Publications by authors named "Emmanouil S Brilakis"

651 Publications

Safety and efficacy of the polymer-free and polymer-coated drug-eluting stents in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Cardiology, Detroit Medical Center, Heart Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Introduction: The relative safety and efficacy of polymer-free (PF) versus polymer-coated (PC) drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with angina or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention has received limited study.

Method: Digital databases were queried to identify relevant studies. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and secondary outcomes were compared using a random effect model to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (OR).

Results: A total of 28 studies consisting of 23,198 patients were included in the final analysis. On pooled analysis, there was no significant difference in the odds of MACE (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91-1.08) and major bleeding (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.61-1.24) between patients undergoing PF-DES versus PC-DES. Similarly, the odds of myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis, cardiovascular mortality and need for target vessel revascularization was similar between the two groups. PF-DES was favored due to significantly lower odds of non-cardiac death (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-89) and all-cause mortality (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.95), but had a higher need for target lesion revascularization (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.02-1.42). A subgroup analysis based on follow up duration, clinical presentation, presence of diabetes and class of eluting drugs mirrored the net estimates for all outcomes with a few exceptions. A sensitivity and meta-regression analysis showed no influence of single-study and duration of antiplatelet therapy on pooled outcomes.

Conclusion: In patients presenting with angina or ACS, PF-DES might be favored due to lower all-cause mortality and equal risk of ischemic adverse cardiovascular and major bleeding events compared with PC-DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29953DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of Hospital Procedural Volume on Outcomes After Endovascular Revascularization for Critical Limb Ischemia.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep;14(17):1926-1936

Division of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between hospital endovascular lower extremity revascularization (eLER) volume and outcomes after eLER for critical limb ischemia (CLI).

Background: There is a paucity of data on the relationship between hospital procedural volume and outcomes of eLER for CLI.

Methods: The authors queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (2013-2015) for hospitalized patients who underwent eLER for CLI. Hospitals were divided into tertiles according to annual eLER volume: low volume (<100 eLER procedures), moderate volume (100-550 eLER procedures), and high volume (>550 eLER procedures). Stepwise multivariable regression models were used. The main outcomes were in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission with major adverse limb events, defined as the composite of amputation, acute limb ischemia, or repeat revascularization.

Results: Among 145,785 hospitalizations for eLER for CLI, 5,199 (3.6%) were at low-volume eLER hospitals, 27,857 (19.1%) at moderate-volume eLER hospitals, and 112,728 (77.3%) at high-volume eLER hospitals. On multivariable analysis, there was no difference with regard to in-hospital mortality among moderate-volume hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.60-1.01) and high-volume hospitals (adjusted OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.64-1.05) compared with low-volume hospitals. There was lower risk of in-hospital major amputation (adjusted OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.96) and minor amputation at high- versus low-volume hospitals. The length of hospital stay was shorter and discharges to nursing facilities were fewer among moderate- and high-volume hospitals compared with low-volume hospitals. Compared with low-volume hospitals, eLER for CLI at high-volume hospitals had a lower risk for 30-day readmission with major adverse limb events (adjusted OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.99), while there was no difference among moderate-volume hospitals (adjusted OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.77-1.10).

Conclusions: This nationwide observational analysis suggests that annual eLER volume does not influence in-hospital mortality after eLER for CLI. However, high eLER volume (>550 eLER procedures) was associated with better rates of limb preservation after eLER for CLI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.06.032DOI Listing
September 2021

Procedural and In-Hospital Outcomes of Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insights From a Prospective Multicenter International Registry.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Sep;33(9):E670-E676

Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Blvd (K-2 Cath Lab), Detroit, MI 48202 USA.

Background: We sought to examine the procedural and clinical outcomes of patients who underwent chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods: We assessed the clinical and procedural characteristics, technical success, procedural success, and in-hospital outcomes of 2314 patients who underwent CTO-PCI at 20 experienced centers between 2012 and 2017, classified according to whether or not they presented with AMI.

Results: Mean patient age was 65 ± 10 years, 85% were men, and 154 (6.7%) presented with AMI (5.5% with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 1.1% with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction). Compared with non-AMI patients who underwent CTO-PCI, AMI patients had higher prevalence of diabetes (56% vs 42%; P<.01) and lower median left ventricular ejection fraction (48% vs 54%; P<.001). The CTO angiographic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Compared with non-AMI patients undergoing CTO-PCI, AMI patients had more frequent use of antegrade wire escalation (86.0% vs 78.9%; P=.03) and more frequent use of hemodynamic support devices (16.2% vs 3.4%; P<.01), and were more likely to have a non-CTO lesion treated (34.0% vs 26.6%; P=.03). AMI and non-AMI patients had similar technical success (90% vs 87%; P=.26), procedural success (88% vs 85%; P=.38), and incidence of in-hospital MACE (2.6% vs 2.5%; P=.94).

Conclusion: CTO-PCI is performed infrequently in AMI patients and is associated with similar technical and procedural success rates and in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular event rates when compared with CTO-PCI performed in non-AMI patients.
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September 2021

Saphenous Vein Graft Failure: From Pathophysiology to Prevention and Treatment Strategies.

Circulation 2021 Aug 30;144(9):728-745. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Center for Coronary Artery Disease, Minneapolis Heart Institute and Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Abbott Northwestern, MN (I.X., I.N., E.V., J.K., M.N.B., V.N.B., E.S.B.).

Saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) remain the most frequently used conduits in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Despite advances in surgical techniques and pharmacotherapy, SVG failure rates remain high, often leading to repeat coronary revascularization. The no-touch SVG harvesting technique (minimal graft manipulation with preservation of vasa vasorum and nerves) reduces the risk of SVG failure, whereas the effect of the off-pump technique on SVG patency remains unclear. Use of buffered storage solutions, intraoperative graft flow measurement, careful selection of the target vessels, and physiological assessment of the native coronary circulation before CABG may also reduce the incidence of SVG failure. Perioperative aspirin and high-intensity statin administration are the cornerstones of secondary prevention after CABG. Dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for off-pump CABG and in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Intermediate (30%-60%) SVG stenoses often progress rapidly. Stenting of intermediate SVG stenoses failed to improve outcomes; hence, treatment focuses on strict control of coronary artery disease risk factors. Redo CABG is associated with higher perioperative mortality compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); hence, the latter is preferred for most patients requiring repeat revascularization after CABG. SVG PCI is limited by high rates of no-reflow and a high incidence of restenosis during follow-up. Drug-eluting and bare metal stents provide similar long-term outcomes in SVG PCI. Embolic protection devices reduce no-reflow and should be used when feasible. PCI of the corresponding native coronary artery is associated with better short- and long-term outcomes and is preferred over SVG PCI, if technically feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.052163DOI Listing
August 2021

Distal Radial Access in Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From the PROGRESS-CTO Registry.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Sep 19;33(9):E717-E722. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Background: The outcomes of distal radial access (dRA) in chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI) have received limited study.

Methods: We compared the clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics of 120 CTO-PCIs performed via dRA access with 2625 CTO-PCIs performed via proximal radial access (pRA) in a large, multicenter registry.

Results: The dRA group had lower mean PROGRESS-CTO score than the pRA group (1.0 ± 1 vs 1.2 ± 1, respectively; P=.05), while J-CTO score (2.4 ± 1.2 vs 2.3 ± 1.3; P=.43) and PROGRESS-CTO Complications score (2.8 ± 1.8 vs 2.6 ± 1.9; P=.16) were similar in the dRA vs pRA groups, respectively. Technical success was similar in the 2 groups (90% dRA vs 86% pRA; P=.14). Concomitant use of femoral access did not alter procedural success. The incidence of major periprocedural adverse cardiac events was similar in the 2 groups (0.8% dRA vs 2.4% pRA; P=.26), whereas the incidence of tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis was lower with dRA (0% dRA vs 4.69% pRA; P<.001), as was air kerma radiation dose (median, 1.7 Gy; interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-2.63 Gy in the dRA group vs median, 2.27 Gy; IQR, 1.2-3.9 Gy in the pRA group; P<.001).

Conclusions: Use of dRA in CTO-PCI is associated with similar procedural success and risk of complications as compared with pRA.
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September 2021

Global Chronic Total Occlusion Crossing Algorithm: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(8):840-853

Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University Hospital Careggi, Florence, Italy.

The authors developed a global chronic total occlusion crossing algorithm following 10 steps: 1) dual angiography; 2) careful angiographic review focusing on proximal cap morphology, occlusion segment, distal vessel quality, and collateral circulation; 3) approaching proximal cap ambiguity using intravascular ultrasound, retrograde, and move-the-cap techniques; 4) approaching poor distal vessel quality using the retrograde approach and bifurcation at the distal cap by use of a dual-lumen catheter and intravascular ultrasound; 5) feasibility of retrograde crossing through grafts and septal and epicardial collateral vessels; 6) antegrade wiring strategies; 7) retrograde approach; 8) changing strategy when failing to achieve progress; 9) considering performing an investment procedure if crossing attempts fail; and 10) stopping when reaching high radiation or contrast dose or in case of long procedural time, occurrence of a serious complication, operator and patient fatigue, or lack of expertise or equipment. This algorithm can improve outcomes and expand discussion, research, and collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.055DOI Listing
August 2021

Anomalous interarterial right coronary artery culprit vessel in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Minneapolis Heart Institute and Minneapolis Heart Heart Institute Foundation, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000001089DOI Listing
August 2021

Enhancing occupational safety in the X-ray laboratory.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Interventional Cardiology, Delray Medical Center, Delray Beach Cardiovascular Diseases Fellowship, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida Interventional Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Interventional Cardiology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas, Texas Research Department, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia Interventional Cardiology, North Texas VA Healthcare System, Dallas, Texas Interventional Cardiology, Minneapolis Heart Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Despite more than 80% of interventional operators reporting one or more orthopedic injuries attributed to the X-ray laboratory, there has been limited adoption of various strategies and equipment to minimize these injuries. A comprehensive review of these methods to reduce musculoskeletal strain is lacking in the current literature, and is essential in order to ensure a long, healthy, and productive interventional career.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000001091DOI Listing
August 2021

Patient-specific computational simulation of coronary artery bifurcation stenting.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 13;11(1):16486. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Cardiovascular Biology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Cardiovascular Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

Patient-specific and lesion-specific computational simulation of bifurcation stenting is an attractive approach to achieve individualized pre-procedural planning that could improve outcomes. The objectives of this work were to describe and validate a novel platform for fully computational patient-specific coronary bifurcation stenting. Our computational stent simulation platform was trained using n = 4 patient-specific bench bifurcation models (n = 17 simulations), and n = 5 clinical bifurcation cases (training group, n = 23 simulations). The platform was blindly tested in n = 5 clinical bifurcation cases (testing group, n = 29 simulations). A variety of stent platforms and stent techniques with 1- or 2-stents was used. Post-stenting imaging with micro-computed tomography (μCT) for bench group and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for clinical groups were used as reference for the training and testing of computational coronary bifurcation stenting. There was a very high agreement for mean lumen diameter (MLD) between stent simulations and post-stenting μCT in bench cases yielding an overall bias of 0.03 (- 0.28 to 0.34) mm. Similarly, there was a high agreement for MLD between stent simulation and OCT in clinical training group [bias 0.08 (- 0.24 to 0.41) mm], and clinical testing group [bias 0.08 (- 0.29 to 0.46) mm]. Quantitatively and qualitatively stent size and shape in computational stenting was in high agreement with clinical cases, yielding an overall bias of < 0.15 mm. Patient-specific computational stenting of coronary bifurcations is a feasible and accurate approach. Future clinical studies are warranted to investigate the ability of computational stenting simulations to guide decision-making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory and improve clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95026-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363606PMC
August 2021

Meta-Analysis of Transradial Versus Transfemoral Access for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of cardiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

Data comparing outcomes of transradial (TR) versus transfemoral (TF) access for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) including patients with eGFR< 30 ml/min/1.73m and patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (ESRD) are lacking. This meta-analysis compares the outcomes of TR versus TF approach for PCI in patients with CKD. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar were searched for studies including adults with CKD undergoing PCI via a TR versus TF approach from January 1, 2000, until January 15, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes included major bleeding, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), blood transfusion, contrast volume, and fluoroscopy time. The analysis was performed using a random-effects-model using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Five observational studies met inclusion criteria, including 1,156 and 6,156 patients in the TR and TF arms, respectively. The mean age of included patients was 70.5 years, 66% were male and 90% had ESRD. In patients with CKD, TR access for PCI was associated with lower all-cause mortality (RR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.73), major bleeding (RR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.73), blood transfusion (RR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42 to0.68) and contrast volume (SMD -0.34 [-0.60 to -0.08]) with no difference in stroke, MI, or fluoroscopy time compared with TF access. In conclusion, in patients with CKD undergoing PCI, the TR approach was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality, post-procedural bleeding, and blood transfusion compared with TF access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.07.018DOI Listing
August 2021

Diabetic patients who present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The long-term outcomes of diabetic patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in contemporary practice have received limited study.

Methods: We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of STEMI patients with and without diabetes in a large regional STEMI program designed to facilitate timely primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN). The primary and secondary outcome measures were in-hospital mortality, 1-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (stroke, myocardial infarction, unplanned PCI or coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery, and all-cause mortality), and 5-year mortality.

Results: Of the 6292 patients included, 1158 (18.4%) had Diabetes Mellitus (DM) (95.3% Type II, 4.7% Type I). Patients with DM were older (mean age 66 vs. 62.8 years, p < 0.01), had more co-morbidities and were more likely to receive medical therapy without reperfusion (13% vs. 10%, p = 0.003). Patients with DM had higher in-hospital (8% vs. 5%, p = 0.001), 1-year (8% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (16% vs. 9%, p < 0.001) compared to non-diabetics. On Cox proportional hazards analysis, DM was independently associated with worse mortality (hazard ratio: 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-2.19, p < 0.001) and MACE [HR: 1.63 (95% (CI)): 1.28-2.08, p < 0.001].

Conclusions: Despite advancements in medical therapy and revascularization strategies for STEMI, DM remains independently associated with higher short- and long-term morbidity and mortality in contemporary practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.08.003DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk factors profile of young and older patients with Myocardial Infarction.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

1st Cardiology Clinic, 'Hippokration' General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Myocardial infarction (MI) among young adults (< 45 years) represents a considerable proportion of the total heart attack incidents. The underlying pathophysiologic characteristics, atherosclerotic plaque features and risk factors profile differ between young and older patients with MI. This review article discusses the main differences between the younger and elderly MI patients as well as the different pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of MI in the younger. Young patients with MI often have eccentric atherosclerotic plaques with inflammatory features but fewer lesions, and are more likely to be smokers, obese, and have poor lifestyle, such as inactivity and alcohol intake. Compared to older MI patients, younger are more likely to be men, have familial-combined hyperlipidemia and increased levels of lipoprotein-a. In addition, MI in younger patients may be related to use of cannabis, cocaine use and androgenic anabolic steroids. Genomic differences especially in the pathways of coagulation and lipid metabolism have also been identified between young and older patients with MI. Better understanding of the risk factors and the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes in young adults can improve MI prevention and treatment strategies in this patient group. Awareness could help identify young subjects at increased risk and guide primary prevention strategies. Additional studies focusing on gene pathways related to lipid metabolism, inflammation and coagulation are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab264DOI Listing
August 2021

How Stoic principles can help when performing complex interventions.

EuroIntervention 2021 Aug 6;17(5):e364-e366. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Minneapolis Heart Institute, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00335DOI Listing
August 2021

Trends in Use and Outcomes of Same-Day Discharge Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Aug;14(15):1655-1666

The Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe trends and hospital variation in same-day discharge following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to evaluate the association between trends in same-day discharge and patient outcomes.

Background: Insights on contemporary use of same-day discharge following elective PCI are limited.

Methods: In a sequential cross-sectional analysis of 819,091 patients undergoing elective PCI at 1,716 hospitals in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry from July 1, 2009, to December 31, 2017, overall and hospital-level trends in same-day discharge were assessed. Among the 212,369 patients who linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data, the association between same-day discharge and 30-day mortality and rehospitalization was assessed.

Results: A total of 114,461 patients (14.0%) were discharged the same day as PCI. The proportion of patients with same-day discharge increased from 4.5% in the third quarter of 2009 to 28.6% in the fourth quarter of 2017. From 2009 to 2017, the rate of same-day discharge increased from 4.3% to 19.5% for femoral-access PCI and from 9.9% to 39.7% for radial-access PCI. Hospital-level variation in the use of same-day discharge persisted throughout (median odds ratio adjusted for year and radial access: 4.15). Risk-adjusted 30-day mortality did not change over time, while risk-adjusted rehospitalization decreased over time and more quickly for same-day discharge (P for interaction <0.001).

Conclusions: In the past decade, a large increase in the use of same-day discharge following elective PCI was not associated with worse 30-day mortality or rehospitalization. Hospital-level variation in same-day discharge may represent an opportunity to reduce costs without compromising patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.05.043DOI Listing
August 2021

Characteristics and hospital outcomes of coronary atherectomy within the United States: a multivariate and propensity-score matched analysis.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Aug 12:1-6. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Detroit Medical Center, Heart Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: Suboptimal stent delivery and deployment in calcified coronary lesions are associated with a poor clinical outcome.

Methods: Using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Comparison between procedural and hospital outcomes between patients who underwent atherectomy and those who did not.

Results: A total of 2,035,039 patients underwent PCI, of which 50,095 (2.4%) underwent lesion modification using atherectomy. After adjustment for baseline differences, patients who underwent atherectomy were found to have higher rates of in-hospital mortality (3.3% vs 2.2% adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.46, P < 0.001), coronary artery dissection (1.7% vs 1.1%, aOR, 1.56; 95%, 1.45-1.67, P < 0.001) vascular complications (1.6% vs 1.0%, aOR, 1.52; 95%, 1.42-1.64, P < 0.001), major bleeding (6.3% vs 4.7%, aOR, 1.24; 95%, 1.18-1.28, P < 0.001), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (10.9%vs 9.1%, aOR, 1.07; 95%, 1.04-1.11, P < 0.001) when compared with non-atherectomy patients. Concomitant intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging improved mortality, while other complication rates were not affected by imaging.

Conclusion: Coronary atherectomy was performed in patients with multiple comorbidities and was associated with higher in-hospital mortality and complications than the non-atherectomy group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779072.2021.1963233DOI Listing
August 2021

Intracoronary Lithotripsy: A New Solution for Undilatable In-Stent Chronic Total Occlusions.

JACC Case Rep 2021 May 19;3(5):780-785. Epub 2021 May 19.

Minneapolis Heart Institute and Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in a flush in-stent right coronary artery chronic total occlusion. Successful retrograde recanalization was performed but the lesion was balloon undilatable as confirmed by intravascular ultrasound. High-pressure post-dilation with noncompliant and plaque modification balloons failed, but intravascular lithotripsy successfully expanded the lesion. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2021.03.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311198PMC
May 2021

What is the best road to the heart?

Hellenic J Cardiol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Minneapolis Heart Institute and Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hjc.2021.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes of Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) According to Race: Insights from the PROGRESS-CTO Registry.

Hellenic J Cardiol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN; Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hjc.2021.07.007DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of Iso-Osmolar vs Low-Osmolar Contrast Media With Major Adverse Renal or Cardiovascular Events in Patients at High Risk for Acute Kidney Injury Undergoing Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Aug 16;33(8):E640-E646. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Interventional Cardiology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Associate Professor of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 USA.

Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to examine the association of iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) vs low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) with major adverse renal or cardiovascular events (MARCE) in patients at high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR).

Methods: Patients at high risk of AKI (defined as age ≥75 years, or one or more of the following comorbidities: diabetes, anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD stages 1-4) or congestive heart failure), undergoing EVAR from September 2012 to June 2018 were identified using the Premier Hospital Database. We compared the primary endpoint of MARCE (composite of AKI, AKI requiring dialysis, acute myocardial infarction [AMI], stroke/transient ischemic attack [TIA], and death) with IOCM vs LOCM via adjusted multivariable regression analyses.

Results: Among 15,777 high-risk patients undergoing EVAR, the occurrence of in-hospital MARCE was 6.8%, including renal events (4.5%), AMI (0.8%), stroke/TIA (0.4%), and death (1.9%), IOCM was used in 7360 patients (47%). Multivariable modeling found IOCM was associated with 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-3.3; P=.01) lower absolute risk for MARCE (23.9% relative risk reduction; 95% CI, 5.2%-44.2%).

Conclusions: Use of IOCM vs LOCM in patients at high risk of AKI undergoing EVAR procedures was associated with a lower risk of MARCE. As prevention of AKI or cardiovascular events after EVAR procedures may lead to reduced morbidity and mortality, this finding may have important clinical implications and should be confirmed through randomized controlled clinical studies.
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August 2021

Comparison of Outcomes of Patients with vs without Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Presenting with ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2021 09 7;154:33-40. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Minneapolis Heart Institute and Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address:

The outcomes of patients with previous coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) presenting with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) have received limited study. We compared the clinical and procedural characteristics and outcomes of STEMI patients with and without previous CABG in a contemporary multicenter STEMI registry between 2003 and 2020. The primary outcomes of the study were mortality and major cardiac adverse events (MACE: death, MI or stroke). Survival curves were derived using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Of the 13,893 patients included in the analyses, 7.2% had previous CABG. Mean age was 62.4 ± 13.6 years, most patients (71%) were men and 22% had diabetes. Previous CABG patients were older (69.0 ± 11.7 vs 61.9 ± 13.6 years, p <0.001) and more likely to have diabetes (40% vs 21%, p <0.001) compared with patients without previous CABG. Previous CABG patients had higher mortality and MACE at 5 years (p <0.001). Outcomes were similar with saphenous vein graft vs native coronary culprits. Previous CABG remained associated with mortality from discharge to 18 months (p = 0.044) and from 18 months to 5 years (p <0.001) after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Long term outcomes after STEMI were worse among patients with previous CABG compared with patients without previous CABG, even after adjustment for baseline characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.05.041DOI Listing
September 2021

Tailored Versus Standard Hydration to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Network Meta-Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 25;10(13):e021342. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Division of Cardiology Virginia Commonwealth University Health Pauley Heart CenterVirginia Commonwealth University Richmond VA.

Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication after percutaneous coronary intervention. The mainstay of CI-AKI prevention is represented by intravenous hydration. Tailoring infusion rate to patient volume status has emerged as advantageous over fixed infusion-rate hydration strategies. Methods and Results A systematic review and network meta-analysis with a frequentist approach were conducted. A total of 8 randomized controlled trials comprising 2312 patients comparing fixed versus tailored hydration strategies to prevent CI-AKI after percutaneous coronary intervention were included in the final analysis. Tailored hydration strategies included urine flow rate-guided, central venous pressure-guided, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided, and bioimpedance vector analysis-guided hydration. Primary endpoint was CI-AKI incidence. Safety endpoint was incidence of pulmonary edema. Urine flow rate-guided and central venous pressure-guided hydration were associated with a lower incidence of CI-AKI compared with fixed-rate hydration (odds ratio [OR], 0.32 [95% CI, 0.19-0.54] and OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.21-0.97]). No significant difference in pulmonary edema incidence was observed between the different hydration strategies. score analysis showed that urine flow rate-guided hydration is advantageous in terms of both CI-AKI prevention and pulmonary edema incidence when compared with other approaches. Conclusions Currently available hydration strategies tailored on patients' volume status appear to offer an advantage over guideline-supported fixed-rate hydration for CI-AKI prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention. Current evidence suggests that urine flow rate-guided hydration as the most convenient strategy in terms of effectiveness and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.021342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403299PMC
July 2021

Trends and outcomes of utilization of thrombectomy during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Cardiology, Henry Ford, Detroit, MI, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: To describe the national trends and outcomes of contemporary thrombectomy use for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 2016 to 2018.

Methods: We queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) from January 2016 to December 2018 to identify patients who underwent primary PCI and thrombectomy. We conducted a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables associated with in-hospital mortality and stroke in patients undergoing primary PCI and those who underwent thrombectomy.

Results: We identified 409,910 total hospitalizations who underwent primary PCI. Thrombectomy was used in 62,446 records (15.2%) with no change in the trend over the study period (p trend = 0.52). Thrombectomy was more utilized in patients who had more cardiogenic shock and use of mechanical circulatory devices. The overall incidence of in-hospital mortality and stroke were 5.6% and 1.1%, respectively. The incidence of in-hospital mortality (6.7% vs. 5.4%, p < 0.001) and strokes (1.3% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.001) were higher in the thrombectomy group. On multivariable regression analysis adjusting for high-risk features, thrombectomy was not independently associated with in-hospital mortality [1.036, 95% CI (0.993-1.080), p = 0.100], but was associated with a higher risk of stroke [OR 1.186, 95% CI (1.097-1.283), p < 0.001].

Conclusion: During primary PCI, thrombectomy was used in 1 of 6 cases, and its use has been stable over 2016-2018. The use of thrombectomy was associated with a higher risk of stroke, but not in-hospital death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.05.021DOI Listing
May 2021

Three dimensional reconstruction of coronary artery stents from optical coherence tomography: experimental validation and clinical feasibility.

Sci Rep 2021 06 10;11(1):12252. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Cardiovascular Biology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Cardiovascular Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 982265 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

The structural morphology of coronary stents (e.g. stent expansion, lumen scaffolding, strut apposition, tissue protrusion, side branch jailing, strut fracture), and the local hemodynamic environment after stent deployment are key determinants of procedural success and subsequent clinical outcomes. High-resolution intracoronary imaging has the potential to enable the geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of coronary stents. The aim of this work was to present a novel algorithm for 3D stent reconstruction of coronary artery stents based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography, and test experimentally its accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility, and ability to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Our method has the following steps: 3D lumen reconstruction based on OCT and angiography, stent strut segmentation in OCT images, packaging, rotation and straightening of the segmented struts, planar unrolling of the segmented struts, planar stent wireframe reconstruction, rolling back of the planar stent wireframe to the 3D reconstructed lumen, and final stent volume reconstruction. We tested the accuracy and reproducibility of our method in stented patient-specific silicone models using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and stereoscopy as references. The clinical feasibility and CFD studies were performed in clinically stented coronary bifurcations. The experimental and clinical studies showed that our algorithm (1) can reproduce the complex spatial stent configuration with high precision and reproducibility, (2) is feasible in 3D reconstructing stents deployed in bifurcations, and (3) enables CFD studies to assess the local hemodynamic environment within the stent. Notably, the high accuracy of our algorithm was consistent across different stent designs and diameters. Our method coupled with patient-specific CFD studies can lay the ground for optimization of stenting procedures, patient-specific computational stenting simulations, and research and development of new stent scaffolds and stenting techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91458-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192920PMC
June 2021

In-Stent CTO Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Individual Patient Data Pooled Analysis of 4 Multicenter Registries.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jun 26;14(12):1308-1319. Epub 2021 May 26.

Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: The authors sought to examine the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for in-stent restenosis (ISR) chronic total occlusions (CTOs).

Background: The outcomes of PCI for ISR CTOs have received limited study.

Methods: The authors examined the clinical and angiographic characteristics and procedural outcomes of 11,961 CTO PCIs performed in 11,728 patients at 107 centers in Europe, North America, Latin America, and Asia between 2012 and 2020, pooling patient-level data from 4 multicenter registries. In-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) included death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and tamponade. Long-term MACE were defined as the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization.

Results: ISR represented 15% of the CTOs (n = 1,755). Patients with ISR CTOs had higher prevalence of diabetes (44% vs. 38%; p < 0.0001) and prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (27% vs. 24%; p = 0.03). Mean J-CTO (Multicenter CTO Registry in Japan) score was 2.32 ± 1.27 in the ISR group and 2.22 ± 1.27 in the de novo group (p = 0.01). Technical (85% vs. 85%; p = 0.75) and procedural (84% vs. 84%; p = 0.82) success was similar for ISR and de novo CTOs, as was the incidence of in-hospital MACE (1.7% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.25). Antegrade wiring was the most common successful strategy, in 70% of ISR and 60% of de novo CTOs, followed by retrograde crossing (16% vs. 23%) and antegrade dissection and re-entry (15% vs. 16%; p < 0.0001). At 12 months, patients with ISR CTOs had a higher incidence of MACE (hazard ratio: 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.70; p = 0.04).

Conclusions: ISR CTOs represent 15% of all CTO PCIs and can be recanalized with similar success and in-hospital MACE as de novo CTOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.04.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Complications and failure modes of covered coronary stents: Insights from the MAUDE database.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Minneapolis Heart Institute, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Data on the mechanisms of failure of covered coronary stents [Graftmaster, PK Papyrus] are limited.

Methods: We queried the "Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience" (MAUDE) database between August 2018 (when the PK Papyrus stent was FDA approved) and December 2020 for reports on covered coronary stents.

Results: We identified 299 reports in the MAUDE database (after excluding duplicates, peripheral vascular reports, and incomplete records) (Graftmaster n = 225, PK Papyrus n = 74). The most common mechanism of failure of covered stents was failure to deliver the stent (46.2%), followed by stent dislodgement (22.4%) and failure to seal the perforation (19.7%). Failure to deliver the stent was more often reported with Graftmaster compared with PK Papyrus (59.1% vs. 6.8%, p < 0.001). Stent dislodgement was more often reported with PK Papyrus compared with Graftmaster (75.7% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.001) and was managed by device retrieval or by crushing the stent.

Conclusions: The most common failure mechanisms of covered stents are failure of delivery, stent dislodgement, and failure to seal the perforation. Failure of delivery was more common with Graftmaster, while stent dislodgement was more common with PK Papyrus. Further improvements in covered stent design are needed to optimize deliverability and minimize the risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Laser for balloon uncrossable and undilatable chronic total occlusion interventions.

Int J Cardiol 2021 08 19;336:33-37. Epub 2021 May 19.

Minneapolis Heart Institute and Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: There is limited information on use of laser in complex percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). We examined the impact of laser on the outcomes of balloon uncrossable and balloon undilatable chronic total occlusion (CTO) PCI.

Methods: We reviewed baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics and procedural outcomes of 4845 CTO PCIs performed between 2012 and 2020 at 32 centers.

Results: Of the 4845 CTO lesions, 752 (15.5%) were balloon uncrossable (523 cases) or balloon undilatable (356 cases) and were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 66.9 ± 10 years and 83% were men. Laser was used in 20.3% of the lesions. Compared with cases in which laser was not used, laser was more commonly used in longer length occlusions (33 [21, 50] vs. 25 [15, 40] mm, p = 0.0004) and in-stent restenotic lesions (41% vs. 20%, p < 0.0001). Laser use was associated with higher technical (91.5% vs. 83.1%, p = 0.010) and procedural (88.9% vs. 81.6%, p = 0.033) success rates and similar incidence of major adverse cardiac events (3.92% vs. 3.51%, p = 0.805). Laser use was associated with longer procedural (169 [109, 231] vs. 130 [87, 199], p < 0.0001) and fluoroscopy time (64 [40, 94] vs. 50 [31, 81], p = 0.003).

Conclusions: In a contemporary, multicenter registry balloon uncrossable and balloon undilatable lesions represented 15.5% of all CTO PCIs. Laser was used in approximately one-fifth of these cases and was associated with high technical and procedural success and similar major complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.05.015DOI Listing
August 2021
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