Publications by authors named "Emmanuel Pinteaux"

59 Publications

Neurogenesis After Stroke: A Therapeutic Perspective.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 02 29;12(1):1-14. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Clinical Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, Room 1349, 131 S. Robertson, Ste 1300, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Yet therapeutic strategies available to treat stroke are very limited. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics that can effectively facilitate functional recovery. The injury that results from stroke is known to induce neurogenesis in penumbra of the infarct region. There is considerable interest in harnessing this response for therapeutic purposes. This review summarizes what is currently known about stroke-induced neurogenesis and the factors that have been identified to regulate it. Additionally, some key studies in this field have been highlighted and their implications on future of stroke therapy have been discussed. There is a complex interplay between neuroinflammation and neurogenesis that dictates stroke outcome and possibly recovery. This highlights the need for a better understanding of the neuroinflammatory process and how it affects neurogenesis, as well as the need to identify new mechanisms and potential modulators. Neuroinflammatory processes and their impact on post-stroke repair have therefore also been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-020-00841-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803692PMC
February 2021

Neuroinflammation and fibrosis in stroke: The good, the bad and the ugly.

J Neuroimmunol 2020 Jul 9;346:577318. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neuroscience Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA; Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, A.V. Hill Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, United Kingdom; Tulane Brain Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA. Electronic address:

Stroke is the leading cause of death and the main cause of disability in surviving patients. The detrimental interaction between immune cells, glial cells, and matrix components in stroke pathology results in persistent inflammation that progresses to fibrosis. A substantial effort is being directed toward understanding the exact neuroinflammatory events that take place as a result of stroke. The initiation of a potent cytokine response, along with immune cell activation and infiltration in the ischemic core, has massive acute deleterious effects, generally exacerbated by comorbid inflammatory conditions. There is secondary neuroinflammation that promotes further injury, resulting in cell death, but conversely plays a beneficial role, by promoting recovery. This highlights the need for a better understanding of the neuroinflammatory and fibrotic processes, as well as the need to identify new mechanisms and potential modulators. In this review, we summarize several aspects of stroke-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and include a discussion of cytokine inhibitors/inducers, immune cells, and fibro-inflammation signaling inhibitors in order to identify new pharmacological means of intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794086PMC
July 2020

Cell-specific conditional deletion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) ligands and its receptors: a new toolbox to study the role of IL-1 in health and disease.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2020 07 29;98(7):923-930. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, Building 308A, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in many physiological processes and during the inflammatory and immune response to most common diseases. IL-1 exists as two agonists, IL-1α and IL-1β that bind to the only signaling IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1), while a second decoy IL-1 type 2 receptor (IL-1R2) binds both forms of IL-1 without inducing cell signaling. The field of immunology and inflammation research has, over the past 35 years, unraveled many mechanisms of IL-1 actions, through in vitro manipulation of the IL-1 system or by using genetically engineered mouse models that lack either member of the IL-1 family in ubiquitous constitutive manner. However, the limitation of global mouse knockout technology has significantly hampered our understanding of the precise mechanisms of IL-1 actions in animal models of disease. Here we report and review the recent generation of new conditional mouse mutants in which exons of Il1a, Il1b, Il1r1, and Il1r2 genes flanked by loxP sites () can be deleted in cell-/tissue-specific constitutive or inducible manner by Cre recombinase expression. Hence, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1R1, and IL-1R2 mice constitute a new toolbox that will provide a step change in our understanding of the cell-specific role of IL-1 and its receptor in health and disease and the potential development of targeted IL-1 therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-020-01928-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343756PMC
July 2020

Haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy with IL-1Ra rescues cognitive loss in mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA.

EMBO Mol Med 2020 03 14;12(3):e11185. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Stem Cell and Neurotherapies, Division of Cell Matrix Biology & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA is a neuronopathic lysosomal storage disease, characterised by heparan sulphate and other substrates accumulating in the brain. Patients develop behavioural disturbances and cognitive decline, a possible consequence of neuroinflammation and abnormal substrate accumulation. Interleukin (IL)-1β and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) expression were significantly increased in both murine models and human MPSIII patients. We identified pathogenic mechanisms of inflammasome activation, including that disease-specific 2-O-sulphated heparan sulphate was essential for priming an IL-1β response via the Toll-like receptor 4 complex. However, mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA primary and secondary storage substrates, such as amyloid beta, were both required to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and initiate IL-1β secretion. IL-1 blockade in mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice using IL-1 receptor type 1 knockout or haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy over-expressing IL-1Ra reduced gliosis and completely prevented behavioural phenotypes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that IL-1 drives neuroinflammation, behavioural abnormality and cognitive decline in mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA, highlighting haematopoietic stem cell gene therapy treatment with IL-1Ra as a potential neuronopathic lysosomal disease treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201911185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059006PMC
March 2020

Systemic conditioned medium treatment from interleukin-1 primed mesenchymal stem cells promotes recovery after stroke.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2020 01 21;11(1):32. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great potential as a therapy for stroke and have previously been shown to promote recovery in preclinical models of cerebral ischaemia. MSCs secrete a wide range of growth factors, chemokines, cytokines and extracellular vesicles-collectively termed the secretome. In this study, we assessed for the first time the efficacy of the IL-1α-primed MSC-derived secretome on brain injury and functional recovery after cerebral ischaemia.

Methods: Stroke was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using the intraluminal filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Conditioned medium from IL-1α-primed MSCs or vehicle was administered at the time of reperfusion or at 24 h post-stroke by subcutaneous injection.

Results: IL-1α-primed MSC-derived conditioned medium treatment at the time of stroke led to a ~ 30% reduction in lesion volume at 48 h and was associated with modest improvements in body mass gain, 28-point neurological score and nest building. Administration of MSC-derived conditioned medium at 24 h post-stroke led to improved nest building and neurological score despite no observed differences in lesion volume at day 2 post-stroke.

Conclusions: Our results show for the first time that the administration of conditioned medium from IL-1α-primed MSCs leads to improvements in behavioural outcomes independently of neuroprotection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-1560-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6975095PMC
January 2020

Interleukin 1 alpha administration is neuroprotective and neuro-restorative following experimental ischemic stroke.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Nov 14;16(1):222. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Background: Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite recent treatment breakthroughs. A primary event in stroke pathogenesis is the development of a potent and deleterious local and peripheral inflammatory response regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). While the role of IL-1β (main released isoform) has been well studied in stroke, the role of the IL-1α isoform remains largely unknown. With increasing utilization of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) or thrombectomy to pharmacologically or mechanically remove ischemic stroke causing blood clots, respectively, there is interest in pairing successful cerebrovascular recanalization with neurotherapeutic pharmacological interventions (Fraser et al., J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 37:3531-3543, 2017; Hill et al., Lancet Neurol 11:942-950, 2012; Amaro et al., Stroke 47:2874-2876, 2016).

Methods: Transient stroke was induced in mice via one of two methods. One group of mice were subjected to tandem ipsilateral common carotid artery and middle cerebral artery occlusion, while another group underwent the filament-based middle cerebral artery occlusion. We have recently developed an animal model of intra-arterial (IA) drug administration after recanalization (Maniskas et al., J Neurosci Met 240:22-27, 2015). Sub groups of the mice were treated with either saline or Il-1α, wherein the drug was administered either acutely (immediately after surgery) or subacutely (on the third day after stroke). This was followed by behavioral and histological analyses.

Results: We now show in the above-mentioned mouse stroke models (transient tandem ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA) occlusion, MCA suture occlusion) that IL-1α is neuroprotective when acutely given either intravenously (IV) or IA at low sub-pathologic doses. Furthermore, while IV administration induces transient hemodynamic side effects without affecting systemic markers of inflammation, IA delivery further improves overall outcomes while eliminating these side effects. Additionally, we show that delayed/subacute IV IL-1α administration ameliorates functional deficit and promotes neurorepair.

Conclusions: Taken together, our present study suggests for the first time that IL-1α could, unexpectedly, be an effective ischemic stroke therapy with a broad therapeutic window.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1599-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857151PMC
November 2019

Pentraxin 3 regulates neutrophil infiltration to the brain during neuroinflammation.

AMRC Open Res 2019 May 15;1:10. Epub 2019 May 15.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The acute phase protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is known for its anti-inflammatory effects through downregulating neutrophil transmigration during peripheral inflammation. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective and neuroreparative effect of PTX3 after cerebral ischaemia. Here we investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, the role of PTX3 in neutrophil transmigration and neurotoxicity following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cerebral inflammation and cerebral ischaemia. Neutrophil transmigration through interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activated brain endothelium and neurotoxicity of neutrophils isolated from wild-type (WT) or PTX3 knock-out (KO) mice was assessed . Primary cortical neuronal death after treatment with transmigrated neutrophils was quantified by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cerebral inflammation or ischemia was induced in WT and PTX3 KO mice via intrastriatal LPS injection or by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) respectively. Subsequent neutrophil infiltration in the brain was assessed by immunohistochemistry and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Neutrophils isolated from WT mice after intrastriatal LPS injection transmigrated significantly more through IL-1β activated brain endothelium compared to neutrophils from PTX3 KO mice. Transmigrated WT and PTX3 KO neutrophils were significantly more neurotoxic than corresponding non-transmigrated neutrophils; however, no significant differences in neurotoxicity between genotypes were observed. PTX3 reduced the number of transmigrated neutrophils to the brain after intrastriatal LPS injection. Furthermore, PTX3 KO mice showed significantly increased levels of neutrophils in the brain after LPS administration or in the ischaemic hemisphere after MCAo, compared to WT mice. Our study shows that PTX3 regulates neutrophil transmigration in the CNS during neuroinflammation, demonstrating the potential of PTX3 as an effective therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/amrcopenres.12875.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786895PMC
May 2019

Fibroblast-specific deletion of interleukin-1 receptor-1 reduces adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction.

JCI Insight 2019 08 8;5. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

It has been hypothesized that interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α) is released from damaged cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction (MI) and activates cardiac fibroblasts via its receptor (IL-1R1) to drive the early stages of cardiac remodeling. This study aimed to definitively test this hypothesis using cell type-specific IL-1α and IL-1R1 knockout (KO) mouse models. A floxed Il1α mouse was created and used to generate a cardiomyocyte-specific IL-1α KO mouse line (MIL1AKO). A tamoxifen-inducible fibroblast-specific IL-1R1 hemizygous KO mouse line (FIL1R1KO) was also generated. Mice underwent experimental MI (permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation) and cardiac function was determined 4 weeks later by conductance pressure-volume catheter analysis. Molecular markers of remodeling were evaluated at various time points by real-time RT-PCR and histology. MIL1AKO mice showed no difference in cardiac function or molecular markers of remodeling post-MI compared with littermate controls. In contrast, FIL1R1KO mice showed improved cardiac function and reduced remodeling markers post-MI compared with littermate controls. In conclusion, these data highlight a key role for the IL-1R1/cardiac fibroblast signaling axis in regulating post-MI remodeling and provide support for the continued development of anti-IL-1 therapies for improving cardiac function after MI. Cardiomyocyte-derived IL-1α was not an important contributor to post-MI remodeling in this model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777910PMC
August 2019

Transfer of complex regional pain syndrome to mice via human autoantibodies is mediated by interleukin-1-induced mechanisms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 06 10;116(26):13067-13076. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L9 7AL, United Kingdom.

Neuroimmune interactions may contribute to severe pain and regional inflammatory and autonomic signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a posttraumatic pain disorder. Here, we investigated peripheral and central immune mechanisms in a translational passive transfer trauma mouse model of CRPS. Small plantar skin-muscle incision was performed in female C57BL/6 mice treated daily with purified serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with longstanding CRPS or healthy volunteers followed by assessment of paw edema, hyperalgesia, inflammation, and central glial activation. CRPS IgG significantly increased and prolonged swelling and induced stable hyperalgesia of the incised paw compared with IgG from healthy controls. After a short-lasting paw inflammatory response in all groups, CRPS IgG-injected mice displayed sustained, profound microglia and astrocyte activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and pain-related brain regions, indicating central sensitization. Genetic deletion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) using IL-1αβ knockout (KO) mice and perioperative IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) blockade with the drug anakinra, but not treatment with the glucocorticoid prednisolone, prevented these changes. Anakinra treatment also reversed the established sensitization phenotype when initiated 8 days after incision. Furthermore, with the generation of an IL-1β floxed mouse line, we demonstrated that CRPS IgG-induced changes are in part mediated by microglia-derived IL-1β, suggesting that both peripheral and central inflammatory mechanisms contribute to the transferred disease phenotype. These results indicate that persistent CRPS is often contributed to by autoantibodies and highlight a potential therapeutic use for clinically licensed antagonists, such as anakinra, to prevent or treat CRPS via blocking IL-1 actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820168116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6600930PMC
June 2019

β1 integrin is a sensor of blood flow direction.

J Cell Sci 2019 06 3;132(11). Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, INSIGNEO Institute for In Silico Medicine, and the Bateson Centre, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK

Endothelial cell (EC) sensing of fluid shear stress direction is a critical determinant of vascular health and disease. Unidirectional flow induces EC alignment and vascular homeostasis, whereas bidirectional flow has pathophysiological effects. ECs express several mechanoreceptors that respond to flow, but the mechanism for sensing shear stress direction is poorly understood. We determined, by using flow systems and magnetic tweezers, that β1 integrin is a key sensor of force direction because it is activated by unidirectional, but not bidirectional, shearing forces. β1 integrin activation by unidirectional force was amplified in ECs that were pre-sheared in the same direction, indicating that alignment and β1 integrin activity has a feedforward interaction, which is a hallmark of system stability. staining and EC-specific genetic deletion studies in the murine aorta revealed that β1 integrin is activated and is essential for EC alignment at sites of unidirectional flow but is not activated at sites of bidirectional flow. In summary, β1 integrin sensing of unidirectional force is a key mechanism for decoding blood flow mechanics to promote vascular homeostasis.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.229542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589088PMC
June 2019

Microglia in the Neurovascular Unit: Blood-Brain Barrier-microglia Interactions After Central Nervous System Disorders.

Neuroscience 2019 05 6;405:55-67. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, AV Hill Building, The University of Manchester, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Over the past few decades, microglial cells have been regarded as the main executor of inflammation after acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS) disorders, responding rapidly to exogenous stimuli during acute trauma or infections, or signals released by cells undergoing cell death during conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Barriers of the nervous system, and in particular the blood-brain barrier (BBB), play a key role in the normal physiological and cognitive functions of the brain. Being at the interface between the central and peripheral compartment, the BBB is regarded as a sensor of homeostasis, and any disruption within the brain or the systemic compartment triggers BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation, both contributing to the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disease. This involves a dynamic response mediated by all components of the neurovascular unit (NVU), and ongoing research suggests that BBB-microglia interaction is critical to dictate the microglial response to NVU injury. The present review aims to give an up-to-date account of the emerging critical role of BBB-microglia interactions during neuroinflammation, and how these could be targeted for the therapeutic treatment of major central inflammatory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.06.046DOI Listing
May 2019

Interleukin-1 mediates ischaemic brain injury via distinct actions on endothelial cells and cholinergic neurons.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 02 16;76:126-138. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, M13 9PT Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key contributor to neuroinflammation and brain injury, yet mechanisms by which IL-1 triggers neuronal injury remain unknown. Here we induced conditional deletion of IL-1R1 in brain endothelial cells, neurons and blood cells to assess site-specific IL-1 actions in a model of cerebral ischaemia in mice. Tamoxifen treatment of IL-1R1 floxed () mice crossed with mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase under the Slco1c1 promoter resulted in brain endothelium-specific deletion of IL-1R1 and a significant decrease in infarct size (29%), blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown (53%) and neurological deficit (40%) compared to vehicle-treated or control (IL-1R1) mice. Absence of brain endothelial IL-1 signalling improved cerebral blood flow, followed by reduced neutrophil infiltration and vascular activation 24 h after brain injury. Conditional IL-1R1 deletion in neurons using tamoxifen inducible nestin-Cre mice resulted in reduced neuronal injury (25%) and altered microglia-neuron interactions, without affecting cerebral perfusion or vascular activation. Deletion of IL-1R1 specifically in cholinergic neurons reduced infarct size, brain oedema and improved functional outcome. Ubiquitous deletion of IL-1R1 had no effect on brain injury, suggesting beneficial compensatory mechanisms on other cells against the detrimental effects of IL-1 on endothelial cells and neurons. We also show that IL-1R1 signalling deletion in platelets or myeloid cells does not contribute to brain injury after experimental stroke. Thus, brain endothelial and neuronal (cholinergic) IL-1R1 mediate detrimental actions of IL-1 in the brain in ischaemic stroke. Cell-specific targeting of IL-1R1 in the brain could therefore have therapeutic benefits in stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2018.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363965PMC
February 2019

Pentraxin 3 promotes long-term cerebral blood flow recovery, angiogenesis, and neuronal survival after stroke.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2018 12 13;96(12):1319-1332. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, AV Hill Building, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and upregulation of angiogenesis are crucial for brain repair and functional recovery after cerebral ischaemia. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and is emerging as a promising target for cerebrovascular repair after stroke. Here, we investigated for the first time the role of PTX3 in long-term CBF, angiogenesis, and neuronal viability after ischaemic stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Lack of PTX3 had no effect on early brain damage, but significantly impaired restoration of CBF, 14 and 28 days after MCAo, compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PTX3 KO mice have significantly greater neuronal loss, significantly decreased vessel diameter, vessel proliferation, vascular density, and reactive astrocytes and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGR2), vascular extracellular matrix (ECM)-proteins (collagen IV, laminin), and integrin-β, in the ipsilateral (stroke) hemisphere compared to WT mice, 28 days after MCAo. Therefore, PTX3 promotes sustained long-term recovery of CBF, angiogenesis, and neuronal viability after cerebral ischaemia. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential and clinical relevance of PTX3 as a promising therapeutic target, providing sustained long-term post-stroke neurovascular repair and reducing the loss of neurons. KEY MESSAGES: Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and is emerging as a promising target for cerebrovascular repair after stroke. Restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and angiogenesis are crucial for brain repair and functional recovery after cerebral ischaemia. PTX3 promotes sustained long-term recovery of CBF, angiogenesis, and neuronal viability after cerebral ischaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-018-1698-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245246PMC
December 2018

Generation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell 3D Spheroids Using Low-binding Plates.

Bio Protoc 2018 Aug;8(16)

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Neurology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine, and Health. University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The 3D culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) represents a more physiological environment than classical 2D culture and has been used to enhance the MSC secretome or extend cell survival after transplantation. Here we describe a simple and affordable method to generate 3D spheroids of hMSCs by seeding them at high density in a low-binding 96-well plate. Spheroids of hMSCs cultured in low-binding 96-well plates can be used to study the basic biology of the cells and to generate conditioned media or spheroids to be used in transplantation therapeutic approaches. These MSCs or their secretome can be used as a regenerative therapy and for tissue repair across multiple disease areas, including neurodegeneration. In comparison to other methods (hanging drop, use of gels or biomaterials, magnetic levitation, ), the method described here is simple and affordable with no need to use specialized equipment, expensive materials or complex reagents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173304PMC
August 2018

Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Targeting Neuroinflammation After Stroke.

Front Neurol 2018 3;9:734. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Inflammation is a major pathological event following ischemic stroke that contributes to secondary brain tissue damage leading to poor functional recovery. Following the initial ischemic insult, post-stroke inflammatory damage is driven by initiation of a central and peripheral innate immune response and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), both of which are triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of circulating immune cells. Stroke therapies are limited to early cerebral blood flow reperfusion, and whilst current strategies aim at targeting neurodegeneration and/or neuroinflammation, innovative research in the field of regenerative medicine aims at developing effective treatments that target both the acute and chronic phase of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory regenerative strategies include the use of nanoparticles and hydrogels, proposed as therapeutic agents and as a delivery vehicle for encapsulated therapeutic biological factors, anti-inflammatory drugs, stem cells, and gene therapies. Biomaterial strategies-through nanoparticles and hydrogels-enable the administration of treatments that can more effectively cross the BBB when injected systemically, can be injected directly into the brain, and can be 3D-bioprinted to create bespoke implants within the site of ischemic injury. In this review, these emerging regenerative and anti-inflammatory approaches will be discussed in relation to ischemic stroke, with a perspective on the future of stroke therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6129611PMC
September 2018

Interleukin-1β has atheroprotective effects in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of mice.

Nat Med 2018 09 23;24(9):1418-1429. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Despite decades of research, our understanding of the processes controlling late-stage atherosclerotic plaque stability remains poor. A prevailing hypothesis is that reducing inflammation may improve advanced plaque stability, as recently tested in the Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS) trial, in which post-myocardial infarction subjects were treated with an IL-1β antibody. Here, we performed intervention studies in which smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage-tracing Apoe mice with advanced atherosclerosis were treated with anti-IL-1β or IgG control antibodies. Surprisingly, we found that IL-1β antibody treatment between 18 and 26 weeks of Western diet feeding induced a marked reduction in SMC and collagen content, but increased macrophage numbers in the fibrous cap. Moreover, although IL-1β antibody treatment had no effect on lesion size, it completely inhibited beneficial outward remodeling. We also found that SMC-specific knockout of Il1r1 (encoding IL-1 receptor type 1) resulted in smaller lesions nearly devoid of SMCs and lacking a fibrous cap, whereas macrophage-selective loss of IL-1R1 had no effect on lesion size or composition. Taken together, these results show that IL-1β has multiple beneficial effects in late-stage murine atherosclerosis, including promotion of outward remodeling and formation and maintenance of an SMC- and collagen-rich fibrous cap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0124-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130822PMC
September 2018

Changes in the secretome of tri-dimensional spheroid-cultured human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro by interleukin-1 priming.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2018 01 17;9(1):11. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising candidates for the treatment of major neurological disorders. Desirable therapeutic properties of MSCs include reparative and regenerative potential but, despite their proven safety, the efficacy of MSCs remains controversial. Therefore, it is essential to optimise culture protocols to enhance the therapeutic potential of the MSC secretome. Here we aimed to: assess the increase in secretion of cytokines that may induce repair, regeneration, or immunomodulation when cultured in three dimensions; study the effect of interleukin (IL)-1 priming on two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures of MSC; and evaluate the potential use of the modified secretome using microglial-MSC co-cultures.

Methods: We established a 3D spheroid culture of human MSCs, and compared the secretome in 2D and 3D cultures under primed (IL-1) and unprimed conditions. BV2 microglial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with spheroid conditioned media (CM) or were co-cultured with whole spheroids. Concentrations of secreted cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein arrays were used to further evaluate the effect of IL-1 priming in 2D and 3D cultures.

Results: 3D culture of MSCs significantly increased secretion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) compared with 2D culture, despite priming treatments with IL-1 being more effective in 2D than in 3D. The addition of CM of 3D-MSCs reduced LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion from BV2 cells, while the 3D spheroid co-cultured with the BV2 cells induced an increase in IL-6, but had no effect on TNF-α release. Protein arrays indicated that priming treatments trigger a more potent immune profile which is necessary to orchestrate an effective tissue repair. This effect was lost in 3D, partly because of the overexpression of IL-6.

Conclusions: Increased secretion of anti-inflammatory markers occurs when MSCs are cultured in 3D, but this specific secretome did not translate into anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-treated BV2 cells in co-culture. These data highlight the importance of optimising priming treatments and culture conditions to maximise the therapeutic potential of MSC spheroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-017-0753-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773162PMC
January 2018

Involvement of interleukin-1 type 1 receptors in lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness responses.

Brain Behav Immun 2017 Nov 24;66:165-176. Epub 2017 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Sickness responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined in mice with deletion of the interleukin (IL)-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1). IL-1R1 knockout (KO) mice displayed intact anorexia and HPA-axis activation to intraperitoneally injected LPS (anorexia: 10 or 120µg/kg; HPA-axis: 120µg/kg), but showed attenuated but not extinguished fever (120µg/kg). Brain PGE synthesis was attenuated, but Cox-2 induction remained intact. Neither the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) inhibitor etanercept nor the IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab abolished the LPS induced fever in IL-1R1 KO mice. Deletion of IL-1R1 specifically in brain endothelial cells attenuated the LPS induced fever, but only during the late, 3rd phase of fever, whereas deletion of IL-1R1 on neural cells or on peripheral nerves had little or no effect on the febrile response. We conclude that while IL-1 signaling is not critical for LPS induced anorexia or stress hormone release, IL-1R1, expressed on brain endothelial cells, contributes to the febrile response to LPS. However, also in the absence of IL-1R1, LPS evokes a febrile response, although this is attenuated. This remaining fever seems not to be mediated by IL-6 receptors or TNFα, but by some yet unidentified pyrogenic factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2017.06.013DOI Listing
November 2017

Interleukin-1 primes human mesenchymal stem cells towards an anti-inflammatory and pro-trophic phenotype in vitro.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2017 04 17;8(1):79. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Inflammation is a key contributor to central nervous system (CNS) injury such as stroke, and is a major target for therapeutic intervention. Effective treatments for CNS injuries are limited and applicable to only a minority of patients. Stem cell-based therapies are increasingly considered for the treatment of CNS disease, because they can be used as in-situ regulators of inflammation, and improve tissue repair and recovery. One promising option is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can secrete anti-inflammatory and trophic factors, can migrate towards inflamed and injured sites or can be implanted locally. Here we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with inflammatory cytokines can prime MSCs towards an anti-inflammatory and pro-trophic phenotype in vitro.

Methods: Human MSCs from three different donors were cultured in vitro and treated with inflammatory mediators as follows: interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interferon-γ. After 24 h of treatment, cell supernatants were analysed by ELISA for expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To confirm the anti-inflammatory potential of MSCs, immortalised mouse microglial BV2 cells were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exposed to conditioned media (CM) of naïve or IL-1-primed MSCs, and levels of secreted microglial-derived inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-10, G-CSF and IL-6 were measured by ELISA.

Results: Unstimulated MSCs constitutively expressed anti-inflammatory cytokines and trophic factors (IL-10, VEGF, BDNF, G-CSF, NGF and IL-1Ra). MSCs primed with IL-1α or IL-1β showed increased secretion of G-CSF, which was blocked by IL-1Ra. Furthermore, LPS-treated BV2 cells secreted less inflammatory and apoptotic markers, and showed increased secretion of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 in response to treatment with CM of IL-1-primed MSCs compared with CM of unprimed MSCs.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that priming MSCs with IL-1 increases expression of trophic factor G-CSF through an IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) mechanism, and induces a reduction in the secretion of inflammatory mediators in LPS-activated microglial cells. The results therefore support the potential use of preconditioning treatments of stem cells in future therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-017-0531-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5393041PMC
April 2017

IL-1 signaling is critical for expansion but not generation of autoreactive GM-CSF+ Th17 cells.

EMBO J 2017 01 8;36(1):102-115. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is implicated in numerous pathologies, including multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the exact mechanism by which IL-1 is involved in the generation of pathogenic T cells and in disease development remains largely unknown. We found that following EAE induction, pertussis toxin administration leads to IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1)-dependent IL-1β expression by myeloid cells in the draining lymph nodes. This myeloid-derived IL-1β did not vitally contribute to the generation and plasticity of Th17 cells, but rather promoted the expansion of a GM-CSF Th17 cell subset, thereby enhancing its encephalitogenic potential. Lack of expansion of GM-CSF-producing Th17 cells led to ameliorated disease in mice deficient for IL-1R1 specifically in T cells. Importantly, pathogenicity of IL-1R1-deficient T cells was fully restored by IL-23 polarization and expansion in vitro Therefore, our data demonstrate that IL-1 functions as a mitogenic mediator of encephalitogenic Th17 cells rather than qualitative inducer of their generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201694615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5210124PMC
January 2017

Generation of a Novel T Cell Specific Interleukin-1 Receptor Type 1 Conditional Knock Out Mouse Reveals Intrinsic Defects in Survival, Expansion and Cytokine Production of CD4 T Cells.

PLoS One 2016 23;11(8):e0161505. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a crucial role in numerous inflammatory diseases via action on its only known signaling IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1). To investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in selected cell types, we generated a new mouse strain in which exon 5 of the Il1r1 gene is flanked by loxP sites. Crossing of these mice with CD4-Cre transgenic mice resulted in IL-1R1 loss of function specifically in T cells. These mice, termed IL-1R1ΔT, displayed normal development under steady state conditions. Importantly, isolated CD4 positive T cells retained their capacity to differentiate toward Th1 or Th17 cell lineages in vitro, and strongly proliferated in cultures supplemented with either anti-CD3/CD28 or Concanavalin A, but, as predicted, were completely unresponsive to IL-1β administration. Furthermore, IL-1R1ΔT mice were protected from gut inflammation in the anti-CD3 treatment model, due to dramatically reduced frequencies and absolute numbers of IL-17A and interferon (IFN)-γ producing cells. Taken together, our data shows the necessity of intact IL-1 signaling for survival and expansion of CD4 T cells that were developed in an otherwise IL-1 sufficient environment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161505PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995027PMC
July 2017

Emerging roles of the acute phase protein pentraxin-3 during central nervous system disorders.

J Neuroimmunol 2016 Mar 14;292:27-33. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Faculty of Life Sciences, A.V. Hill Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK. Electronic address:

Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein (APP) and a member of the long pentraxin family that is recognised for its role in peripheral immunity and vascular inflammation in response to injury, infection and diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer and respiratory disease. Systemic levels of PTX3 are highly elevated in these conditions, and PTX3 is now recognised as a new biomarker of disease risk and progression. There is extensive evidence demonstrating that central nervous system (CNS) disorders are primarily characterised by central activation of innate immunity, as well as activation of a potent peripheral acute phase response (APR) that influences central inflammation and contributes to poor outcome. PTX3 has been recently recognised to play important roles in CNS disorders, having both detrimental and neuroprotective effects. The present review aims to give an up-to-date account of the emerging roles of PTX3 in CNS disorders, and to provide a critical comparison between peripheral and central actions of PTX3 in inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.12.007DOI Listing
March 2016

The extracellular matrix protein laminin-10 promotes blood-brain barrier repair after hypoxia and inflammation in vitro.

J Neuroinflammation 2016 Feb 1;13:25. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Manchester Pharmacy School, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Background: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) of the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for normal brain function. However, the loss of BBB integrity that occurs after ischaemic injury is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling and inflammation, and contributes to poor outcome. ECM remodelling also contributes to BBB repair after injury, but the precise mechanisms and contribution of specific ECM molecules involved are unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which hypoxia and inflammation trigger loss of BBB integrity and tested the hypothesis ECM changes could contribute to BBB repair in vitro.

Methods: We used an in vitro model of the BBB, composed of primary rat brain endothelial cells grown on collagen (Col) I-, Col IV-, fibronectin (FN)-, laminin (LM) 8-, or LM10-coated tissue culture plates, either as a single monolayer culture or on Transwell® inserts above mixed glial cell cultures. Cultures were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and/or reoxygenation, in the absence or the presence of recombinant interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Cell adhesion to ECM molecules was assessed by cell attachment and cell spreading assays. BBB dysfunction was assessed by immunocytochemistry for tight junction proteins occludin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and measurement of trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Change in endothelial expression of ECM molecules was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.

Results: OGD and/or IL-1 induce dramatic changes associated with loss of BBB integrity, including cytoplasmic relocalisation of membrane-associated tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1, cell swelling, and decreased TEER. OGD and IL-1 also induced gene expression of key ECM molecules associated with the BBB, including FN, Col IV, LM 8, and LM10. Importantly, we found that LM10, but not FN, Col IV, nor LM8, plays a key role in maintenance of BBB integrity and reversed most of the key hallmarks of BBB dysfunction induced by IL-1.

Conclusions: Our data unravel new mechanisms of BBB dysfunction induced by hypoxia and inflammation and identify LM10 as a key ECM molecule involved in BBB repair after hypoxic injury and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-016-0495-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4736307PMC
February 2016

Characterization of a conditional interleukin-1 receptor 1 mouse mutant using the Cre/LoxP system.

Eur J Immunol 2016 Apr 18;46(4):912-8. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

IL-1 is a key cytokine known to drive chronic inflammation and to regulate many physiological, immunological, and neuroimmunological responses via actions on diverse cell types of the body. To determine the mechanisms of IL-1 actions as part of the inflammatory response in vivo, we generated a conditional IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) mouse mutant using the Cre/LoxP system (IL-1R1(fl/fl) ). In the mutant generated, exon 5, which encodes part of the extracellular-binding region of the receptor, is flanked by LoxP sites, thereby inactivating the two previously described functional IL-1R1 gene transcripts after Cre-mediated recombination. Using keratin 14-Cre driver mice, new IL-1R1 deficient (-/-) mice were subsequently generated, in which all signaling IL-1 receptor isoforms are deleted ubiquitously. Furthermore, using vav-iCre driver mice, we deleted IL-1 receptor isoforms in the hematopoietic system. In these mice, we show that both the IL-17 and IL-22 cytokine response is reduced, when mice are challenged by the helminth Trichuris muris. We are currently crossing IL-1R1(fl/fl) mice with different Cre-expressing mice in order to study mechanisms of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201546075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982085PMC
April 2016

IL-1alpha induces angiogenesis in brain endothelial cells in vitro: implications for brain angiogenesis after acute injury.

J Neurochem 2016 Feb 27;136(3):573-80. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Inflammation is a major contributor to neuronal injury and is associated with poor outcome after acute brain injury such as stroke. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is a critical regulator of cerebrovascular inflammation after ischemic injury, mainly through action of both of its isoforms, IL-1α and IL-1β, at the brain endothelium. In contrast, the differential action of these ligands on endothelial activation and post-stroke angiogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that IL-1α is chronically elevated in the brain after experimental stroke suggesting that it is present during post-stroke angiogenic periods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-1α is a potent mediator of endothelial activation and inducer of angiogenic markers in endothelial cells in vitro. Using brain endothelial cell lines, we found that IL-1α was significantly more potent than IL-1β at inducing endothelial cell activation, as measured by expression of the pro-angiogenic chemokine CXCL-1. IL-1α also induced strong expression of the angiogenic mediator IL-6 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-1α induced significant proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, and promoted formation of tube-like structures that are established key hallmarks of angiogenesis in vitro. Finally, all of those responses were blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). In conclusion, our data highlights a potential new role for IL-1 in brain repair mechanisms and identifies IL-1α as a potential new therapy to promote post-stroke angiogenesis. Inflammation is a major contributor to neuronal injury and is associated with poor outcome after neurotrauma. We demonstrate that cytokine IL-1α is chronically elevated in the brain after experimental stroke suggesting that it is present chronically post-stroke. We demonstrate that IL-1α is a potent mediator of endothelial activation and inducer of angiogenic markers in endothelial cells. Our data highlights a new role for IL-1 in brain repair mechanisms and identifies IL-1α as a potential therapy to promote post-stroke angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.13422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215877PMC
February 2016

Genetic Cell Ablation Reveals Clusters of Local Self-Renewing Microglia in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

Immunity 2015 Jul 7;43(1):92-106. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

During early embryogenesis, microglia arise from yolk sac progenitors that populate the developing central nervous system (CNS), but how the tissue-resident macrophages are maintained throughout the organism's lifespan still remains unclear. Here, we describe a system that allows specific, conditional ablation of microglia in adult mice. We found that the microglial compartment was reconstituted within 1 week of depletion. Microglia repopulation relied on CNS-resident cells, independent from bone-marrow-derived precursors. During repopulation, microglia formed clusters of highly proliferative cells that migrated apart once steady state was achieved. Proliferating microglia expressed high amounts of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), and treatment with an IL-1R antagonist during the repopulation phase impaired microglia proliferation. Hence, microglia have the potential for efficient self-renewal without the contribution of peripheral myeloid cells, and IL-1R signaling participates in this restorative proliferation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2015.06.012DOI Listing
July 2015

Pentraxin 3 mediates neurogenesis and angiogenesis after cerebral ischaemia.

J Neuroinflammation 2015 Jan 24;12:15. Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Faculty of Life Sciences, A,V, Hill Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.

Background: The acute phase protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a new biomarker of stroke severity and is a key regulator of oedema resolution and glial responses after cerebral ischaemia, emerging as a possible target for brain repair after stroke. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis are essential events in post-stroke recovery. Here, we investigated for the first time the role of PTX3 in neurogenesis and angiogenesis after stroke.

Methods: PTX3 knockout (KO) or wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to experimental cerebral ischaemia (induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)). Poststroke neurogenesis was assessed by nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining, whereas angiogenesis was assessed by BrdU, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and PECAM-1 immunostaining. In vitro neurogenesis and angiogenesis assays were carried out on neurospheres derived from WT or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) KO mice, and mouse endothelial cell line bEnd.5 respectively. Behavioural function was assessed in WT and PTX3 KO mice using open-field, motor and Y-maze tests.

Results: Neurogenesis was significantly reduced in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of PTX3 KO mice, compared to WT mice, 6 days after MCAo. In addition, recombinant PTX3 was neurogenic in vitro when added to neurospheres, which was mediated by IL-1β. In vivo poststroke angiogenesis was significantly reduced in PTX3 KO mice compared to WT mice 14 days after MCAo, as revealed by reduced vascular density, less newly formed blood vessels and decreased expression of VEGFR2. In vitro, recombinant PTX3 induced marked endothelial cellular proliferation and promoted formation of tube-like structures of endothelial cell line bEnd.5. Finally, a lack of PTX3 potentiated motor deficits 14 days after MCAo.

Conclusions: These results indicate that PTX3 mediates neurogenesis and angiogenesis and contributes to functional recovery after stroke, highlighting a key role of PTX3 as a mediator of brain repair and suggesting that PTX3 could be used as a new target for stroke therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-014-0227-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308938PMC
January 2015

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator enhances microglial cell recruitment after stroke in mice.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2014 May 29;34(5):802-12. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Division of Cardiology, Foundation for Medical Researches, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

The effect of recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) on neuroinflammation after stroke remains largely unknown. Here, we tested the effect of rtPA on expression of cellular adhesion molecules, chemokines, and cytokines, and compared those with levels of inflammatory cell recruitment, brain injury, and mortality over 3 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. Mortality was dramatically increased after rtPA treatment compared with saline treatment during the first day of reperfusion. Among the animals that survived, rtPA significantly increased CCL3 expression, microglia recruitment, and cerebral infarction 6 hours after MCAO. In contrast, the extent of neutrophils and macrophages infiltration in the brain was similar in both saline- and rtPA-treated animals. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator induced Il1b and Tnf expression, 6 and 72 hours after MCAO, respectively, and dramatically reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) level 24 hours after reperfusion. A dose response study confirmed the effect of rtPA on CCL3 and Il1b expressions. The effect was similar at the doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg. In conclusion, we report for the first time that rtPA amplified microglia recruitment early after stroke in association with a rapid CCL3 production. This early response may take part in the higher susceptibility of rtPA-treated animals to reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013777PMC
May 2014

The acute-phase protein PTX3 is an essential mediator of glial scar formation and resolution of brain edema after ischemic injury.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2014 Mar 18;34(3):480-8. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are key effectors of the immune response and are routinely used as biomarkers in cerebrovascular diseases, but their role during brain inflammation remains largely unknown. Elevated circulating levels of the acute-phase protein pentraxin-3 (PTX3) are associated with worse outcome in stroke patients. Here we show that PTX3 is expressed in neurons and glia in response to cerebral ischemia, and that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key driver of PTX3 expression in the brain after experimental stroke. Gene deletion of PTX3 had no significant effects on acute ischemic brain injury. In contrast, the absence of PTX3 strongly compromised blood-brain barrier integrity and resolution of brain edema during recovery after ischemic injury. Compromised resolution of brain edema in PTX3-deficient mice was associated with impaired glial scar formation and alterations in scar-associated extracellular matrix production. Our results suggest that PTX3 expression induced by proinflammatory signals after ischemic brain injury is a critical effector of edema resolution and glial scar formation. This highlights the potential role for inflammatory molecules in brain recovery after injury and identifies APPs, in particular PTX3, as important targets in ischemic stroke and possibly other brain inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2013.224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3948128PMC
March 2014

Neuroimmmune interactions of cannabinoids in neurogenesis: focus on interleukin-1β (IL-1β) signalling.

Biochem Soc Trans 2013 Dec;41(6):1577-82

*Laboratory of Neuroinflammation, Unidad de Neurologia Experimental, Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos (SESCAM), 45071 Toledo, Spain.

Neuroimmune networks and the brain endocannabinoid system contribute to the maintenance of neurogenesis. Activation of cannabinoid receptors suppresses chronic inflammatory responses through the attenuation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, the endocannabinoid system directs cell fate specification of NSCs (neural stem cells) in the CNS (central nervous system). The aim of our work is to understand better the relationship between the endocannabinoid and the IL-1β (interleukin-1β) associated signalling pathways and NSC biology, in order to develop therapeutical strategies on CNS diseases that may facilitate brain repair. NSCs express functional CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, DAGLα (diacylglycerol lipase α) and the NSC markers SOX-2 and nestin. We have investigated the role of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the control of NSC proliferation and in the release of immunomodulators [IL-1β and IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor antagonist)] that control NSC fate decisions. Pharmacological blockade of CB1 and/or CB2 cannabinoid receptors abolish or decrease NSC proliferation, indicating a critical role for both CB1 and CB2 receptors in the proliferation of NSC via IL-1 signalling pathways. Thus the endocannabinoid system, which has neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions mediated by IL-1 signalling cascades in the brain, could assist the process of proliferation and differentiation of embryonic or adult NSCs, and this may be of therapeutic interest in the emerging field of brain repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20130198DOI Listing
December 2013