Publications by authors named "Emily Koeneke"

5 Publications

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Dual role of HDAC10 in lysosomal exocytosis and DNA repair promotes neuroblastoma chemoresistance.

Sci Rep 2018 07 3;8(1):10039. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Preclinical Program, Hopp Children's Cancer Center at NCT Heidelberg (KiTZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Drug resistance is a leading cause for treatment failure in many cancers, including neuroblastoma, the most common solid extracranial childhood malignancy. Previous studies from our lab indicate that histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC10) is important for the homeostasis of lysosomes, i.e. acidic vesicular organelles involved in the degradation of various biomolecules. Here, we show that depleting or inhibiting HDAC10 results in accumulation of lysosomes in chemotherapy-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as in the intracellular accumulation of the weakly basic chemotherapeutic doxorubicin within lysosomes. Interference with HDAC10 does not block doxorubicin efflux from cells via P-glycoprotein inhibition, but rather via inhibition of lysosomal exocytosis. In particular, intracellular doxorubicin does not remain trapped in lysosomes but also accumulates in the nucleus, where it promotes neuroblastoma cell death. Our data suggest that lysosomal exocytosis under doxorubicin treatment is important for cell survival and that inhibition of HDAC10 further induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), providing additional mechanisms that sensitize neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin. Taken together, we demonstrate that HDAC10 inhibition in combination with doxorubicin kills neuroblastoma, but not non-malignant cells, both by impeding drug efflux and enhancing DNA damage, providing a novel opportunity to target chemotherapy resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28265-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030077PMC
July 2018

The HDAC6/8/10 inhibitor TH34 induces DNA damage-mediated cell death in human high-grade neuroblastoma cell lines.

Arch Toxicol 2018 08 9;92(8):2649-2664. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Preclinical Program, Hopp Children's Cancer Center at NCT Heidelberg (KiTZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

High histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 and HDAC10 expression levels have been identified as predictors of exceptionally poor outcomes in neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. HDAC8 inhibition synergizes with retinoic acid treatment to induce neuroblast maturation in vitro and to inhibit neuroblastoma xenograft growth in vivo. HDAC10 inhibition increases intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutics through interference with lysosomal homeostasis, ultimately leading to cell death in cultured neuroblastoma cells. So far, no HDAC inhibitor covering HDAC8 and HDAC10 at micromolar concentrations without inhibiting HDACs 1, 2 and 3 has been described. Here, we introduce TH34 (3-(N-benzylamino)-4-methylbenzhydroxamic acid), a novel HDAC6/8/10 inhibitor for neuroblastoma therapy. TH34 is well-tolerated by non-transformed human skin fibroblasts at concentrations up to 25 µM and modestly impairs colony growth in medulloblastoma cell lines, but specifically induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in several human neuroblastoma cell lines. In addition to the induction of DNA double-strand breaks, HDAC6/8/10 inhibition also leads to mitotic aberrations and cell-cycle arrest. Neuroblastoma cells display elevated levels of neuronal differentiation markers, mirrored by formation of neurite-like outgrowths under maintained TH34 treatment. Eventually, after long-term treatment, all neuroblastoma cells undergo cell death. The combination of TH34 with plasma-achievable concentrations of retinoic acid, a drug applied in neuroblastoma therapy, synergistically inhibits colony growth (combination index (CI) < 0.1 for 10 µM of each). In summary, our study supports using selective HDAC inhibitors as targeted antineoplastic agents and underlines the therapeutic potential of selective HDAC6/8/10 inhibition in high-grade neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2234-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6063332PMC
August 2018

A kinome-wide RNAi screen identifies ALK as a target to sensitize neuroblastoma cells for HDAC8-inhibitor treatment.

Cell Death Differ 2018 12 7;25(12):2053-2070. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Pediatric Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany.

The prognosis of advanced stage neuroblastoma patients remains poor and, despite intensive therapy, the 5-year survival rate remains less than 50%. We previously identified histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 as an indicator of poor clinical outcome and a selective drug target for differentiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Here, we performed kinome-wide RNAi screening to identify genes that are synthetically lethal with HDAC8 inhibitors. These experiments identified the neuroblastoma predisposition gene ALK as a candidate gene. Accordingly, the combination of the ALK/MET inhibitor crizotinib and selective HDAC8 inhibitors (3-6 µM PCI-34051 or 10 µM 20a) efficiently killed neuroblastoma cell lines carrying wildtype ALK (SK-N-BE(2)-C, IMR5/75), amplified ALK (NB-1), and those carrying the activating ALK F1174L mutation (Kelly), and, in cells carrying the activating R1275Q mutation (LAN-5), combination treatment decreased viable cell count. The effective dose of crizotinib in neuroblastoma cell lines ranged from 0.05 µM (ALK-amplified) to 0.8 µM (wildtype ALK). The combinatorial inhibition of ALK and HDAC8 also decreased tumor growth in an in vivo zebrafish xenograft model. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the mRNA expression level of HDAC8 was significantly correlated with that of ALK in two independent patient cohorts, the Academic Medical Center cohort (n = 88) and the German Neuroblastoma Trial cohort (n = 649), and co-expression of both target genes identified patients with very poor outcome. Mechanistically, HDAC8 and ALK converge at the level of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling and their downstream survival pathways, such as ERK signaling. Combination treatment of HDAC8 inhibitor with crizotinib efficiently blocked the activation of growth receptor survival signaling and shifted the cell cycle arrest and differentiation phenotype toward effective cell death of neuroblastoma cell lines, including sensitization of resistant models, but not of normal cells. These findings reveal combined targeting of ALK and HDAC8 as a novel strategy for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-018-0080-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261943PMC
December 2018

Three-dimensional tumor cell growth stimulates autophagic flux and recapitulates chemotherapy resistance.

Cell Death Dis 2017 08 24;8(8):e3013. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Pediatric Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), INF 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Current preclinical models in tumor biology are limited in their ability to recapitulate relevant (patho-) physiological processes, including autophagy. Three-dimensional (3D) growth cultures have frequently been proposed to overcome the lack of correlation between two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell cultures and human tumors in preclinical drug testing. Besides 3D growth, it is also advantageous to simulate shear stress, compound flux and removal of metabolites, e.g., via bioreactor systems, through which culture medium is constantly pumped at a flow rate reflecting physiological conditions. Here we show that both static 3D growth and 3D growth within a bioreactor system modulate key hallmarks of cancer cells, including proliferation and cell death as well as macroautophagy, a recycling pathway often activated by highly proliferative tumors to cope with metabolic stress. The autophagy-related gene expression profiles of 2D-grown cells are substantially different from those of 3D-grown cells and tumor tissue. Autophagy-controlling transcription factors, such as TFEB and FOXO3, are upregulated in tumors, and 3D-grown cells have increased expression compared with cells grown in 2D conditions. Three-dimensional cultures depleted of the autophagy mediators BECN1, ATG5 or ATG7 or the transcription factor FOXO3, are more sensitive to cytotoxic treatment. Accordingly, combining cytotoxic treatment with compounds affecting late autophagic flux, such as chloroquine, renders the 3D-grown cells more susceptible to therapy. Altogether, 3D cultures are a valuable tool to study drug response of tumor cells, as these models more closely mimic tumor (patho-)physiology, including the upregulation of tumor relevant pathways, such as autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2017.398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5596581PMC
August 2017

HDAC Family Members Intertwined in the Regulation of Autophagy: A Druggable Vulnerability in Aggressive Tumor Entities.

Cells 2015 Apr 23;4(2):135-68. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Pediatric Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The exploitation of autophagy by some cancer entities to support survival and dodge death has been well-described. Though its role as a constitutive process is important in normal, healthy cells, in the milieu of malignantly transformed and highly proliferative cells, autophagy is critical for escaping metabolic and genetic stressors. In recent years, the importance of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in cancer biology has been heavily investigated, and the enzyme family has been shown to play a role in autophagy, too. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are being integrated into cancer therapy and clinical trials are ongoing. The effect of HDACi on autophagy and, conversely, the effect of autophagy on HDACi efficacy are currently under investigation. With the development of HDACi that are able to selectively target individual HDAC isozymes, there is great potential for specific therapy that has more well-defined effects on cancer biology and also minimizes toxicity. Here, the role of autophagy in the context of cancer and the interplay of this process with HDACs will be summarized. Identification of key HDAC isozymes involved in autophagy and the ability to target specific isozymes yields the potential to cripple and ultimately eliminate malignant cells depending on autophagy as a survival mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells4020135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4493453PMC
April 2015