Publications by authors named "Emmanuel Ndiema"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Middle to Later Stone Age transition at Panga ya Saidi, in the tropical coastal forest of eastern Africa.

J Hum Evol 2021 Apr 11;153:102954. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745, Jena, Germany; Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 600 Maryland Ave SW, Washington, D.C., USA; School of Social Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The Middle to Later Stone Age transition is a critical period of human behavioral change that has been variously argued to pertain to the emergence of modern cognition, substantial population growth, and major dispersals of Homo sapiens within and beyond Africa. However, there is little consensus about when the transition occurred, the geographic patterning of its emergence, or even how it is manifested in the stone tool technology that is used to define it. Here, we examine a long sequence of lithic technological change at the cave site of Panga ya Saidi, Kenya, that spans the Middle and Later Stone Age and includes human occupations in each of the last five Marine Isotope Stages. In addition to the stone artifact technology, Panga ya Saidi preserves osseous and shell artifacts, enabling broader considerations of the covariation between different spheres of material culture. Several environmental proxies contextualize the artifactual record of human behavior at Panga ya Saidi. We compare technological change between the Middle and Later Stone Age with on-site paleoenvironmental manifestations of wider climatic fluctuations in the Late Pleistocene. The principal distinguishing feature of Middle from Later Stone Age technology at Panga ya Saidi is the preference for fine-grained stone, coupled with the creation of small flakes (miniaturization). Our review of the Middle to Later Stone Age transition elsewhere in eastern Africa and across the continent suggests that this broader distinction between the two periods is in fact widespread. We suggest that the Later Stone Age represents new short use-life and multicomponent ways of using stone tools, in which edge sharpness was prioritized over durability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2021.102954DOI Listing
April 2021

Human burials at the Kisese II rockshelter, Tanzania.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Objectives: The Late Pleistocene and early Holocene in eastern Africa are associated with complex evolutionary and demographic processes that contributed to the population variability observed in the region today. However, there are relatively few human skeletal remains from this time period. Here we describe six individuals from the Kisese II rockshelter in Tanzania that were excavated in 1956, present a radiocarbon date for one of the individuals, and compare craniodental morphological diversity among eastern African populations.

Materials And Methods: This study used standard biometric analyses to assess the age, sex, and stature of the Kisese II individuals. Eastern African craniodental morphological variation was assessed using measures of dental size and a subset of Howells' cranial measurements for the Kisese II individuals as well as early Holocene, early pastoralist, Pastoral Neolithic, and modern African individuals.

Results: Our results suggest a minimum of six individuals from the Kisese II collections with two adults and four juveniles. While the dating for most of the burials is uncertain, one individual is directly radiocarbon dated to ~7.1 ka indicating that at least one burial is early Holocene in age. Craniodental metric comparisons indicate that the Kisese II individuals extend the amount of human morphological diversity among Holocene eastern Africans.

Conclusions: Our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that Late Pleistocene and early Holocene eastern Africans exhibited relatively high amounts of morphological diversity. However, the Kisese II individuals suggest morphological similarity at localized sites potentially supporting increased regionalization during the early Holocene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24253DOI Listing
February 2021

Drinking water salinity is associated with hypertension and hyperdilute urine among Daasanach pastoralists in Northern Kenya.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 20;770:144667. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America; Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America.

Water salinity is a growing global environmental health concern. However, little is known about the relation between water salinity and chronic health outcomes in non-coastal, lean populations. Daasanach pastoralists living in northern Kenya traditionally rely on milk, yet are experiencing socioecological changes and have expressed concerns about the saltiness of their drinking water. Therefore, this cross-sectional study conducted water quality analyses to examine how water salinity, along with lifestyle factors like milk intake, was associated with hypertension (blood pressure BP ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic) and hyperdilute urine (urine specific gravity <1.003 g/mL, indicative of altered kidney function). We collected health biomarkers and survey data from 226 non-pregnant adults (46.9% male) aged 18+ from 134 households in 2019 along with participant observations in 2020. The salinity (total concentration of all dissolved salts) of reported drinking water from hand-dug wells in dry river beds, boreholes, and a pond ranged from 120 to 520 mg/L. Water from Lake Turkana and standpipes, which was only periodically used for consumption when no other drinking sources are available, ranged from 1100 to 2300 mg/L. Multiple logistic regression models with standard errors clustered on households indicate that each additional 100 mg/L of drinking water salinity was associated with 45% (95% CI: 1.09-1.93, P = 0.010) increased odds of hypertension and 33% (95% CI: 0.97-1.83, P = 0.075) increased odds of hyperdilute urine adjusted for confounders. Results were robust to multiple specifications of the models and sensitivity analyses. Daily milk consumption was associated with 61-63% (P < 0.01) lower odds of both outcomes. This considerable protective effect of milk intake may be due to the high potassium, magnesium, and calcium contents or the protective lifestyle considerations of moving with livestock. Our study results demonstrate that drinking water salinity may have critical health implications for blood pressure and kidney function even among lean, active pastoralists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969420PMC
May 2021

Ancient proteins provide evidence of dairy consumption in eastern Africa.

Nat Commun 2021 01 27;12(1):632. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Consuming the milk of other species is a unique adaptation of Homo sapiens, with implications for health, birth spacing and evolution. Key questions nonetheless remain regarding the origins of dairying and its relationship to the genetically-determined ability to drink milk into adulthood through lactase persistence (LP). As a major centre of LP diversity, Africa is of significant interest to the evolution of dairying. Here we report proteomic evidence for milk consumption in ancient Africa. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) we identify dairy proteins in human dental calculus from northeastern Africa, directly demonstrating milk consumption at least six millennia ago. Our findings indicate that pastoralist groups were drinking milk as soon as herding spread into eastern Africa, at a time when the genetic adaptation for milk digestion was absent or rare. Our study links LP status in specific ancient individuals with direct evidence for their consumption of dairy products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20682-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841170PMC
January 2021

Hydration in relation to water insecurity, heat index, and lactation status in two small-scale populations in hot-humid and hot-arid environments.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 01 24;33(1):e23447. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: This study compared the prevalence of concentrated urine (urine specific gravity ≥1.021), an indicator of hypohydration, across Tsimane' hunter-forager-horticulturalists living in hot-humid lowland Bolivia and Daasanach agropastoralists living in hot-arid Northern Kenya. It tested the hypotheses that household water and food insecurity would be associated with higher odds of hypohydration.

Methods: This study collected spot urine samples and corresponding weather data along with data on household water and food insecurity, demographics, and health characteristics among 266 Tsimane' households (N = 224 men, 235 women, 219 children) and 136 Daasanach households (N = 107 men, 120 women, 102 children).

Results: The prevalence of hypohydration among Tsimane' men (50.0%) and women (54.0%) was substantially higher (P < .001) than for Daasanach men (15.9%) and women (17.5%); the prevalence of hypohydration among Tsimane' (37.0%) and Daasanach (31.4%) children was not significantly different (P = .33). Multiple logistic regression models suggested positive but not statistically significant trends between household water insecurity and odds of hypohydration within populations, yet some significant joint effects of water and food insecurity were observed. Heat index (2°C) was associated with a 23% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.40, P = .001), 34% (95% CI: 1.18-1.53, P < .0005), and 23% (95% CI: 1.04-1.44, P = .01) higher odds of hypohydration among Tsimane' men, women, and children, respectively, and a 48% (95% CI: 1.02-2.15, P = .04) increase in the odds among Daasanach women. Lactation status was also associated with hypohydration among Tsimane' women (odds ratio = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.62-6.95, P = .001).

Conclusion: These results suggest that heat stress and reproductive status may have a greater impact on hydration status than water insecurity across diverse ecological contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23447DOI Listing
January 2021

Ancient genomes reveal complex patterns of population movement, interaction, and replacement in sub-Saharan Africa.

Sci Adv 2020 Jun 12;6(24):eaaz0183. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Africa hosts the greatest human genetic diversity globally, but legacies of ancient population interactions and dispersals across the continent remain understudied. Here, we report genome-wide data from 20 ancient sub-Saharan African individuals, including the first reported ancient DNA from the DRC, Uganda, and Botswana. These data demonstrate the contraction of diverse, once contiguous hunter-gatherer populations, and suggest the resistance to interaction with incoming pastoralists of delayed-return foragers in aquatic environments. We refine models for the spread of food producers into eastern and southern Africa, demonstrating more complex trajectories of admixture than previously suggested. In Botswana, we show that Bantu ancestry post-dates admixture between pastoralists and foragers, suggesting an earlier spread of pastoralism than farming to southern Africa. Our findings demonstrate how processes of migration and admixture have markedly reshaped the genetic map of sub-Saharan Africa in the past few millennia and highlight the utility of combined archaeological and archaeogenetic approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz0183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292641PMC
June 2020

Trajectories of cultural innovation from the Middle to Later Stone Age in Eastern Africa: Personal ornaments, bone artifacts, and ocher from Panga ya Saidi, Kenya.

J Hum Evol 2020 04 9;141:102737. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany; School of Social Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia; Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada; Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 10th St. & Constitution Ave. NW Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.

African Middle Stone Age (MSA) populations used pigments, manufactured and wore personal ornaments, made abstract engravings, and produced fully shaped bone tools. However, ongoing research across Africa reveals variability in the emergence of cultural innovations in the MSA and their subsequent development through the Later Stone Age (LSA). When present, it appears that cultural innovations manifest regional variability, suggestive of distinct cultural traditions. In eastern Africa, several Late Pleistocene sites have produced evidence for novel activities, but the chronologies of key behavioral innovations remain unclear. The 3 m deep, well-dated, Panga ya Saidi sequence in eastern Kenya, encompassing 19 layers covering a time span of 78 kyr beginning in late Marine Isotope Stage 5, is the only known African site recording the interplay between cultural and ecological diversity in a coastal forested environment. Excavations have yielded worked and incised bones, ostrich eggshell beads (OES), beads made from seashells, worked and engraved ocher pieces, fragments of coral, and a belemnite fossil. Here, we provide, for the first time, a detailed analysis of this material. This includes a taphonomic, archeozoological, technological, and functional study of bone artifacts; a technological and morphometric analysis of personal ornaments; and a technological and geochemical analysis of ocher pieces. The interpretation of the results stemming from the analysis of OES beads is guided by an ethnoarcheological perspective and field observations. We demonstrate that key cultural innovations on the eastern African coast are evident by 67 ka and exhibit remarkable diversity through the LSA and Iron Age. We suggest the cultural trajectories evident at Panga ya Saidi were shaped by both regional traditions and cultural/demic diffusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.102737DOI Listing
April 2020

Ancient DNA reveals a multistep spread of the first herders into sub-Saharan Africa.

Science 2019 07 30;365(6448). Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

How food production first entered eastern Africa ~5000 years ago and the extent to which people moved with livestock is unclear. We present genome-wide data from 41 individuals associated with Later Stone Age, Pastoral Neolithic (PN), and Iron Age contexts in what are now Kenya and Tanzania to examine the genetic impacts of the spreads of herding and farming. Our results support a multiphase model in which admixture between northeastern African-related peoples and eastern African foragers formed multiple pastoralist groups, including a genetically homogeneous PN cluster. Additional admixture with northeastern and western African-related groups occurred by the Iron Age. These findings support several movements of food producers while rejecting models of minimal admixture with foragers and of genetic differentiation between makers of distinct PN artifacts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw6275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827346PMC
July 2019

Connecting palaeoscientists in eastern Africa and the wider world.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 03;3(3):330-331

Department of Earth Sciences, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0800-yDOI Listing
March 2019

Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Diversity of the Helmeted Guinea Fowls in Kenya and Its Implications on HSP70 Gene Functional Polymorphism.

Biomed Res Int 2018 13;2018:7314038. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Institute for Biotechnology Research (IBR), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), P.O. Box 62000, City Square 00200, Nairobi, Kenya.

We analyzed variations in 90 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene sequences from four populations of domesticated helmeted Guinea fowls (70 individuals) and 1 population of wild helmeted Guinea fowls (20 individuals) in Kenya in order to get information about their origin, genetic diversity, and traits associated with heat stress. 90 sequences were assigned to 25 distinct mtDNA and 4 HSP70 haplotypes. Most mtDNA haplotypes of the domesticated helmeted Guinea fowls were grouped into two main haplogroups, HgA and HgB. The wild population grouped into distinct mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtDNA haplotypes dominated across all populations of domesticated helmeted Guinea fowls: Hap2 and Hap4, while the dominant HSP70 haplotype found in all populations was CGC. Higher haplotype diversities were generally observed. The HSP70 haplotype diversities were low across all populations. The nucleotide diversity values for both mtDNA and HSP70 were generally low. Most mtDNA genetic variations occurred among populations for the three hierarchical categories considered while most variations in the HSP70 gene occurred among individuals within population. The lack of population structure among the domestic populations could suggest intensive genetic intermixing. The differentiation of the wild population may be due to a clearly distinct demographic history that shaped its genetic profile. Analysis of the Kenyan Guinea fowl population structure and history based on mtDNA D-loop variations and HSP70 gene functional polymorphisms complimented by archaeological and linguistic insight supports the hypothesis that most domesticated helmeted Guinea fowls in Kenya are related to the West African domesticated helmeted Guinea fowls. We recommend more molecular studies on this emerging poultry species with potential for poverty alleviation and food security against a backdrop of climate change in Africa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7314038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258102PMC
April 2019

A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 09 20;115(36):8942-8947. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Illinois State Geological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820.

Monumental architecture is a prime indicator of social complexity, because it requires many people to build a conspicuous structure commemorating shared beliefs. Examining monumentality in different environmental and economic settings can reveal diverse reasons for people to form larger social units and express unity through architectural display. In multiple areas of Africa, monumentality developed as mobile herders created large cemeteries and practiced other forms of commemoration. The motives for such behavior in sparsely populated, unpredictable landscapes may differ from well-studied cases of monumentality in predictable environments with sedentary populations. Here we report excavations and ground-penetrating radar surveys at the earliest and most massive monumental site in eastern Africa. Lothagam North Pillar Site was a communal cemetery near Lake Turkana (northwest Kenya) constructed 5,000 years ago by eastern Africa's earliest pastoralists. Inside a platform ringed by boulders, a 119.5-m mortuary cavity accommodated an estimated minimum of 580 individuals. People of diverse ages and both sexes were buried, and ornaments accompanied most individuals. There is no evidence for social stratification. The uncertainties of living on a "moving frontier" of early herding-exacerbated by dramatic environmental shifts-may have spurred people to strengthen social networks that could provide information and assistance. Lothagam North Pillar Site would have served as both an arena for interaction and a tangible reminder of shared identity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1721975115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130363PMC
September 2018