Publications by authors named "Emily Lorang"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Maternal Use of Decontextualized and Contextualized Talk: An In-Depth Investigation of Early Parent-Child Interactions in Down Syndrome.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 07 21;30(4):1767-1780. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Purpose The goal of this study was to characterize and quantify maternal use of decontextualized and contextualized input during mother-child interactions including young children with Down syndrome (DS). Method Participants included 22 mother-child dyads with DS ( = 42.8 months) and 22 mother-child dyads with typical development ( = 44.0 months). Parent-child language samples were collected during free-play, book reading, and snack time, and coded for maternal decontextualized (i.e., pretend, explanatory, and narrative talk) and contextualized input (i.e., descriptions, conversation, praise, questions, and directives). Results Mothers of children with DS used a larger proportion of pretend talk compared to other types of decontextualized input and also used a larger proportion of questions, conversation, and descriptions compared to other types of contextualized language. Mothers of children with DS generally used a smaller proportion of decontextualized input compared to mothers of children with typical development, with the exception of pretend talk. Maternal decontextualized input was not related to children's age or language ability in DS. Conclusions Findings shed new light on the early language environments of children with DS, providing important insight into the ways that mothers of children with DS are incorporating decontextualized and contextualized talk into early mother-child conversations. Additional implications and future directions are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2021_AJSLP-20-00190DOI Listing
July 2021

Verbal Ability, Behavior Problems, and Mother-Child Relationship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, USA.

This study examined differences in mother-child relationship quality and parent-rated child behavior problems based on child verbal status (i.e., minimally verbal versus verbal) in mothers and their adolescent and adult children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 219 dyads; child M = 25.38 years, SD = 10.22). Relationship quality was assessed via parent-reported maternal burden and mother-child closeness, and coded speech samples ascertaining maternal critical and positive remarks regarding the child. Groups did not differ in relationship quality. The verbal group was more likely to display disruptive and socially inappropriate behaviors, but otherwise the groups did not differ in behavior problems. Verbal status moderated the relationship between behavior problems and negative (maternal burden, critical remarks) but not positive (mother-child closeness, positive remarks) aspects of relationship quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05133-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Parent Command Use and Child Compliance During Parent-Child Interactions Including Children With Down Syndrome.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 05 12;30(3):1203-1209. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Purpose This study investigated maternal and paternal command use and child compliance in children with Down syndrome during mother-child and father-child free-play interactions. We also examined child compliance to direct versus indirect commands, and the relationships between maternal command use, paternal command use, child compliance, and child speech and language abilities. Method Fifteen families including a mother, father, and child with Down syndrome participated. Mother-child and father-child dyads participated in free-play interactions. We coded overall parent command use, command type (direct or indirect), and child compliance with the commands. Child language abilities were measured using a standardized assessment as well as during free-play. Results Mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome used a similar number of commands, and children complied similarly across interactions. Children were more likely to comply with direct versus indirect commands. Parent command use was related to child language abilities in different ways for mothers and fathers. Child compliance was not related to receptive or expressive language abilities. Conclusions Mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome use commands in similar ways but may base their command use on different child factors. Using direct commands with children with Down syndrome may be beneficial when increasing compliance during early interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2021_AJSLP-20-00251DOI Listing
May 2021

Brief Report: Linguistic Mazes and Perseverations in School-Age Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Relationships with Maternal Maze Use.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS) are neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping pragmatic language impairments. Prior work suggests pragmatic language differences may run in families. This study examined specific pragmatic difficulties (i.e., linguistic mazes and perseverations) in boys (9-18 years) with idiopathic ASD (n = 26) and FXS+ASD (n = 29), and relationships with maternal maze use. Language samples were obtained separately for boys and mothers. Nonparametric analyses suggested that boys largely did not differ in their rates of mazes, but that boys with FXS+ASD exhibited more perseverations. Mazes were correlated between fragile X dyads. Maternal mazes were correlated with child perseverations among idiopathic ASD dyads. These findings have implications for the etiological significance of ASD-related language phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-04981-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Mother-father physiological synchrony during conflict and moderation by parenting challenges: Findings from parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

Fam Syst Health 2020 12 27;38(4):476-481. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Introduction: Despite robust evidence in the broader family process literature for within-couple associations between romantic partners' physiological responding, this linkage has not been tested directly among parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Explicit attention to these parents is warranted on the basis of the established family-wide challenges associated with the persistent emotional, functional, and behavior impairments typically observed in children with ASD (see Karst & Van Hecke, 2012). The first purpose of this study is to extend examination of within-couple associations between electrodermal activity (EDA) to mothers and fathers of children with ASD. The second purpose is to test 2 potential moderators of EDA synchrony reflecting heightened challenges among parents of children with ASD, namely parenting as an observed conflict topic and global parenting stress.

Method: Both parents wore wrist sensors that captured continuous EDA during a recorded marital conflict interaction. Trained coders provided ratings of emotional intensity and conflict topics, including whether the topic of parenting was discussed. Parents reported their global level of parenting stress. Dyadic multilevel modeling was used to test our hypotheses and accounted for interaction factors (e.g., movement data, emotional intensity).

Results: Findings identified significant positive associations between parents' EDA. One moderator result emerged; specifically, father EDA was a stronger predictor of mother EDA when parenting was discussed as a conflict topic.

Conclusion: This study extends evidence of within-couple physiological linkage to parents raising a child with ASD and provides a foundation for future research examining the family-wide implications of this linkage. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887004PMC
December 2020

Maternal Input and Child Language Comprehension During Book Reading in Children With Down Syndrome.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 08 28;29(3):1475-1488. Epub 2020 May 28.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Purpose Communication interactions between parents and children during shared book reading impact a child's development of both language and literacy skills. This study examined maternal language input and child expressive communication during a shared book reading activity in children with Down syndrome (DS) and children with typical development (TD). Additionally, children's receptive language was examined to understand the relationship between maternal language input and child receptive language ability. Method Participants included 22 children with DS and 22 children with TD between 22 and 63 months of age and their mothers. Each mother-child dyad participated in a 7-min naturalistic shared book reading activity. Results Compared to mothers of children with TD, mothers of children with DS used significantly more utterances with less grammatical complexity, but a similar range of vocabulary diversity. Mothers of children with DS used more questions, descriptions, gestures, and labels, whereas mothers of children with TD used nearly half of their utterances to read directly from books. Children with DS communicated at a similar frequency compared to their peers with TD; however, they produced significantly fewer spoken words. Conclusions This study reveals important differences between early shared book reading interactions and provides implications for future research targeting parent-coached intervention strategies that may enhance children's learning during shared book reading by providing access to expressive language and print instruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-19-00156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893527PMC
August 2020

"Are We Done Yet?" Question-Asking in Boys With Fragile X Syndrome and Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 06 18;63(6):1822-1834. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Purpose Question-asking serves as a tool to learn new information and is important in both academic and social settings. Boys with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and comorbid ASD (FXS + ASD) have similar social communication deficits, which may have downstream effects on their question-asking ability. This study examined question-asking in school-age boys with idiopathic ASD and FXS + ASD, including the role of ASD severity, expressive grammatical complexity (measured by mean length of utterance [MLU]), and IQ. Method Twenty-five boys with FXS + ASD and 21 boys with idiopathic ASD (ages 9-16 years) were included in this study. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessments were transcribed and coded for the frequency, function, and appropriateness of spontaneous questions asked. We examined group differences in these aspects of question-asking and relationships between question-asking and ASD severity, MLU, and IQ within each group. Results Boys with FXS + ASD asked more questions than boys with idiopathic ASD, although boys with idiopathic ASD asked a higher proportion of appropriate questions. Boys with idiopathic ASD also asked the examiner more personal questions than the boys with FXS + ASD. ASD severity and MLU were related to the proportion of clarification questions in FXS + ASD, and ASD severity was also related to the proportion of personal questions in this group. For the boys with idiopathic ASD, ASD severity was related to the total number of questions asked. Conclusions Our findings highlight similarities and differences between boys with FXS + ASD and idiopathic ASD in their spontaneous question production and indicate that ASD severity and grammatical language are differentially important for question-asking. This study has implications for targeted treatment in question-asking skills for boys with FXS + ASD and ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839035PMC
June 2020

An investigation into maternal use of telegraphic input to children with Down syndrome.

J Child Lang 2020 01 7;47(1):225-249. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin - Madison, USA.

Maternal input influences language development in children with Down syndrome (DS) and typical development (TD). Telegraphic input, or simplified input violating English grammatical rules, is controversial in speech-language pathology, yet no research to date has investigated whether mothers of children with DS use telegraphic input. This study investigated the quality of linguistic input to children with DS compared to age-matched children with TD, and the relationship between maternal input and child language abilities. Mothers of children with DS simplified their input in multiple ways, by using a lower lexical diversity, shorter utterances, and more telegraphic input compared to mothers of children with TD. Telegraphic input was not significantly correlated with other aspects of maternal input or child language abilities. Since children with DS demonstrate specific deficits in grammatical compared to lexical abilities, future work should investigate the long-term influence of maternal telegraphic input on language development in children with DS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305000919000503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928434PMC
January 2020

The use of demonstratives and personal pronouns in fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

Clin Linguist Phon 2019 22;33(5):420-436. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

a Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders , University of Wisconsin at Madison , Madison , Wisconsin , USA.

Demonstratives (e.g. here, that, these) and personal pronouns are early developing components of language, which are often impaired in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, demonstrative and personal pronoun use are linked to joint attention and language ability early in life for individuals with ASD. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder with a significant amount of overlap in its behavioural phenotype with ASD. The present study examined demonstrative and personal pronoun production during a conversation sample in adolescent boys with ASD and adolescent boys with FXS with a co-diagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD). Findings indicated that grammatical complexity was related to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of demonstrative and personal pronoun production in boys with ASD, while grammatical complexity was related to the total number of demonstratives and personal pronouns produced in the boys with FXS+ASD. ASD severity was not related to demonstrative or personal pronoun production in ASD, although it was negatively correlated with the total number of personal pronouns produced by the boys with FXS. Additionally, groups did not differ significantly in production of personal pronouns, but they did differ significantly in multiple aspects of demonstrative use. Findings suggest that these groups produce similar rates of personal pronouns in the school-age years, while production of demonstratives differentiates these groups. This study contributes to the knowledge of the language phenotypes of idiopathic ASD and FXS+ASD, and provides implications for intervention targets for school-age children with these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2018.1536727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481616PMC
July 2020

Maternal Responsiveness to Gestures in Children With Down Syndrome.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2018 08;27(3):1018-1029

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Purpose: This study compared gesture use in young children with Down syndrome (DS) and typical development (TD) as well as how mothers respond to child gestures based on child age and diagnosis.

Method: Twenty-two mother-child dyads with DS and 22 mother-child dyads with TD participated. The child participants were between 22 and 63 months and were matched on chronological age. We coded child gesture use and whether mothers recoded child gestures (i.e., provided a verbal translation) during naturalistic interactions.

Results: The children with DS used more gestures than peers with TD. After controlling for expressive language ability, the two groups were not significantly different on child gesture use. Regardless of child diagnosis, mothers recoded approximately the same percentage of child gestures. There was a significant interaction between child diagnosis and child age when predicting the percentage of maternal gesture recodes; mothers of children with DS did not demonstrate differences in the percentage of maternal gesture recodes based on child age, but there was a negative relationship between the percentage of maternal gesture recodes and child age for the children with TD.

Conclusions: Young children with DS gesture more than chronological age-matched children with TD, therefore providing numerous opportunities for caregivers to recode child gestures and support language development. Early intervention should focus on increasing parent responsiveness to child gestures earlier in life in order to provide additional word-learning opportunities for children with DS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195023PMC
August 2018

The impact of autism spectrum disorder symptoms on gesture use in fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome.

Autism Dev Lang Impair 2017 Jan-Dec;2. Epub 2017 Dec 25.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin - Madison.

Background & Aims: This study compared gesture rate and purpose in participants with Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), and the impact of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms on each syndrome.

Methods: Twenty individuals with fragile X syndrome and 20 individuals with Down syndrome between nine and 22 years of age participated in this study. We coded gesture rate and purpose from an autism spectrum disorder evaluation, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule - Second Edition.

Results: We did not find between-group differences (Down syndrome compared to fragile X syndrome) in gesture rate or purpose. Notably, as autism spectrum disorder symptoms increased, the group with Down syndrome produced a lower rate of gestures, but used gestures for the same purpose. Gesture rate did not change based on autism spectrum disorder symptoms in the participants with fragile X syndrome, but as autism spectrum disorder symptoms increased, the participants with fragile X syndrome produced a larger proportion of gestures to regulate behavior and a smaller proportion for joint attention/social interaction.

Conclusions: Overall, the amount or purpose of gestures did not differentiate individuals with Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome. However, the presence of autism spectrum disorder symptoms had a significant and unique impact on these genetic disorders. In individuals with Down syndrome, the presence of more autism spectrum disorder symptoms resulted in a reduction in the rate of gesturing, but did not change the purpose. However, in fragile X syndrome, the rate of gestures remained the same, but the purpose of those gestures changed based on autism spectrum disorder symptoms.

Implications: Autism spectrum disorder symptoms differentially impact gestures in Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome. Individuals with Down syndrome and more autism spectrum disorder symptoms are using gestures less frequently. Therefore, clinicians may need to consider children with Down syndrome demonstrating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder as distinctly different from children with Down syndrome and few to no symptoms of autism spectrum disorder when implementing interventions or therapy techniques. Severity of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in fragile X syndrome affects qualitative gesture use and motivation to communicate through social gestures, which may be an appropriate goal to target in children with fragile X syndrome and heightened autism spectrum disorder symptoms.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191055PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396941517745673DOI Listing
December 2017