ten-year increase; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.49), Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥3 (aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.26 to 6.41), The American Society of Anesthesiology physical status score 4 (aOR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.47), duration of surgery (aOR, 1.27 per each hour; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.61), and perioperative drop in hemoglobin (aOR, 3.35 per 10 g·dL decrease; 95% CI, 1.00 to 11.3). Predictors of AKI were duration of surgery (aOR, 1.72 per hour; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.17), a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-59 mL·min (aOR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.42 to 10.3), and an eGFR < 30 mL·min (aOR, 37.0; 95% CI, 7.1 to 193.8).

Conclusion: Myocardial injury and AKI are frequent during hospital stay after EVAR and warrant further investigation in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-019-01438-0DOI Listing
November 2019

Relationship between Perioperative Hypotension and Perioperative Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Major Noncardiac Surgery.

Anesthesiology 2019 05;130(5):756-766

From the Lilibeth Caberto London Kidney Clinical Research Unit, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Canada (P.S.R.) the Department of Medicine (P.S.R., T.S., E.D., V.T., P.J.D.) Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact (P.S.R., E.D., P.J.D.), McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Canada (E.D., P.J.D.) the Division of General Internal Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Canada (A.B.) the Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (M.T.V.C.) the Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (C.B.) the Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada (B.J.W.C.) the Department of Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada (B.J.W.C.) the Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (J.S.K).

Background: Perioperative hypotension is associated with cardiovascular events in patients having noncardiac surgery. It is unknown if the severity of preexisting coronary artery disease determines susceptibility to the cardiovascular risks of perioperative hypotension.

Methods: In this retrospective exploratory analysis of a substudy of an international prospective blinded cohort study, 955 patients 45 yr of age or older with history or risk factors for coronary artery disease underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography before elective inpatient noncardiac surgery. The authors evaluated the potential interaction between angiographic findings and perioperative hypotension (defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg for a total of 10 min or more during surgery or for any duration after surgery and for which intervention was initiated) on the composite outcome of time to myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death up to 30 days after surgery. Angiography assessors were blinded to study outcomes; patients, treating clinicians, and outcome assessors were blinded to angiography findings.

Results: Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within 30 days after surgery) occurred in 7.7% of patients (74/955), including in 2.7% (8/293) without obstructive coronary disease or hypotension compared to 6.7% (21/314) with obstructive coronary disease but no hypotension (hazard ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.11 to 5.66; P = 0.027), 8.8% (14/159) in patients with hypotension but without obstructive coronary disease (hazard ratio, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.62 to 9.19; P = 0.002), and 16.4% (31/189) with obstructive coronary disease and hypotension (hazard ratio, 7.34; 95% CI, 3.37 to 15.96; P < 0.001). Hypotension was independently associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.99 to 5.06; P < 0.001). This association remained in patients without obstructive disease and did not differ significantly across degrees of coronary disease (P value for interaction, 0.599).

Conclusions: In patients having noncardiac surgery, perioperative hypotension was associated with cardiovascular events regardless of the degree of coronary artery disease on preoperative coronary computed tomographic angiography.
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May 2019

Reply.

J Vasc Surg 2019 02;69(2):630

Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

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February 2019

Reply.

J Vasc Surg 2019 02;69(2):628-629

Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

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February 2019

The MANAGE trial - Authors' reply.

Lancet 2019 01;393(10168):228

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

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January 2019

Perioperative Optimization With Nutritional Supplements in Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Surgery for Cancer (PROGRESS): Protocol for a Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2018 Oct 31;7(10):e10491. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Juravinski Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Postoperative morbidity following gastrointestinal tract major surgery ranges between 40% and 60%. Malnutrition, poor protein intake, and surgery-related impairment of the immune system and its function have been associated with postoperative infections. Supplemental perioperative nutrition may improve nutrition by increasing protein intake to influence cell-mediated immunity, thereby reducing the rate of postoperative infectious complications.

Objective: The primary objective of our trial is to determine the proportion of eligible patients randomized in an 18-month period. The primary feasibility outcome will be to (1) stop, main study not feasible: estimated proportion of randomized patients <40.0% (40/100); (2) continue with protocol modifications: estimated proportion of randomized patients 40.0% (40/100) to 59.0% (50/100); or (3) continue without modification: estimated proportion of randomized patients ≥60.0% (60/100). The secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with the nutritional supplements and to estimate differences in postoperative complications, global health-related quality of life (QoL), and median length of hospital stay between the groups.

Methods: This is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled feasibility trial. The intervention comprises three nutritional supplements: a protein isolate powder (ISOlution); immunomodulation (INergy-FLD), formulated liquid diet; and carbohydrate loading (PreCovery). Patients will consume 1 serving of the protein supplement per day from the randomization time up to 6 days before surgery (30 days in total). The immunomodulation, a solution that contains arginine, protein isolate, omega-6 fatty acids, and RNA, aims to attenuate excessive inflammatory responses and to replenish nutrients. This solution will be consumed as 3 doses per day for 5 days before and after surgery. Carbohydrate loading helps to reduce the stress from surgery by decreasing insulin resistance. Patients will have 2 servings the evening before surgery and 1 serving 2-3 hours before surgery. To be eligible, patients must have a resectable gastrointestinal cancer for which an elective operation is planned. Patients will be stratified according to nutritional status. The operation should occur within 4 weeks from enrollment.

Results: We expect to screen 165 eligible patients; 60.6% (100/165) of them will be randomized to either intervention or placebo. Assuming a two-sided alpha of .05, this will give us a 95% CI around the estimate of 53%-68%. A sample size of 50 per group will enable us to estimate the treatment effect and corresponding variance of the complication rate and QoL measures with adequate precision. The success is defined as the proportion of eligible patients randomized as ≥60.0% (60/100). Patients' compliance is defined as an intake of at least 70% (41/58) sachets of the intervention volume.

Conclusions: The results will help to determine the feasibility of a larger randomized controlled trial to implement a perioperative nutritional supplement program for patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery for cancer.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03445260; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03445260 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72CAmMzgP).

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/10491.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257881PMC
October 2018

Postoperative Remote Automated Monitoring: Need for and State of the Science.

Can J Cardiol 2018 07 25;34(7):850-862. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Worldwide, more than 230 million adults have major noncardiac surgery each year. Although surgery can improve quality and duration of life, it can also precipitate major complications. Moreover, a substantial proportion of deaths occur after discharge. Current systems for monitoring patients postoperatively, on surgical wards and after transition to home, are inadequate. On the surgical ward, vital signs evaluation usually occurs only every 4-8 hours. Reduced in-hospital ward monitoring, followed by no vital signs monitoring at home, leads to thousands of cases of undetected/delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise. In this article we review work to date on postoperative remote automated monitoring on surgical wards and strategy for advancing this field. Key considerations for overcoming current barriers to implementing remote automated monitoring in Canada are also presented.
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July 2018

Dabigatran in patients with myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MANAGE): an international, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2018 06;391(10137):2325-2334

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and deaths, which anticoagulation therapy could prevent. Dabigatran prevents perioperative venous thromboembolism, but whether this drug can prevent a broader range of vascular complications in patients with MINS is unknown. The MANAGE trial assessed the potential of dabigatran to prevent major vascular complications among such patients.

Methods: In this international, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients from 84 hospitals in 19 countries. Eligible patients were aged at least 45 years, had undergone non-cardiac surgery, and were within 35 days of MINS. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive dabigatran 110 mg orally twice daily or matched placebo for a maximum of 2 years or until termination of the trial and, using a partial 2-by-2 factorial design, patients not taking a proton-pump inhibitor were also randomly assigned (1:1) to omeprazole 20 mg once daily, for which results will be reported elsewhere, or matched placebo to measure its effect on major upper gastrointestinal complications. Research personnel randomised patients through a central 24 h computerised randomisation system using block randomisation, stratified by centre. Patients, health-care providers, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary efficacy outcome was the occurrence of a major vascular complication, a composite of vascular mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-haemorrhagic stroke, peripheral arterial thrombosis, amputation, and symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The primary safety outcome was a composite of life-threatening, major, and critical organ bleeding. Analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01661101.

Findings: Between Jan 10, 2013, and July 17, 2017, we randomly assigned 1754 patients to receive dabigatran (n=877) or placebo (n=877); 556 patients were also randomised in the omeprazole partial factorial component. Study drug was permanently discontinued in 401 (46%) of 877 patients allocated to dabigatran and 380 (43%) of 877 patients allocated to placebo. The composite primary efficacy outcome occurred in fewer patients randomised to dabigatran than placebo (97 [11%] of 877 patients assigned to dabigatran vs 133 [15%] of 877 patients assigned to placebo; hazard ratio [HR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·55-0·93; p=0·0115). The primary safety composite outcome occurred in 29 patients (3%) randomised to dabigatran and 31 patients (4%) randomised to placebo (HR 0·92, 95% CI 0·55-1·53; p=0·76).

Interpretation: Among patients who had MINS, dabigatran 110 mg twice daily lowered the risk of major vascular complications, with no significant increase in major bleeding. Patients with MINS have a poor prognosis; dabigatran 110 mg twice daily has the potential to help many of the 8 million adults globally who have MINS to reduce their risk of a major vascular complication [corrected].

Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim and Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
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June 2018

Design of a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial to Assess Dabigatran and Omeprazole in Patients with Myocardial Injury after Noncardiac Surgery (MANAGE).

Can J Cardiol 2018 03 2;34(3):295-302. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

McMaster University, Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; McMaster University, Department of Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Worldwide approximately 200 million adults undergo major surgery annually, of whom 8 million are estimated to suffer a myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). There is currently no trial data informing the management of MINS. Antithrombotic agents such as direct oral anticoagulants might prevent major vascular complications in patients with MINS.

Methods: The Management of Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery (MANAGE) trial is a large international blinded randomized controlled trial of dabigatran vs placebo in patients who suffered MINS. We used a partial factorial design to also determine the effect of omeprazole vs placebo in reducing upper gastrointestinal bleeding and complications. Both study drugs were initiated in eligible patients within 35 days of suffering MINS and continued for a maximum of 2 years. The primary outcome is a composite of major vascular complications for the dabigatran trial and a composite of upper gastrointestinal complications for the omeprazole trial. We present the rationale and design of the trial and baseline characteristics of enrolled patients.

Results: The trial randomized 1754 patients between January 2013 and July 2017. Patients' mean age was 69.9 years, 51.1% were male, 14.3% had a history of peripheral artery disease, 6.6% had a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, 12.9% had a previous myocardial infarction, and 26.0% had diabetes. The diagnosis of MINS was on the basis of an isolated ischemic troponin elevation in 80.4% of participants.

Conclusion: MANAGE is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate a potential treatment of patients who suffered MINS.
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March 2018

Preoperative antihypertensive medication intake and acute kidney injury after major vascular surgery.

J Vasc Surg 2018 06 1;67(6):1872-1880.e1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent after major vascular surgery and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether the administration of combined oral antihypertensive medications on the day of surgery can increase the risk of postoperative AKI.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hypertensive patients undergoing elective major vascular surgery to determine the association between the number of antihypertensive medications continued on the morning of surgery and AKI at 48 hours postoperatively.

Results: A total of 406 patients who had undergone suprainguinal vascular surgery were included, and 10.3% suffered postoperative AKI. In multivariable analysis, the number of antihypertensive medications taken on the morning of surgery was independently associated with AKI (P = .026). Compared with patients who took no medication, taking one medication (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-3.75) and taking two or more medications (aOR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.13-6.44) were associated with a 1.6-fold and 2.7-fold increased risk of postoperative AKI, respectively. Other predictors of AKI were suprarenal surgery (aOR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.53-7.44), age (aOR, 2.29 per 10 years; 95% CI, 1.40-3.74), length of surgery (aOR, 1.40 per 1 hour; 95% CI, 1.10-1.76), hemoglobin drop (aOR, 1.37 per 10 g/L; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74), and history of coronary artery disease (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.08-5.00).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing major vascular surgery who are treated with chronic antihypertensive therapy, the administration of antihypertensive drugs on the morning of surgery is independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative AKI. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.
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June 2018

Period-dependent Associations between Hypotension during and for Four Days after Noncardiac Surgery and a Composite of Myocardial Infarction and Death: A Substudy of the POISE-2 Trial.

Anesthesiology 2018 02;128(2):317-327

From the Departments of Outcomes Research (D.I.S., N.M.Z., G.M.) and Quantitative Health Sciences (N.M.Z., G.M.), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Bispebjerg Hospital (C.S.M.) and the Department of Anaesthesiology, Herlev Hospital (C.S.M., R.M.D.), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; the Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia (K.L.); the Department of Research, Grupo de Cardiología Preventiva Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Fundación CardioInfantil Instituto de Cardiología, Bucaramanga, Colombia (S.M.V.); the Anaesthetic Department, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Hull, East Yorkshire, United Kingdom (P.B.); Department of Cardiology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-SantPau, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (J.A.-G.); the Research Institute, Hospital do Coração, São Paulo, Brazil (A.B.C.); the Department of Anesthesia, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Canada (J.L.P.); Rahate Surgical Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India (P.V.R.); the Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (M.D.S.); the Department of Vascular Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy (B.G.); Counties Manukau District Health, Aukland, New Zealand (S.A.W.); the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderbad, India (R.K.P.); the Department of Pediatrics, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark (R.M.D.); the Department of Anaesthetics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (R.R.), the Hypertension and Vascular Aging Center, Hospital Universitario Austral, Pilar, Argentina (F.B.); the Departments of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact and Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada (P.J.D.); and the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Canada (E.D., P.J.D., D.I.S.).

Background: The relative contributions of intraoperative and postoperative hypotension to perioperative morbidity remain unclear. We determined the association between hypotension and a composite of 30-day myocardial infarction and death over three periods: (1) intraoperative, (2) remaining day of surgery, and (3) during the initial four postoperative days.

Methods: This was a substudy of POISE-2, a 10,010-patient factorial-randomized trial of aspirin and clonidine for prevention of myocardial infarction. Clinically important hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg requiring treatment. Minutes of hypotension was the exposure variable intraoperatively and for the remaining day of surgery, whereas hypotension status was treated as binary variable for postoperative days 1 to 4. We estimated the average relative effect of hypotension across components of the composite using a distinct effect generalized estimating model, adjusting for hypotension during earlier periods.

Results: Among 9,765 patients, 42% experienced hypotension, 590 (6.0%) had an infarction, and 116 (1.2%) died within 30 days of surgery. Intraoperatively, the estimated average relative effect across myocardial infarction and mortality was 1.08 (98.3% CI, 1.03, 1.12; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. For the remaining day of surgery, the odds ratio was 1.03 (98.3% CI, 1.01, 1.05; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. The average relative effect odds ratio was 2.83 (98.3% CI, 1.26, 6.35; P = 0.002) in patients with hypotension during the subsequent four days of hospitalization.

Conclusions: Clinically important hypotension-a potentially modifiable exposure-was significantly associated with a composite of myocardial infarction and death during each of three perioperative periods, even after adjustment for previous hypotension.
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February 2018

Association of Postoperative High-Sensitivity Troponin Levels With Myocardial Injury and 30-Day Mortality Among Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.

JAMA 2017 Apr;317(16):1642-1651

McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS).

Objective: To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013.

Exposures: Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement.

Main Outcomes And Measures: A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality.

Results: Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.52-6.25). An elevated postoperative hsTnT (ie, 20 to <65 ng/L with an absolute change ≥5 ng/L or hsTnT ≥65 ng/L) without an ischemic feature was associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.37-4.32). Among the 3904 patients (17.9%; 95% CI, 17.4%-18.4%) with MINS, 3633 (93.1%; 95% CI, 92.2%-93.8%) did not experience an ischemic symptom.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, peak postoperative hsTnT during the first 3 days after surgery was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Elevated postoperative hsTnT without an ischemic feature was also associated with 30-day mortality.
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April 2017

Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Management for Patients Who Undergo Noncardiac Surgery.

Can J Cardiol 2017 01 4;33(1):17-32. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α agonist or β-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery.
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January 2017

Withholding versus Continuing Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers before Noncardiac Surgery: An Analysis of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN Prospective Cohort.

Anesthesiology 2017 01;126(1):16-27

From the London Kidney Clinical Research Unit, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada (P.S.R.); Departments of Medicine (B.R., A.P., O.S., E.D., E.P.B.-C., G.H.G., F.K.B., V.T., A.W., F.A.S., Z.P., P.J.D.), Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (B.R., E.D., E.P.B.-C., G.H.G., Y.L.M., A.W., P.J.D.), and Anesthesiology (Y.L.M., J.P., K.E.R.), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (E.D., E.P.B.-C., Y.L.M., F.K.B., A.T., M.K., B.D., P.J.D.); Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (D.I.S.); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (R.D.S.); and Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (E.N.S., E.E.M.).

Background: The effect on cardiovascular outcomes of withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers in chronic users before noncardiac surgery is unknown.

Methods: In this international prospective cohort study, the authors analyzed data from 14,687 patients (including 4,802 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users) at least 45 yr old who had in-patient noncardiac surgery from 2007 to 2011. Using multivariable regression models, the authors studied the relationship between withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and a primary composite outcome of all-cause death, stroke, or myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery at 30 days, with intraoperative and postoperative clinically important hypotension as secondary outcomes.

Results: Compared to patients who continued their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, the 1,245 (26%) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users who withheld their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the 24 h before surgery were less likely to suffer the primary composite outcome of all-cause death, stroke, or myocardial injury (150/1,245 [12.0%] vs. 459/3,557 [12.9%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.96; P = 0.01) and intraoperative hypotension (adjusted relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.93; P < 0.001). The risk of postoperative hypotension was similar between the two groups (adjusted relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10; P = 0.36). Results were consistent across the range of preoperative blood pressures. The practice of withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers was only modestly correlated with patient characteristics and the type and timing of surgery.

Conclusions: Withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers before major noncardiac surgery was associated with a lower risk of death and postoperative vascular events. A large randomized trial is needed to confirm this finding. In the interim, clinicians should consider recommending that patients withhold angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers 24 h before surgery.
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January 2017

Perioperative Aspirin for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: The PeriOperative ISchemia Evaluation-2 Trial and a Pooled Analysis of the Randomized Trials.

Anesthesiology 2016 12;125(6):1121-1129

From the Department of Medicine Hamilton, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (J.W.E., C.K., G.G., S.Y., D.C., J. Douketis, A.P., E.D., P.J.D.); Departments of Outcomes Research and General Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (D.I.S., A.K.); Department of Medicine Hamilton, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (D.C., J. Douketis); Department of Anesthesiology, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (R.A.), Departments of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada (P.M.J.); Research Department, Fundaciòn Cardioinfantil, Bogotà, Colombia (R.J.D.); Department of Anaesthesia, University of Adelaide and Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia (T.W.P.); Departments of Anesthesiology and Neurological Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio (S.D.B.); Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (K.L.); Toronto General Hospital, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital and Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (D.N.W.); Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (J.W.E., S.Y., K.B., E.D., S.M., J. Douketis, P.J.D.); Department of Anesthesia, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (S.M.); and Department of Anaesthesiology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa (J. Diedericks).

Background: The PeriOperative ISchemia Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) trial compared aspirin with placebo after noncardiac surgery.

Methods: The authors randomly assigned 10,010 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to receive 200 mg aspirin or placebo 2 to 4 h before surgery and then 100 mg aspirin daily or placebo daily for up to 30 days after surgery. Herein, the authors report the effect of aspirin on venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, as well as an updated pooled analysis of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy for VTE prevention in noncardiac surgery patients.

Results: Six thousand five hundred forty-eight patients (65.4%) received anticoagulant prophylaxis. VTE occurred in 53 patients (1.1%) allocated to aspirin and in 60 patients (1.2%) allocated to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.28). Major or life-threatening bleeding occurred in 312 patients (6.3%) allocated to aspirin and in 256 patients (5.1%) allocated to placebo (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.44). Concomitant use of anticoagulant prophylaxis did not modify the effect of aspirin on VTE or bleeding. Pooled analysis of the POISE-2 and Pulmonary Embolism Prevention trials demonstrated that symptomatic VTE occurred in 173 (1.3%) of 13,724 patients allocated to aspirin and in 246 (1.8%) of 13,730 patients allocated to placebo (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.89; heterogeneity P = 0.27; I = 17%); the impact of aspirin was very similar in those who did and did not receive pharmacologic prophylaxis. Pooled estimates for symptomatic VTE were similar to the pooled estimates for any deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism from the POISE-2 trial, Pulmonary Embolism Prevention trial, and the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis.

Conclusions: Aspirin in the POISE-2 trial did not reduce VTE, but two thirds of patients received anticoagulant prophylaxis, there were few VTE events, and results were consistent with a wide range of aspirin effects. A pooled analysis of the randomized trials demonstrates evidence for the efficacy of aspirin for VTE prevention in hospitalized surgical patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000001352DOI Listing
December 2016

Should we use β‑blockers for myocardial infarction?

Pol Arch Med Wewn 2014 30;124(11):569-72. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.2487DOI Listing
November 2016