Publications by authors named "Emily J Curren"

5 Publications

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Cost effectiveness and impact of a targeted age- and incidence-based West Nile virus vaccine strategy.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of arboviral disease in the United States and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A previous analysis found that a vaccination program targeting persons aged ≥60 years was more cost effective than universal vaccination, but costs remained high.

Methods: We used a mathematical Markov model to evaluate cost-effectiveness of an age- and incidence-based WNV vaccination program. We grouped states and large counties (≥100,000 persons aged ≥60 years) by median annual WNV incidence rates from 2004 to 2017 for persons aged ≥60 years. We defined WNV incidence thresholds, in increments of 0.5 cases per 100,000 persons ≥60 years. We calculated potential cost per WNV vaccine-prevented case and per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) saved.

Results: Vaccinating persons aged ≥60 years in states with an annual incidence of WNV neuroinvasive disease of ≥0.5 per 100,000 resulted in approximately half the cost per health outcome averted compared to vaccinating persons aged ≥60 years in all the contiguous United States. This approach could potentially prevent 37% of all neuroinvasive disease cases and 63% of WNV-related deaths nationally. Employing such a threshold at a county-level further improved cost-effectiveness ratios while preventing 19% and 30% of WNV-related neuroinvasive disease cases and deaths, respectively.

Conclusions: An age- and incidence-based WNV vaccination program could be a more cost-effective strategy than an age-based program while still having a substantial impact on lowering WNV-related morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab540DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of Immunoglobulin M Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Ratios to Identify West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections During Concurrent Outbreaks of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Diseases, Arizona 2015.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 08 21;20(8):619-623. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause clinical disease ranging from febrile illness to encephalitis. The standard for serological diagnosis is immunoglobulin M (IgM) testing followed by confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to differentiate the infecting virus. However, the PRNT is time-consuming and requires manipulation of live virus. During concurrent WNV and SLEV outbreaks in Arizona in 2015, we assessed use of a diagnostic algorithm to simplify testing. It incorporated WNV and SLEV ratios based on positive-to-negative (P/N) values derived from the IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared each sample's ratio-based result with the confirmed WNV or SLEV sample result indicated by PRNT or PCR testing. We analyzed data from 70 patients with 77 serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples, including 53 patients with confirmed WNV infection and 17 patients with confirmed SLEV infection. Both WNV and SLEV ratios had specificity ≥95%, indicating a high likelihood that each ratio was correctly identifying the infecting virus. The SLEV ratio sensitivity of 30% was much lower than the WNV ratio sensitivity of 91%, likely because of higher cross-reactivity of SLEV antibodies and generation of lower P/N values. The standard for serological diagnosis of WNV and SLEV infections remains IgM testing followed by PRNT. However, these results suggest the ratios could potentially be used as part of a diagnostic algorithm in outbreaks to substantially reduce the need for PRNTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2571DOI Listing
August 2020

Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing on Filter Paper-Dried Serum for Laboratory-Based Dengue Surveillance-American Samoa, 2018.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 03;102(3):622-624

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado.

Laboratory-based surveillance for arboviral diseases is challenging in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the use of filter paper-dried sera for detection of dengue virus (DENV) RNA during an outbreak in American Samoa. Matched liquid and filter paper-dried sera were collected from patients with suspected dengue and shipped to a reference laboratory for diagnostic testing. RNA was extracted from each sample and tested for DENV RNA by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 18 RT-PCR-positive liquid specimens, 14 matched filter paper-dried specimens were positive for a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI, 55-91%). Of 82 RT-PCR-negative liquid specimens, all filter paper-dried specimens were negative for a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 96-100%). Shipping of filter paper-dried specimens was similarly timely but less expensive than shipping liquid sera. Using filter paper-dried serum or blood can be a cost-effective and sustainable approach to surveillance of dengue and other arboviral diseases in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056409PMC
March 2020

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 19;67(41):1137-1142. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC from U.S. states in 2017 for nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses because, in the continental United States, these viruses are acquired primarily through travel. In 2017, 48 states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,291 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including 2,097 (92%) WNV disease cases. Among the WNV disease cases, 1,425 (68%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis), for a national rate of 0.44 cases per 100,000 population. More Jamestown Canyon and Powassan virus disease cases were reported in 2017 than in any previous year. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness, maintaining surveillance is important to direct and promote prevention activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6741a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193690PMC
October 2018

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Disease in the United States, 2003-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 10;99(4):1074-1079

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, can cause disease presentations ranging from mild febrile illness through severe encephalitis. We reviewed U.S. national SLEV surveillance data for 2003 through 2017, including human disease cases and nonhuman infections. Over the 15-year period, 198 counties from 33 states and the District of Columbia reported SLEV activity; 94 (47%) of those counties reported SLEV activity only in nonhuman species. A total of 193 human cases of SLEV disease were reported, including 148 cases of neuroinvasive disease. A median of 10 cases were reported per year. The national average annual incidence of reported neuroinvasive disease cases was 0.03 per million. States with the highest average annual incidence of reported neuroinvasive disease cases were Arkansas, Arizona, and Mississippi. No large outbreaks occurred during the reporting period. The most commonly reported clinical syndromes were encephalitis ( = 116, 60%), febrile illness ( = 35, 18%), and meningitis ( = 25, 13%). Median age of cases was 57 years (range 2-89 years). The case fatality rate was 6% (11/193) and all deaths were among patients aged > 45 years with neuroinvasive disease. Nonhuman surveillance data indicated wider SLEV activity in California, Nevada, and Florida than the human data alone suggested. Prevention depends on community efforts to reduce mosquito populations and personal protective measures to decrease exposure to mosquitoes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6159600PMC
October 2018
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