Publications by authors named "Emma Sola"

11 Publications

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Dysregulation of prostaglandine E2 and BDNF signaling mediated by estrogenic dysfunction induces primary hippocampal neuronal cell death after single and repeated paraquat treatment.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Oct 30;144:111611. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Paraquat (PQ) produces hippocampal neuronal cell death and cognitive dysfunctions after unique and continued exposure, but the mechanisms are not understood. Primary hippocampal wildtype or βAPP-Tau silenced cells were co-treated with PQ with or without E2, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), NS-398 (cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor), MF63 (PGES-1 inhibitor) and/or recombinant brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during one- and fourteen-days to studied PQ effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and BDNF signaling and their involvement in hyperphosphorylated Tau (pTau) and amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein formation, and oxidative stress generation, that lead to neuronal cell loss through estrogenic disruption, as a possible mechanism of cognitive dysfunctions produced by PQ. Our results indicate that PQ overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2 that leads to an increase of PGE2 and alters the expression of EP1-3 receptor subtypes. PQ induced also a decrease of proBDNF and mature BDNF levels and altered P75 and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) expression. PQ induced PGE2 and BDNF signaling dysfunction, mediated through estrogenic disruption, leading to Aβ and pTau proteins synthesis, oxidative stress generation and finally to cell death. Our research provides relevant information to explain PQ hippocampal neurotoxic effects, indicating a probable explanation of the cognitive dysfunction observed and suggests new therapeutic strategies to protect against PQ toxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111611DOI Listing
October 2020

Manganese increases Aβ and Tau protein levels through proteasome 20S and heat shock proteins 90 and 70 alteration, leading to SN56 cholinergic cell death following single and repeated treatment.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Oct 14;203:110975. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Manganese (Mn) produces cholinergic neuronal loss in basal forebrain (BF) region that was related to cognitive dysfunction induced after single and repeated Mn treatment. All processes that generate cholinergic neuronal loss in BF remain to be understood. Mn exposure may produce the reduction of BF cholinergic neurons by increasing amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) protein levels, altering heat shock proteins' (HSPs) expression, disrupting proteasome P20S activity and generating oxidative stress. These mechanisms, described to be altered by Mn in regions different than BF, could lead to the memory and learning process alteration produced after Mn exposure. The research performed shows that single and repeated Mn treatment of SN56 cholinergic neurons from BF induces P20S inhibition, increases Aβ and pTau protein levels, produces HSP90 and HSP70 proteins expression alteration, and oxidative stress generation, being the last two effects mediated by NRF2 pathway alteration. The increment of Aβ and pTau protein levels was mediated by HSPs and proteasome dysfunction. All these mechanisms mediated the cell decline observed after Mn treatment. Our results are relevant because they may assist to reveal the processes leading to the neurotoxicity and cognitive alterations observed after Mn exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110975DOI Listing
October 2020

Parkinsonism and spastic paraplegia type 7: Expanding the spectrum of mitochondrial Parkinsonism.

Mov Disord 2019 10 21;34(10):1547-1561. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Donostia, San Sebastian, Spain.

Background: Pathogenic variants in the spastic paraplegia type 7 gene cause a complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia phenotype associated with classical features of mitochondrial diseases, including ataxia, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, and deletions of mitochondrial DNA.

Objectives: To better characterize spastic paraplegia type 7 disease with a clinical, genetic, and functional analysis of a Spanish cohort of spastic paraplegia type 7 patients.

Methods: Genetic analysis was performed in patients suspecting hereditary spastic paraplegia and in 1 patient with parkinsonism and Pisa syndrome, through next-generation sequencing, whole-exome sequencing, targeted Sanger sequencing, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis, and blood mitochondrial DNA levels determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Thirty-five patients were found to carry homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the spastic paraplegia type 7 gene. Mean age at onset was 40 years (range, 12-63); 63% of spastic paraplegia type 7 patients were male, and three-quarters of all patients had at least one allele with the c.1529C>T (p.Ala510Val) mutation. Eighty percent of the cohort showed a complicated phenotype, combining ataxia and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (65% and 26%, respectively). Parkinsonism was observed in 21% of cases. Analysis of blood mitochondrial DNA indicated that both patients and carriers of spastic paraplegia type 7 pathogenic variants had markedly lower levels of mitochondrial DNA than control subjects (228 per haploid nuclear DNA vs. 176 vs. 573, respectively; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Parkinsonism is a frequent finding in spastic paraplegia type 7 patients. Spastic paraplegia type 7 pathogenic variants impair mitochondrial DNA homeostasis irrespective of the number of mutant alleles, type of variant, and patient or carrier status. Thus, spastic paraplegia type 7 supports mitochondrial DNA maintenance, and variants in the gene may cause parkinsonism owing to mitochondrial DNA abnormalities. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA blood analysis could be a useful biomarker to detect at risk families. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27812DOI Listing
October 2019

Manganese induced ROS and AChE variants alteration leads to SN56 basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss after acute and long-term treatment.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Mar 7;125:583-594. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Manganese (Mn) induces cognitive disorders and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neuronal loss, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. However, the mechanisms through which it induces these effects are unknown. We hypothesized that Mn could induce BF cholinergic neuronal loss through oxidative stress generation, cholinergic transmission and AChE variants alteration that could explain Mn cognitive disorders. This study shows that Mn impaired cholinergic transmission in SN56 cholinergic neurons from BF through alteration of AChE and ChAT activity and CHT expression. Moreover, Mn induces, after acute and long-term exposure, AChE variants alteration and oxidative stress generation that leaded to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Finally, Mn induces cell death on SN56 cholinergic neurons and this effect is independent of cholinergic transmission alteration, but was mediated partially by oxidative stress generation and AChE variants alteration. Our results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of Mn on cholinergic neurons and their possible involvement in cognitive disorders induced by Mn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.02.012DOI Listing
March 2019

Comprehensive Characterization of a Porcine Model of The "Small-for-Flow" Syndrome.

J Gastrointest Surg 2019 11 7;23(11):2174-2183. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Transplant and Hepatobiliopancreatic Surgery Unit, Department of General and Digestive Surgery, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón - IiSGM, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: The term "Small-for-Flow" reflects the pathogenetic relevance of hepatic hemodynamics for the "Small-For-Size" syndrome and posthepatectomy liver failure. We aimed to characterize a large-animal model for studying the "Small-for-Flow" syndrome.

Methods: We performed subtotal (90%) hepatectomies in 10 female MiniPigs using a simplified transection technique with a tourniquet. Blood tests, hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, and hepatic function and histology were assessed before (Bas), 15 min (t-15 min) and 24 h (t-24 h) after the operation. Some pigs underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for hepatic volumetry (n = 4) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring (n = 3). Postoperative care was performed in an intensive care unit environment.

Results: All hepatectomies were successfully performed, and hepatic volumetry confirmed liver remnant volumes of 9.2% [6.2-11.2]. The hepatectomy resulted in characteristic hepatic hemodynamic alterations, including portal hyperperfusion, relative decrease of hepatic arterial blood flow, and increased portal pressure (PP) and portal-systemic pressure gradient. The model reproduced major diagnostic features including the development of cholestasis, coagulopathy, encephalopathy with increased ICP, ascites, and renal failure, hyperdynamic circulation, and hyperlactatemia. Two animals (20%) died before t-24 h. Histological liver damage was observed at t-15 min and at t-24 h. The degree of histological damage at t-24 h correlated with intraoperative PP (r = 0.689, p = 0.028), hepatic arterial blood flow (r = 0.655, p = 0.040), and hepatic arterial pulsatility index (r = 0.724, p = 0.066). All animals with intraoperative PP > 20 mmHg presented liver damage at t-24 h.

Conclusion: The present 90% hepatectomy porcine experimental model is a feasible and reproducible model for investigating the "Small-for-Flow" syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04130-2DOI Listing
November 2019

Cadmium alters heat shock protein pathways in SN56 cholinergic neurons, leading to Aβ and phosphorylated Tau protein generation and cell death.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Nov 11;121:297-308. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Cadmium, a neurotoxic environmental compound, produces cognitive disorders, although the mechanism remains unknown. Cadmium induces a more pronounced cell death on cholinergic neurons from basal forebrain (BF), mediated, in part, by increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated Tau protein levels, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes. Cadmium downregulates the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP 90, HSP70 and HSP27, and of HSF1, the master regulator of the HSP pathway. HSPs proteins reduce the production of Aβ and phosphorylated Tau proteins and avoid cell death pathways induction. Thus, we hypothesized that cadmium induced the production of Aβ and Tau proteins by HSP pathway disruption through HSF1 expression alteration, leading to BF cholinergic neurons cell death. Our results show that cadmium downregulates HSF1, leading to HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27 gene expression downregulation in BF SN56 cholinergic neurons. In addition, cadmium induced Aβ and total and phosphorylated Tau proteins generation, mediated partially by HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27 disruption, leading to cell death. These results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to cadmium harmful effects on cholinergic neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.09.016DOI Listing
November 2018

SN56 neuronal cell death after 24 h and 14 days chlorpyrifos exposure through glutamate transmission dysfunction, increase of GSK-3β enzyme, β-amyloid and tau protein levels.

Toxicology 2018 06 14;402-403:17-27. Epub 2018 Apr 14.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide described to induce cognitive disorders, both after acute and repeated administration. However, the mechanisms through which it induces these effects are unknown. CPF has been reported to produce basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal cell death, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. Neuronal cell death was partially mediated by oxidative stress generation, P75 and α-nAChRs gene expression alteration triggered through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variants disruption, suggesting other mechanisms are involved. In this regard, CPF induces Aβ and tau proteins production and activation of GSK3β enzyme and alters glutamatergic transmission, which have been related with basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal cell death and development of cognitive disorders. According to these data, we hypothesized that CPF induces basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal cell death through induction of Aβ and tau proteins production, activation of GSK-3β enzyme and disruption of glutamatergic transmission. We evaluated this hypothesis in septal SN56 basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, after 24 h and 14 days CPF exposure. This study shows that CPF increases glutamate levels, upregulates GSK-3β gene expression, and increases the production of Aβ and phosphorylated tau proteins and all these effects reduced cell viability. CPF increases glutaminase activity and upregulates the VGLUT1 gene expression, which could mediate the disruption of glutamatergic transmission. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of CPF, and its possible relevance in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.04.003DOI Listing
June 2018

Cadmium induced ROS alters M1 and M3 receptors, leading to SN56 cholinergic neuronal loss, through AChE variants disruption.

Toxicology 2018 02 15;394:54-62. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Cadmium, an environmental neurotoxic compound, produces cognitive disorders, although the mechanism remains unknown. Previously, we described that cadmium induces a more pronounced cell death on cholinergic neurons from basal forebrain (BF). This effect, partially mediated by M1 receptor blockade, triggering it through AChE splices variants alteration, may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes. Cadmium has been also reported to induce oxidative stress generation leading to M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors alteration, in hippocampus and frontal cortex, which are necessary to maintain cell viability and cognitive regulation, so their alteration in BF could also mediate this effect. Moreover, it has been reported that antioxidant treatment could reverse cognitive disorders, muscarinic receptor and AChE variants alterations induced by cadmium. Thus, we hypothesized that cadmium induced cell death of BF cholinergic neurons is mediated by oxidative stress generation and this mechanism could produce this effect, in part, through AChE variants altered by muscarinic receptors disruption. To prove this, we evaluated in BF SN56 cholinergic neurons, whether cadmium induces oxidative stress and alters muscarinic receptors, and their involvement in the induction of cell death through alteration of AChE variants. Our results show that cadmium induces oxidative stress, which mediates partially the alteration of AChE variants and M2 to M4 muscarinic receptors expression and blockage of M1 receptor. In addition, cadmium induced oxidative stress generation by M1 and M3 receptors alteration through AChE variants disruption, leading to cell death. These results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to cadmium harmful effects on cholinergic neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2017.12.006DOI Listing
February 2018

Primary hippocampal neuronal cell death induction after acute and repeated paraquat exposures mediated by AChE variants alteration and cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission disruption.

Toxicology 2017 09 12;390:88-99. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used non-selective contact herbicide shown to produce memory and learning deficits after acute and repeated exposure similar to those induced in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the complete mechanisms through which it induces these effects are unknown. On the other hand, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, mainly in the hippocampus, are involved on learning, memory and cell viability regulation. An alteration of hippocampal cholinergic or glutamatergic transmissions or neuronal cell loss may induce these effects. In this regard, it has been suggested that PQ may induce cell death and affect cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission, which alteration could produce neuronal loss. According to these data, we hypothesized that PQ could induce hippocampal neuronal loss through cholinergic and glutamatergic transmissions alteration. To prove this hypothesis, we evaluated in hippocampal primary cell culture, the PQ toxic effects after 24h and 14 consecutive days exposure on neuronal viability and the cholinergic and glutamatergic mechanisms related to it. This study shows that PQ impaired acetylcholine levels and induced AChE inhibition and increased CHT expression only after 14days exposure, which suggests that acetylcholine levels alteration could be mediated by these actions. PQ also disrupted glutamate levels through induction of glutaminase activity. In addition, PQ induced, after 24h and 14days exposure, cell death on hippocampal neurons that was partially mediated by AChE variants alteration and cholinergic and gultamatergic transmissions disruption. Our present results provide new view of the mechanisms contributing to PQ neurotoxicity and may explain cognitive dysfunctions observed after PQ exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2017.09.008DOI Listing
September 2017

Preconditioning by portal vein embolization modulates hepatic hemodynamics and improves liver function in pigs with extended hepatectomy.

Surgery 2017 06 20;161(6):1489-1501. Epub 2017 Jan 20.

Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Portal vein embolization is performed weeks before extended hepatic resections to increase the future liver remnant and prevent posthepatectomy liver failure. Portal vein embolization performed closer to the operation also could be protective, but worsening of portal hyper-perfusion is a major concern. We determined the hepatic hemodynamic effects of a portal vein embolization performed 24 hours prior to hepatic operation.

Methods: An extended (90%) hepatectomy was performed in swine undergoing (portal vein embolization) or not undergoing (control) a portal vein embolization 24 hours earlier (n = 10/group). Blood tests, hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, hepatic function (plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green), liver histology, and volumetry (computed tomographic scanning) were assessed before and after the hepatectomy. Hepatocyte proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and hepatic gene expression also were evaluated.

Results: Swine in the control and portal vein embolization groups maintained stable systemic hemodynamics and developed similar increases of portal blood flow (302 ± 72% vs 486 ± 92%, P = .13). Portal pressure drastically increased in Controls (from 9.4 ± 1.3 mm Hg to 20.9 ± 1.4 mm Hg, P < .001), while being markedly attenuated in the portal vein embolization group (from 11.4 ± 1.5 mm Hg to 16.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg, P = .061). The procedure also improved the preservation of the hepatic artery blood flow, liver function, and periportal edema. These effects occurred in the absence of hepatocyte proliferation or hepatic growth and were associated with the induction of the vasoprotective gene Klf2.

Conclusion: Portal vein embolization preconditioning represents a potential hepato-protective strategy for extended hepatic resections. Further preclinical studies should assess its medium-term effects, including survival. Our study also supports the relevance of hepatic hemodynamics as the main pathogenetic factor of post-hepatectomy liver failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.12.003DOI Listing
June 2017