Publications by authors named "Emily Boyd"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Relationship between binge eating and associated eating behaviors with subcortical brain volumes and cortical thickness.

J Affect Disord 2020 09 30;274:1201-1205. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai St. Luke's, and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 440 West 114th St. New York, NY 10025, United States; Touro College and University System, 320 West 31st Street New York, NY 10001, United States.

Background: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder. We examined the presence of binge eating (BE) and three associated eating behaviors in relation to subcortical regional volumes and cortical thickness from brain scans.

Methods: We processed structural MRI brain scans for 466 individuals from the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample using Freesurfer. We investigated subcortical volumes and cortical thicknesses among those with and without BE and in relation to the scores on dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). We conducted a whole-brain analysis and a region of analysis (ROI) using a priori regions associated with BE and with the three eating factors. We also compared scores on the three TFEQ factors for the BE and non-BE.

Results: The BE group had higher scores for dietary restraint (p = .013), disinhibition (p = 1.22E-07), and hunger (p = 5.88E-07). In the whole-brain analysis, no regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (FDR corrected p<0.01) for either BE group or interaction with TFEQ. However, disinhibition scores correlated positively with left nucleus accumbens (NAc) volume (p < 0.01 FDR corrected). In the ROI analysis, those with BE also had greater left NAc volume (p = 0.008, uncorrected) compared to non-BE.

Limitations: Limitations include potential self-report bias on the EDE-Q and TFEQ.

Conclusions: The findings show that BE and disinhibition scores were each associated with greater volumes in the left NAc, a reward area, consistent with a greater drive and pleasure for food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.10.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434631PMC
September 2020

Migration transforms the conditions for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Lancet Planet Health 2019 11;3(11):e440-e442

Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30213-XDOI Listing
November 2019

Carbon dynamics, net primary productivity and human-appropriated net primary productivity across a forest-cocoa farm landscape in West Africa.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 08 6;25(8):2661-2677. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) is an important metric of ecosystem functioning; however, there are little empirical data on the NPP of human-modified ecosystems, particularly smallholder, perennial crops like cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which are extensive across the tropics. Human-appropriated NPP (HANPP) is a measure of the proportion of a natural system's NPP that has either been reduced through land-use change or harvested directly and, previously, has been calculated to estimate the scale of the human impact on the biosphere. Additionally, human modification can create shifts in NPP allocation and decomposition, with concomitant impacts on the carbon cycle. This study presents the results of 3 years of intensive monitoring of forest and smallholder cocoa farms across disturbance, management intensity, distance from forest and farm age gradients. We measured among the highest reported NPP values in tropical forest, 17.57 ± 2.1 and 17.7 ± 1.6 Mg C ha  year for intact and logged forest, respectively; however, the average NPP of cocoa farms was still higher, 18.8 ± 2.5 Mg C ha  year , which we found was driven by cocoa pod production. We found a dramatic shift in litterfall residence times, where cocoa leaves decomposed more slowly than forest leaves and shade tree litterfall decomposed considerably faster, indicating significant changes in rates of nutrient cycling. The average HANPP value for all cocoa farms was 2.1 ± 1.1 Mg C ha  year ; however, depending on the density of shade trees, it ranged from -4.6 to 5.2 Mg C ha  year . Therefore, rather than being related to cocoa yield, HANPP was reduced by maintaining higher shade levels. Across our monitored farms, 18.9% of farm NPP was harvested (i.e., whole cocoa pods) and only 1.1% (i.e., cocoa beans) was removed from the system, suggesting that the scale of HANPP in smallholder cocoa agroforestry systems is relatively small.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14661DOI Listing
August 2019

Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Activation of a Model [Cp*Rh] Hydride.

Inorg Chem 2019 Mar 26;58(6):3606-3615. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Chemistry , University of Kansas , 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive , Lawrence , Kansas 66045 , United States.

Monomeric half-sandwich rhodium hydride complexes are often proposed as intermediates in catalytic cycles, but relatively few such compounds have been isolated and studied, limiting understanding of their properties. Here, we report preparation and isolation of a monomeric rhodium(III) hydride complex bearing the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) and bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene (dppb) ligands. The hydride complex is formed rapidly upon addition of weak acid to a reduced precursor complex, Cp*Rh(dppb). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for the [Cp*Rh] hydride, which were previously unavailable for this class of compounds, provide evidence of the direct Rh-H interaction. Complementary infrared spectra show the Rh-H stretching frequency at 1986 cm. In contrast to results with other [Cp*Rh] complexes bearing diimine ligands, treatment of the isolated hydride with strong acid does not result in H evolution. Electrochemical studies reveal that the hydride complex can be reduced only at very negative potentials (ca. -2.5 V vs ferrocenium/ferrocene), resulting in Rh-H bond cleavage and H generation. These results are discussed in the context of catalytic H generation, and development of design rules for improved catalysts bearing the [Cp*] ligand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b02160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412572PMC
March 2019

Storylines: an alternative approach to representing uncertainty in physical aspects of climate change.

Clim Change 2018 10;151(3):555-571. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

4London School of Economics, London, WC2A 2AE UK.

As climate change research becomes increasingly applied, the need for actionable information is growing rapidly. A key aspect of this requirement is the representation of uncertainties. The conventional approach to representing uncertainty in physical aspects of climate change is probabilistic, based on ensembles of climate model simulations. In the face of deep uncertainties, the known limitations of this approach are becoming increasingly apparent. An alternative is thus emerging which may be called a 'storyline' approach. We define a storyline as a physically self-consistent unfolding of past events, or of plausible future events or pathways. No a priori probability of the storyline is assessed; emphasis is placed instead on understanding the driving factors involved, and the plausibility of those factors. We introduce a typology of four reasons for using storylines to represent uncertainty in physical aspects of climate change: (i) improving risk awareness by framing risk in an event-oriented rather than a probabilistic manner, which corresponds more directly to how people perceive and respond to risk; (ii) strengthening decision-making by allowing one to work backward from a particular vulnerability or decision point, combining climate change information with other relevant factors to address compound risk and develop appropriate stress tests; (iii) providing a physical basis for partitioning uncertainty, thereby allowing the use of more credible regional models in a conditioned manner and (iv) exploring the boundaries of plausibility, thereby guarding against false precision and surprise. Storylines also offer a powerful way of linking physical with human aspects of climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-018-2317-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394420PMC
November 2018

Poster 350 Persistent Pneumocephalus After Gun Shot Wound to the Head.

PM R 2016 Sep 24;8(9S):S275. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

Emory University Affiliated Hospital, Atlanta, GA, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.07.519DOI Listing
September 2016

Reduced detection of positive expressions in major depression.

Psychiatry Res 2016 06 22;240:284-287. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

NHS Grampian, Mental Health Services, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

In patients with depression, negative biases have been reported in various cognitive domains, but few studies have examined whether even detection is affected, i.e. are depressed patients more likely to detect the presence of negative stimuli? This study compared detection of sad and happy faces in patients (n=17) and healthy participants (n=18) using an attentional blink task. Patients with depression detected significantly fewer happy faces than matched healthy participants, but for sad faces the group difference was non-significant. The results suggest that depression may affect the detection of positive stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.075DOI Listing
June 2016

Biomimetic synthesis of dendridine A.

Org Lett 2015 Mar 20;17(5):1344-6. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland , 23 Symonds Street, Auckland, New Zealand.

Biomimetic synthesis of the bisindole natural product dendridine A is reported. Although attempts to install the hindered biaryl bond by oxidative phenolic coupling of the 7-hydroxytryptamine 6 gave the undesired ortho-ortho product, a Scholl-type oxidative coupling of the 7-isopropoxytryptamine 9 with molybdenum pentachloride proceeded through the desired para-para pathway, installing the entire carbon framework of dendridine A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.5b00300DOI Listing
March 2015

Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience.

Ambio 2015 Jan;44 Suppl 1:S149-61

School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science (SAGES), University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, UK,

Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Mälaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0604-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4288996PMC
January 2015

Total synthesis of (-)-aspergilazine A.

Org Lett 2014 Oct 23;16(19):5056-9. Epub 2014 Sep 23.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland , 23 Symonds Street, Auckland, New Zealand.

The total synthesis of (-)-aspergilazine A, an alkaloid possessing a rare N1' to C6 bisindole bond, is described. A palladium-catalyzed N-arylation was used to selectively install the N1'-C6 bond in the presence of three other possible arylation sites. The ligand XPhos displayed a unique capability to efficiently carry out the N-arylation while simultaneously suppressing epimerization of the sensitive C9 stereocenters. This total synthesis has confirmed that aspergilazine A is a dimer of brevianamide F.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol5024097DOI Listing
October 2014

Goal conflict and goal facilitation in community-based cardiac rehabilitation: a theory-based interview study.

Psychol Health Med 2015 7;20(2):227-38. Epub 2014 May 7.

a Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University , Newcastle Upon Tyne , England.

Theories often consider behaviors in isolation of conflicting and facilitating personal goals. We conducted interviews with 13 people in cardiac rehabilitation, investigating whether eliciting physical activity (PA) control beliefs sufficiently captures goal conflict and goal facilitation. We assessed PA, intention, and control beliefs using standard elicitation methods and then assessed goal conflict and goal facilitation. Twelve participants described conflicting, and all described facilitating, personal goals. Most goal facilitation (94%) and conflict (82%) beliefs were identified beyond the control belief elicitation. Goal facilitation and conflict are not captured in a standard control belief elicitation and may supplement single-behavior models to understand PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2014.914235DOI Listing
September 2015

Responses of maize (Zea mays L.) near isogenic lines carrying Wsm1, Wsm2, and Wsm3 to three viruses in the Potyviridae.

Theor Appl Genet 2011 Sep 12;123(5):729-40. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Corn and Soybean Research Unit, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

Genes on chromosomes six (Wsm1), three (Wsm2) and ten (Wsm3) in the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Pa405 control resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), and the same or closely linked genes control resistance to Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). Near isogenic lines (NIL) carrying one or two of the genes were developed by introgressing regions of the respective chromosomes into the susceptible line Oh28 and tested for their responses to WSMV, MDMV, and SCMV in the field and greenhouse. F(1) progeny from NIL × Oh28 were also tested. Wsm1, or closely linked genes, provided resistance to all three viruses, as determined by symptom incidence and severity. Wsm2 and Wsm3 provided resistance to WSMV. Wsm2 and/or Wsm3 provided no resistance to MDMV, but significantly increased resistance in plants with one Wsm1 allele. NIL carrying Wsm1, Wsm2, or Wsm3 had similar SCMV resistance in the field, but NIL with Wsm2 and Wsm3 were not resistant in the greenhouse. Addition of Wsm2 to Wsm1 increased SCMV resistance in the field. For all viruses, symptom incidence was higher in the greenhouse than in the field, and relative disease severity was higher in the greenhouse for WSMV and MDMV. An Italian MDMV isolate and the Ohio SCMV infected the Wsm1 NIL, while the Ohio MDMV and Seehausen SCMV isolates did not. Our results indicate that the three genes, or closely linked loci, provide virus resistance. Resistance conferred by the three genes is influenced by interactions among the genes, the virus species, the virus isolate, and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-011-1622-8DOI Listing
September 2011

Using learning networks to understand complex systems: a case study of biological, geophysical and social research in the Amazon.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2011 May 17;86(2):457-74. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

Developing high-quality scientific research will be most effective if research communities with diverse skills and interests are able to share information and knowledge, are aware of the major challenges across disciplines, and can exploit economies of scale to provide robust answers and better inform policy. We evaluate opportunities and challenges facing the development of a more interactive research environment by developing an interdisciplinary synthesis of research on a single geographic region. We focus on the Amazon as it is of enormous regional and global environmental importance and faces a highly uncertain future. To take stock of existing knowledge and provide a framework for analysis we present a set of mini-reviews from fourteen different areas of research, encompassing taxonomy, biodiversity, biogeography, vegetation dynamics, landscape ecology, earth-atmosphere interactions, ecosystem processes, fire, deforestation dynamics, hydrology, hunting, conservation planning, livelihoods, and payments for ecosystem services. Each review highlights the current state of knowledge and identifies research priorities, including major challenges and opportunities. We show that while substantial progress is being made across many areas of scientific research, our understanding of specific issues is often dependent on knowledge from other disciplines. Accelerating the acquisition of reliable and contextualized knowledge about the fate of complex pristine and modified ecosystems is partly dependent on our ability to exploit economies of scale in shared resources and technical expertise, recognise and make explicit interconnections and feedbacks among sub-disciplines, increase the temporal and spatial scale of existing studies, and improve the dissemination of scientific findings to policy makers and society at large. Enhancing interaction among research efforts is vital if we are to make the most of limited funds and overcome the challenges posed by addressing large-scale interdisciplinary questions. Bringing together a diverse scientific community with a single geographic focus can help increase awareness of research questions both within and among disciplines, and reveal the opportunities that may exist for advancing acquisition of reliable knowledge. This approach could be useful for a variety of globally important scientific questions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00155.xDOI Listing
May 2011

Navigating Amazonia under uncertainty: past, present and future environmental governance.

Authors:
Emily Boyd

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2008 May;363(1498):1911-6

Centre for the Environment, Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3YB, UK.

One of the major environmental challenges of the twenty-first century is the continued rapid deforestation of Amazonia. The 2005 dieback crisis emphasizes the unprecedented challenges facing Brazil. The examination of past and present institutions for ecosystem management, in Amazonia, shows structural barriers across public, private and community arrangements. The adaptive governance concept helps to understand why these institutions are failing to deliver sustainable futures. In looking forward, it is encouraging to see that important networks of knowledge and a number of novel initiatives are emerging in Brazil. These new arrangements are novel in the way that they seem to be adaptive and navigate structures in the hope of overcoming insurmountable drivers of deforestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.0023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375953PMC
May 2008

Lessons from an elective.

Midwives 2008 Feb-Mar;11(1):26-7

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June 2015

Emotion work in the public performances of male-to-female transsexuals.

Arch Sex Behav 2009 Oct 29;38(5):702-12. Epub 2007 Nov 29.

Department of Sociology, Florida State University, 526 Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2270, USA.

Much research has shown that entering the public sphere is emotionally taxing yet key to male-to-female transsexuals' status passage. Yet, little is known about how transsexuals actively manage their emotions during this important transitional phase. Taking a dramaturgical approach to emotions, we explored how some male-to-female transsexuals managed their emotions in ways that helped generate self-confidence and commitment to their paths. Interviewees engaged in three primary forms of emotion work: (1) preparatory emotion work mitigated anxiety and bolstered confidence, which motivated them to enter public arenas as women; (2) in situ emotion work transformed negative emotions as they arose when performing womanhood in public; and (3) retrospective emotion work reinterpreted past public performances to neutralize negative and accentuate positive emotions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-007-9280-2DOI Listing
October 2009

Clinical and pathologic correlates in surgical stage II endometrial carcinoma.

Obstet Gynecol 2007 May;109(5):1062-7

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Objective: To identify the surgical, pathologic, and therapeutic factors that influence outcome in patients with surgical stage II endometrial adenocarcinoma.

Methods: All patients with comprehensively staged stage II endometrial adenocarcinoma were identified. Data regarding preoperative, surgical, pathologic, adjuvant therapy, and outcomes were collected. Factors were compared with the chi(2) test, and survival curves were generated and compared with the log rank test.

Results: Of 162 patients with surgical stage II endometrial cancer, the median age was 65 years, and the median body mass index was 31.2 kg/m(2). An extrafascial hysterectomy was performed in 75% of cases, whereas 25% of patients underwent radical hysterectomy. At least 10 nodes were recovered in more than 90% of cases. Stage IIA disease was present in 52% of cases, whereas stage IIB accounted for the remaining 48%. After staging, 48% of patients had adjuvant radiation therapy (16% with brachytherapy alone). The remainder received no adjuvant therapy. At a median follow-up of 26 months, 17% experienced disease recurrence. Five-year overall survival rate was 88% and disease-free survival rate was 81%. A significantly better 5-year disease-free survival rate was seen in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy compared with extrafascial hysterectomy (94% compared with 76%, P=.05). Adjuvant radiation did not lead to improved survival.

Conclusion: In this large series of surgical stage II endometrial cancer cases, improved survival was noted relative to historical controls and in particular with radical compared with extrafascial hysterectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000260871.87607.25DOI Listing
May 2007

Fetal growth curves for an ethnically diverse military population: the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine-accredited platform experience.

Mil Med 2006 Jun;171(6):508-11

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859-5000, USA.

Objective: To determine which fetal growth curve provided the best estimates of fetal weight for a cohort of ethnically diverse patients at sea level.

Methods: The study consisted of a population of 1,729 fetuses examined at sea level between January 1, 1997, and June 30, 2000, at 18 weeks, 28 weeks, and term. Gestational age (GA) based on menstrual dates was confirmed or adjusted by crown-rump length or early second-trimester biometry. Fetal weight was estimated by using biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length. Our fetal growth curves were analyzed with fourth-order polynomial regression analysis, applying four previously defined formulae for fetal growth.

Results: Fetal growth curves for estimated fetal weight demonstrated the expected parabolic shape, which varied according to the formulae used. Our curve best fit the following equation: estimated fetal weight = 4.522 - 0.22 x GA age + 0.25 x GA(2) - 0.001 x GA(3) + 5.248 x 10(-6) x GA(4) (R2 = 0.976). SD increased in concordance with GA.

Conclusion: Madigan Army Medical Center serves a racially mixed, culturally diverse, military community with unrestricted access to prenatal care. Determination of the optimal population-appropriate growth curve at the correct GA assists clinicians in identifying fetuses at risk for growth restriction or macrosomia and therefore at risk for increased perinatal morbidity and death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7205/milmed.171.6.508DOI Listing
June 2006