Publications by authors named "Emma Walton"

31 Publications

Attitudes Surrounding Music of Patients With Anorexia Nervosa: A Survey-Based Mixed-Methods Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 2;12:639202. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the main eating disorders. It has the highest mortality of all psychiatric disorders, and the success rates of current therapies are not fully satisfactory. Thus, there is a need for novel interventions. We investigated the attitudes surrounding music of 41 patients with clinically-diagnosed AN as well as their thoughts on the potential therapeutic uses of music using a questionnaire of 50 questions. Free text responses were qualitatively analyzed for reoccurring themes with NVivo 12 software. Yes/no questions and questions of best fit were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 25. The most prevalent theme was the positive effect of music. Most patients reported that listening to music evokes varying emotions in them (83%) which may be of positive or negative nature. Similarly, patients associated certain music with particular positive, but also with particular negative memories. A majority of patients stated that music helps to distract them (85%), helps with loneliness (59%) and helps them feel more connected to others (58%). This data indicates that people with AN make nonclinical use of music which seems to elicit positive as well as negative emotions and memories. Patients felt music is beneficial with regard to important aspects of AN, such as emotional problems, loneliness, and relationship difficulties. Most of them would also like to attend music therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.639202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206484PMC
June 2021

Dengue in Taiwan: Pointing the finger at Aedes aegypti.

Biomed J 2018 10 12;41(5):279-282. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal we explore the history of dengue infection in Taiwan and what current trends have to say about the vector responsible for transmitting the disease on the island. We focus on original research reporting the development of a new perfusion bioreactor to engineer bone from human cord blood stem cells. Finally, we look at trends in osteoporosis in Taiwan and how they highlight the success of public health campaigns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2018.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306303PMC
October 2018

Tainted air: The link between pollution and Alzheimer's disease.

Biomed J 2018 06 25;41(3):137-140. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how air pollution may contribute to cognitive decline and even increase risk for Alzheimer's disease. We also highlight original research documenting the body's response to infection with a common oral pathogen. Finally, we learn how a cellular antioxidant protein protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2018.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138763PMC
June 2018

Saliva biomarkers in neurological disorders: A "spitting image" of brain health?

Biomed J 2018 04 21;41(2):59-62. Epub 2018 May 21.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how biomarkers in saliva may be able to provide insight into the health of the brain and the central nervous system. We also discover how computational modeling can help to identify potential epitopes for vaccine development against Chlamydia, the world's most common sexually transmitted infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2018.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138760PMC
April 2018

For better or worse: Immune system involvement in Alzheimer's Disease.

Authors:
Emma L Walton

Biomed J 2018 02 27;41(1):1-4. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the key role of the immune system in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We also learn more about the link between two disorders related to metabolic imbalances, with findings that could help to inform future screening programs. Finally, we would like to highlight some big news for our journal: the Biomedical Journal will be indexed in the Science Citation Index and receive its first official impact factor from this year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2018.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138778PMC
February 2018

Microbes are off the menu: Defective macrophage phagocytosis in COPD.

Biomed J 2017 12 1;40(6):301-304. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how defective macrophage phagocytosis may lead to the build up of microbes and pollutants in inflamed lungs. We also focus on new findings that may take us a step closer to full automation in diagnostic bacteriology laboratories. Finally, we highlight the anti-tumor properties of microalgae and the application of algorithms to predict human emotion from electrocardiogram.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2017.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138610PMC
December 2017

Oxidative stress and diabetes: Glucose response in the cROSsfire.

Biomed J 2017 Oct 16;40(5):241-244. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we discuss the emerging role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of insulin resistance and ultimately type 2 diabetes. We focus also on research investigating the outcome of in vitro fertilization after laproscopic surgery for ovarian endometriosis. Finally, we learn the results of a study on the hunt for new probiotic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2017.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138607PMC
October 2017

Antiviral Properties of Chemical Inhibitors of Cellular Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Proteins.

Viruses 2017 09 25;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 25.

University of Lille, CHU Lille laboratoire de Virologie, EA3610, F-59037 Lille, France.

Viral diseases remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. To combat the surge of viral diseases, new treatments are urgently needed. Here we show that small-molecules, which inhibit cellular anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins (Bcl-2i), induced the premature death of cells infected with different RNA or DNA viruses, whereas, at the same concentrations, no toxicity was observed in mock-infected cells. Moreover, these compounds limited viral replication and spread. Surprisingly, Bcl-2i also induced the premature apoptosis of cells transfected with viral RNA or plasmid DNA but not of mock-transfected cells. These results suggest that Bcl-2i sensitizes cells containing foreign RNA or DNA to apoptosis. A comparison of the toxicity, antiviral activity, and side effects of six Bcl-2i allowed us to select A-1155463 as an antiviral lead candidate. Thus, our results pave the way for the further development of Bcl-2i for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9100271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691623PMC
September 2017

Radiotherapy and the tumor microenvironment: The "macro" picture.

Biomed J 2017 Aug 22;40(4):185-188. Epub 2017 Jul 22.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the inner workings of tumor-associated macrophages and seek to understand how these cells can boost or limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, depending on the context. We also highlight a study revealing that staffing patterns in the intensive care unit may affect the outcome of patients with severe sepsis. Finally, we learn how an advanced imaging technique can improve endodontic treatment planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2017.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136286PMC
August 2017

Can cannibalizing cancer cells challenge classic cell death classification?

Biomed J 2017 Jun 20;40(3):129-132. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about a novel are still largely mysterious mechanism of cell death that is challenging classification systems of cell death pathways and could have important implications for future cancer therapy. We also learn of a promising biomarker to stratify patients into risk groups after stroke. Finally, this issue also includes two studies investigating factors that influence outcome after heart surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136293PMC
June 2017

Make immunological peace not war: Potential applications of tolerogenic dendritic cells.

Biomed J 2017 Apr 8;40(2):77-79. Epub 2017 May 8.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the powerful immunosuppressive properties of tolerogenic dendritic cells and discuss their potential to bring about lifelong tolerance in transplantation and autoimmune disease. We also highlight an exciting new development in the field of malaria diagnosis that could facilitate early detection of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2017.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138600PMC
April 2017

Food for thought: Autophagy researcher wins 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Biomed J 2017 Feb 31;40(1):1-4. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

This special edition of the Biomedical Journal honors the awarding of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his pioneering work on elucidating the mechanisms of autophagy. We also highlight a study reporting a new and simple animal model for a widespread surgical technique called interbody spinal fusion. Finally, this issue also includes two articles reporting protocols that could produce specific cell types for cell based therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2017.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138588PMC
February 2017

Pralidoxime and pesticide poisoning: A question of severity?

Biomed J 2016 Dec;39(6):373-375

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight new data supporting the use of pralidoxime in the treatment of cases of organophosphate poisoning, which also suggest that WHO treatment guidelines should be updated. We also learn about a modified surgical technique to repair severe spinal injuries, as well as new insight into the structure of human adenovirus that could inform vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138517PMC
December 2016

The inflammasome: Friend or foe in Chlamydia infection?

Biomed J 2016 Oct 14;39(5):299-303. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we take a look at the still somewhat perplexing role of the inflammasome in Chlamydia infection. We also highlight findings suggesting a link between structural changes to arteries in the brain and the onset of depression. Finally, we learn about some of the implications of co-morbidity between diabetes and infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138501PMC
October 2016

Perturbing purinergic signaling: A pathogen's guidebook to counteracting inflammatory responses.

Authors:
Emma L Walton

Biomed J 2016 Aug 7;39(4):229-233. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how bacteria and parasites alike counteract inflammatory signaling by manipulating purinergic signaling. We also focus on an original article shedding light on the role of an Epstein-Barr virus encoded gene in metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Finally, we learn about a possible link between Trichomonas vaginalis and recurrent urinary tract infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2016.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138819PMC
August 2016

On the road to epigenetic therapy.

Authors:
Emma L Walton

Biomed J 2016 Jun 31;39(3):161-5. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we examine how far the explosion of epigenetic studies in recent years has translated to benefits for patients in the clinic, and we highlight an original study suggesting that increased vegetable intake protects against osteoporotic fractures. We also hear several opinions on the use, or perhaps misuse, of Impact Factor and what the future should hold for this publication metric.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138812PMC
June 2016

The dual role of ROS, antioxidants and autophagy in cancer.

Biomed J 2016 Apr 8;39(2):89-92. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight a review revealing that the effect of autophagy, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidants in cancer may be a question of timing and context. We also discuss original research showing that the prevalence of cleft lip with or without palate in Taiwan has declined over the past 20 years, and what this might mean in terms of trends in abortion. Finally, we also learn about risk factors for recurrent hospital-acquired infection with multi-drug resistant bacteria, and the value of dental screening for patients with tinnitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2016.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6140315PMC
April 2016

Helicobacter pylori's road to colonization.

Biomed J 2016 Feb 6;39(1):1-4. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal we learn about the virulence factors that have made Helicobacter pylori such a successful pathogen. We also highlight some in vitro findings that may shed light on epithelial-mesenchymal transition that occurs during renal fibrosis. This issue also includes the findings of clinical trials testing the effectiveness of drugs to limit nausea in chemotherapy patients and the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2016.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6140135PMC
February 2016

The two faces of invariant natural killer T cells.

Authors:
Emma L Walton

Biomed J 2015 Dec 9;38(6):465-8. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we take a look at some of the immune system's most peculiar cells, invariant natural killer T cells, which have features of both innate and adaptive cells. We also highlight a clinical study revealing that high serum phosphate levels could show that it's time to start dialysis in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Finally, this issue also includes some case reports, including an unusual case of aspergillosis related to long-term inhaler use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2016.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138262PMC
December 2015

Positive perspectives from proton therapy.

Biomed J 2015 Sep-Oct;38(5):361-4

Staff Writer at the Biomedical Journal, 56 Dronningens Gate, 7012 Trondheim, Norway.

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we take a look at some of the benefits of proton therapy, which is an emerging technique in cancer treatment and highlight an animal study, showing that a common fruit ripening agent is toxic when used in excessive doses. Finally, this issue includes reports that shed light on the genetics of stroke and childhood leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2319-4170.167058DOI Listing
December 2016

From mishap to model: The origins and utility of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Authors:
Emma L Walton

Biomed J 2015 May-Jun;38(3):177-80

This special edition of the Biomedical Journal focuses on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and includes three reviews showing how this model has greatly facilitated our understanding of the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. We also highlight a small single center study which suggests that the use of calcium bone substitutes during core decompression surgery may do more harm than good. Finally, we see how policy changes affect the management of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients and we learn about antibiotic resistance among strains of Streptococcus agalactiae circulating in Taiwan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2319-4170.158498DOI Listing
December 2016

The surprising activities of APOBEC3B and 5-fluorouracil.

Authors:
Emma L Walton

Biomed J 2015 Mar-Apr;38(2):97-100

In this mini-special issue on cancer, we learn how DNA editing enzymes can accelerate the development of cancer and we discover some remarkable effects of the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil, on the immune system. We also discuss a study revealing the continuing problem of vitamin B deficiencies in children in developing countries, and we determine how to distinguish two near-identical forms of necrotizing fasciitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2319-4170.154913DOI Listing
December 2016

Buried treasure: Unlocking the secrets of medicinal mushrooms.

Authors:
Emma L Walton

Biomed J 2014 Nov-Dec;37(6):339-42

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we investigate the potential of plants and fungi as a source of beneficial molecules for human health. We explore the weird and wonderful world of the mushroom and examine how Western medicine still has a lot to learn from Eastern practices dating back thousands of years. We also discuss a study further supporting claims that flaxseed, the plant kingdom's richest source of omega-3 fatty acids, can have lipid-lowering and fat-busting properties in the right physiological context. Finally, this issue also includes several validation studies of medical procedures or devices that define optimal conditions for their use in Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2319-4170.146538DOI Listing
October 2015

On-chip cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a white light-emitting diode and polymer mirrors.

Lab Chip 2015 Feb;15(3):711-7

School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.

We have developed a disposable microfluidic chip with integrated cavity mirrors comprised of two pieces of 3M Vikuiti™ enhanced specular reflector II (ESRII) film, for performing cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a white light-emitting diode (LED). Compared to measurements made with a chip without cavity mirrors, the absorption path length is enhanced by a maximum factor of 28 at 544 nm, and the sensitivity is enhanced by approximately 5 times, enabling micromolar range detection limits to be achieved in an optical path length of only 50 μm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4lc01264jDOI Listing
February 2015

Dnmt3b Prefers Germ Line Genes and Centromeric Regions: Lessons from the ICF Syndrome and Cancer and Implications for Diseases.

Biology (Basel) 2014 Sep 5;3(3):578-605. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

CNRS UMR7216, Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Université Paris Diderot, Bâtiment Lamarck, 4ème étage Case Courrier 7042, 35 rue Hélène Brion, 75205 Paris, France.

The correct establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation patterns are critical for mammalian development and the control of normal cell growth and differentiation. DNA methylation has profound effects on the mammalian genome, including transcriptional repression, modulation of chromatin structure, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, and the suppression of the detrimental effects of repetitive and parasitic DNA sequences on genome integrity. Consistent with its essential role in normal cells and predominance at repetitive genomic regions, aberrant changes of DNA methylation patterns are a common feature of diseases with chromosomal and genomic instabilities. In this context, the functions of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can be affected by mutations or alterations of their expression. DNMT3B, which is involved in de novo methylation, is of particular interest not only because of its important role in development, but also because of its dysfunction in human diseases. Expression of catalytically inactive isoforms has been associated with cancer risk and germ line hypomorphic mutations with the ICF syndrome (Immunodeficiency Centromeric instability Facial anomalies). In these diseases, global genomic hypomethylation affects repeated sequences around centromeric regions, which make up large blocks of heterochromatin, and is associated with chromosome instability, impaired chromosome segregation and perturbed nuclear architecture. The review will focus on recent data about the function of DNMT3B, and the consequences of its deregulated activity on pathological DNA hypomethylation, including the illicit activation of germ line-specific genes and accumulation of transcripts originating from repeated satellite sequences, which may represent novel physiopathological biomarkers for human diseases. Notably, we focus on cancer and the ICF syndrome, pathological contexts in which hypomethylation has been extensively characterized. We also discuss the potential contribution of these deregulated protein-coding and non-coding transcription programs to the perturbation of cellular phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology3030578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192629PMC
September 2014

Germline genes hypomethylation and expression define a molecular signature in peripheral blood of ICF patients: implications for diagnosis and etiology.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Apr 17;9:56. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Université Paris Diderot-Paris7, CNRS UMR7216, Epigénétique et Destin Cellulaire, Case Courrier 7042; 35, rue Hélène Brion, 75205 Paris, France.

Background: Immunodeficiency Centromeric Instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by reduction in serum immunoglobulins with severe recurrent infections, facial dysmorphism, and more variable symptoms including mental retardation. ICF is directly related to a genomic methylation defect that mainly affects juxtacentromeric heterochromatin regions of certain chromosomes, leading to chromosomal rearrangements that constitute a hallmark of this syndrome upon cytogenetic testing. Mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, the protein ZBTB24 of unknown function, or loci that remain to be identified, lie at its origin. Despite unifying features, common or distinguishing molecular signatures are still missing for this disease.

Method: We used the molecular signature that we identified in a mouse model for ICF1 to establish transcriptional biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis and understanding of etiology of the disease. We assayed the expression and methylation status of a set of genes whose expression is normally restricted to germ cells, directly in whole blood samples and epithelial cells of ICF patients.

Results: We report that DNA hypomethylation and expression of MAEL and SYCE1 represent robust biomarkers, easily testable directly from uncultured cells to diagnose the most prevalent sub-type of the syndrome. In addition, we identified the first unifying molecular signatures for ICF patients. Of importance, we validated the use of our biomarkers to diagnose a baby born to a family with a sick child. Finally, our analysis revealed unsuspected complex molecular signatures in two ICF patients suggestive of a novel genetic etiology for the disease.

Conclusions: Early diagnosis of ICF syndrome is crucial since early immunoglobulin supplementation can improve the course of disease. However, ICF is probably underdiagnosed, especially in patients that present with incomplete phenotype or born to families with no affected relatives. The specific and robust biomarkers identified in this study could be introduced into routine clinical immunology or neurology departments to facilitate testing of patients with suspected ICF syndrome. In addition, as exemplified by two patients with a combination of molecular defects never described before, our data support the search for new types of mutations at the origin of ICF syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-9-56DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4022050PMC
April 2014

Mycobacteria, meet your messenger.

Microbes Infect 2014 Apr 21;16(4):269-72. Epub 2014 Mar 21.

24 rue ampère, Malakoff 92240, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2014.03.004DOI Listing
April 2014

What doesn't kill flu, only makes flu stronger.

Microbes Infect 2014 Mar 12;16(3):175-7. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Alex Edelman & Associates 24 rue Ampère Malakoff 92240 France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2014.01.006DOI Listing
March 2014

The Leishmania chromosome lottery.

Microbes Infect 2014 Jan 26;16(1):2-5. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2013.11.008DOI Listing
January 2014

Maintenance of DNA methylation: Dnmt3b joins the dance.

Epigenetics 2011 Nov 1;6(11):1373-7. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

DNA methylation mostly occurs within the context of CpG dinucleotides and is essential for embryonic development and gene repression. It is generally accepted that DNA methyltransferases carry out specific and non-overlapping functions, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b being responsible for the establishment of methylation around the time of implantation and Dnmt1 ensuring that methylation is faithfully copied to daughter cells via what has come to be known as "maintenance methylation." This longstanding view has been challenged over the years with the observation that Dnmt1 alone is incapable of perfect maintenance methylation. A new model is emerging that takes into account a contribution of the de novo enzymes Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in the maintenance of the DNA methylation. We recently showed that certain germ line genes are specific targets of Dnmt3b, and that Dnmt3b remains bound to their promoter regions in somatic cells via interaction with the transcriptional repressor E2F6. It is tempting to consider an ongoing role for Dnmt3b in the methylation of germ line genes in somatic cells. We propose here observations in support of the hypothesis that the maintenance of methylation and subsequent silencing of a handful of germ line genes requires Dnmt3b but not Dnmt1. In addition to suggesting a new role for Dnmt3b in the protection of somatic cells against the promiscuous expression of the germ line program, these observations are of particular interest in the field of carcinogenesis, given that the expression of catalytically inactive Dnmt3b isoforms and aberrant expression of germ line genes are commonly observed in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/epi.6.11.17978DOI Listing
November 2011
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