Publications by authors named "Emily J Baxter"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies.

PLoS One 2017 2;12(11):e0187491. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Institut de Ciencies del Mar (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.

The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)). Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d.) when used at the same stations (n = 6). While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering sampling methodology both when planning surveys, as well as when interpreting existing data.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187491PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5667825PMC
November 2017

The response of Thalassiosira pseudonana to long-term exposure to increased CO2 and decreased pH.

PLoS One 2011 28;6(10):e26695. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

The effect of ocean acidification conditions has been investigated in cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP1335. Expected end-of-the-century pCO(2) (aq) concentrations of 760 µatm (equivalent to pH 7.8) were compared with present-day condition (380 µatm CO(2), pH 8.1). Batch culture pH changed rapidly because of CO(2) (aq) assimilation and pH targets of 7.8 and 8.1 could not be sustained. Long-term (∼100 generation) pH-auxostat, continuous cultures could be maintained at target pH when cell density was kept low (<2×10(5) cells mL(-1)). After 3 months continuous culture, the C:N ratio was slightly decreased under high CO(2) conditions and red fluorescence per cell was slightly increased. However, no change was detected in photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or functional cross section of PS II (σ(PSII)). Elevated pCO(2) has been predicted to be beneficial to diatoms due to reduced cost of carbon concentration mechanisms. There was reduced transcription of one putative δ-carbonic anhydrase (CA-4) after 3 months growth at increased CO(2) but 3 other δ-CAs and the small subunit of RUBISCO showed no change. There was no evidence of adaptation or clade selection of T. pseudonana after ∼100 generations at elevated CO(2). On the basis of this long-term culture, pH change of this magnitude in the future ocean may have little effect on T. pseudonana in the absence of genetic adaption.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0026695PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203894PMC
February 2012

Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) under experimental challenge.

PLoS One 2011 Apr 7;6(4):e18529. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Coastal and Marine Research Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp.) are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon.

Methodology/principal Findings: To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita) on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered.

Conclusions: Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0018529PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3072396PMC
April 2011