Publications by authors named "Emily B Kroska"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Treating postpartum depression in rural veterans using internet delivered CBT: program evaluation of MomMoodBooster.

J Behav Med 2021 Aug 14;44(4):454-466. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Office of Rural Health's Veterans Rural Health Resource Center in Iowa City, Iowa City, USA.

Depression in the postpartum period impacts approximately 13-26% of the general population. This number can be much higher for rural veteran women who face additional barriers to accessing specialized mental health services due to isolation and cultural factors. This study reports on a program evaluation of MomMoodBooster, a coach-supported internet-delivered CBT program for the treatment of maternal depression in veteran women. Repeated measures ANOVA, run with this sample of 326 women, demonstrated an overall positive effect size across outcome measures and engagement with no differences found between rural women and their urban counterparts. Some differences between urban and rural participants were found in total and average time spent with coaches as well as ratings of coach helpfulness, possibly indicating some cultural differences between coaches and rural women that need to be addressed. These results and the results of earlier trials suggest that MomMoodBooster can be a valid and efficacious option for reaching under-served veteran populations with specialized postpartum mental health support and is as effective with rural women as with urban women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-020-00188-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556583PMC
August 2021

Optimizing an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Microintervention Via a Mobile App With Two Cohorts: Protocol for Micro-Randomized Trials.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Sep 23;9(9):e17086. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.

Background: Given gaps in the treatment of mental health, brief adaptive interventions have become a public health imperative. Transdiagnostic interventions may be particularly appropriate given high rates of medical comorbidity and the broader reach of transdiagnostic therapies. One such approach utilized herein is acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), which is focused on increasing engagement with values, awareness, and openness to internal experiences. ACT theory posits that experiential avoidance is at the center of human suffering, regardless of diagnosis, and, as such, seeks to reduce unworkable experiential avoidance.

Objective: Our objective is to provide the rationale and protocol for examining the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of optimizing an ACT-based intervention via a mobile app among two disparate samples, which differ in sociodemographic characteristics and symptom profiles.

Methods: Twice each day, participants are prompted via a mobile app to complete assessments of mood and activity and are then randomly assigned to an ACT-based intervention or not. These interventions are questions regarding engagement with values, awareness, and openness to internal experiences. Participant responses are recorded. Analyses will examine completion of assessments, change in symptoms from baseline assessment, and proximal change in mood and activity. A primary outcome of interest is proximal change in activity (eg, form and function of behavior and energy consumed by avoidance and values-based behavior) following interventions as a function of time, symptoms, and behavior, where we hypothesize that participants will focus more energy on values-based behaviors. Analyses will be conducted using a weighted and centered least squares approach. Two samples will run concurrently to assess the capacity of optimizing mobile ACT in populations that differ widely in their clinical presentation and sociodemographic characteristics: individuals with bipolar disorder (n=30) and distressed first-generation college students (n=50).

Results: Recruitment began on September 10, 2019, for the bipolar sample and on October 5, 2019, for the college sample. Participation in the study began on October 18, 2019.

Conclusions: This study examines an ACT-based intervention among two disparate samples. Should ACT demonstrate feasibility and preliminary effectiveness in each sample, a large randomized controlled trial applying ACT across diagnoses and demographics would be indicated. The public health implications of such an approach may be far-reaching.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04098497; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04098497; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04081662; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04081662.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/17086.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542401PMC
September 2020

Perceived socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life (HQoL) among urban adults: Evaluating the protective value of resilience.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 10;91(1):20-26. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology.

Health-related quality of life (HQoL) is increasingly used as a measure of population health. The utility of HQoL lies in its ability to capture the subjectivity and totality of health-HQoL is an individual's subjective assessment of their physical, psychological, and social functioning. HQoL disparities exist in the United States, with some groups (e.g., individuals of low socioeconomic status [SES]) experiencing disproportionately low rates of HQoL, though little is known about the impact of perceived SES (PSES) on HQoL. Research is needed in order to (a) investigate the relationship of PSES on HQoL and (b) understand the mechanisms that may mitigate the adverse impact of PSES on HQoL. Therefore, the present study seeks to understand the role of resilience as a mediator in the relationship between PSES and HQoL among a sample (N = 284) of U.S. urban adults. Results from the present study indicate that resilience significantly mediates the relationship between PSES and physical and mental HQoL. The results of the present study have implications for researchers interested in behavioral health promotion interventions among individuals of low PSES. Resilience, a modifiable psychological variable, may be able to mitigate the adverse impact of PSES on HQoL and thus play a role in reducing HQoL disparities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ort0000514DOI Listing
September 2020

Psychological flexibility in the context of COVID-19 adversity: Associations with distress.

J Contextual Behav Sci 2020 Oct 6;18:28-33. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

University of Iowa, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to hardship for individuals across the globe, and research to-date has indicated a significant impact of the pandemic on mental health functioning. In order to promote psychological resilience during this time, it is important to understand modifiable targets for clinical intervention. The current study examined demographic characteristics, pandemic-related adversity, and psychological flexibility in relation to general and peritraumatic distress in a sample of United States survey respondents during May of 2020. Participants were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk),  = 485. Participants completed measures of pandemic-related adversity, psychological flexibility components (openness to experience, behavioral awareness, and valued action), peritraumatic distress, and general distress. Hierarchical regression analyses examined whether demographic characteristics, pandemic-related adversity, and components of psychological flexibility were associated with general and peritraumatic distress. Results indicated that higher pandemic-related adversity, lower openness to experience, and lower behavioral awareness were significantly associated with higher general distress. Greater pandemic-related adversity, lower openness to experience, lower behavioral awareness, and higher valued action were significantly associated with higher peritraumatic distress. Adding the components of psychological flexibility to the model increased the amount of variance accounted for in both measures of distress. The results indicated that psychological flexibility components may be particularly important targets for prevention and intervention efforts in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Transdiagnostic interventions, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, that target psychological flexibility may be useful as the impact of the pandemic continues to unfold.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2020.07.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406424PMC
October 2020

Acceptance- and Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Health Behavior Change: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses.

J Contextual Behav Sci 2019 Jul 19;13:74-93. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa.

Behavioral health issues such as smoking and overweight are risk factors for a variety of adverse health outcomes, including mortality. Over the past decade, a growing number of randomized controlled trials have examined the efficacy of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for smoking cessation and weight loss. The purpose of the current meta-analytic reviews was to quantitatively synthesize the existing literature comparing these interventions to controls for a) smoking cessation and b) weight loss outcomes. Searches identified 17 smoking cessation studies and 31 weight loss studies eligible for inclusion. Meta-analytic results indicated a non-significant effect favoring acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions over controls for smoking cessation (OR = 1.13) and a small, significant effect favoring these interventions over controls for weight loss outcomes (Hedge's = 0.30). Statistical heterogeneity and risk of bias were assessed. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to examine moderating variables (e.g., sample and intervention characteristics). The findings indicated that acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions were at least as efficacious as active control conditions. Given the significant health risks associated with smoking and overweight, these findings have important clinical and public health implications. Limitations (e.g., relative infancy of the literature; lack of diversity in sample demographics) and future directions (e.g., further exploration of mediators and moderators of change) are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442228PMC
July 2019

Postpartum Depression: Identification and Treatment in the Clinic Setting.

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2020 Sep;47(3):409-419

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6001 Research Park Boulevard, Madison, WI 53719, USA. Electronic address:

Perinatal care, including the management of mental health issues, often falls under the auspices of primary care providers. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common problem that affects up to 15% of women. Most women at risk can be identified before delivery based on psychiatric history, symptoms during pregnancy, and recent psychosocial stressors. Fortunately, there have been a variety of treatment studies using antidepressants, nonpharmacologic interactions, and most recently, allopregnanolone (Brexanolone) infusion that have shown benefits. The most commonly used screening scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, a 10-item self-rated scale, has been translated into a variety of languages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2020.05.001DOI Listing
September 2020

Sacrificing reward to avoid threat: Characterizing PTSD in the context of a trauma-related approach-avoidance conflict task.

J Abnorm Psychol 2020 Jul 21;129(5):457-468. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by heightened avoidance, cognitive inflexibility, and impaired reward processing. Maladaptive behavior in PTSD may reflect an imbalance between approach and avoidance, but no research has investigated approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) in PTSD. The current study investigated approach-avoidance behavior in PTSD using a trauma-related AAC (trAAC) task in two independent samples. In Study 1, 43 women with a current diagnosis of PTSD and 18 healthy comparison subjects were recruited from the community. In Study 2, 53 women with trauma exposure and a range of PTSD symptoms were recruited from a correctional institution. Trials were separated into two phases: conflict (the option most likely to win points was most likely to show a trauma-related image) and congruent (the option most likely to win points was least likely to show a trauma-related image). In Study 1, reward obtainment varied with the task manipulation (i.e., fewer points earned during conflict compared to congruent Phase) in PTSD but not healthy subjects. These results indicate that when avoidance is advantageous (congruent phase), individuals with PTSD show increased task performance, whereas when avoidance is maladaptive (conflict phase), individuals with PTSD show increased sacrifice of reward. In Study 2, higher PTSD symptoms predicted decreased reward earning during the conflict phase, again indicating a sacrifice of reward when avoidance is maladaptive. Across both studies, PTSD associated with increased AAC and sacrifice of reward in the presence of trauma-related stimuli. These studies shed light on AAC in PTSD and could inform more targeted therapy approaches. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393639PMC
July 2020

Experiential Avoidance Predicts Persistence of Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Late Adolescence.

J Clin Psychiatry 2019 10 22;80(6). Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Health Services Research and Development, 2002 Holcombe Blvd (152), Houston, TX 77030.

Objective: Experiential avoidance (EA) is a transdiagnostic construct that may underlie the high comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This analysis used data from a longitudinal study (conducted September 2010-April 2016) to examine whether adolescent EA varies by MDD and GAD symptomatology trajectory and predicts said trajectories. Longitudinal associations between EA, anxiety, and depression symptoms were also examined.

Methods: Adolescents aged 15 to 20 years (N = 183) were followed for 2 years using a comprehensive assessment battery. Symptom trajectory modeling, using weekly symptom ratings, identified 4 MDD and 4 GAD trajectories that were collapsed to form combined MDD/GAD trajectory groups: Persistent (n = 81), High-Decreasing (n = 44), Normal-Increasing (n = 37), and Minimal (n = 21). Group-based trajectory modeling, analyses of covariance, structural equation modeling, and linear regression analyses were performed. DSM-IV-TR criteria were used for MDD and GAD diagnoses.

Results: The Persistent adolescents had higher EA than other groups (P values ≤ .001), with greater EA stability versus High-Decreasing adolescents (P = .008). EA predicted anxiety and depressive symptoms alike (P values ≤ .005), which in turn did not predict EA (P values ≥ .188). EA, at both time points, predicted combined MDD/GAD trajectories after adjustment for depressive and anxiety symptoms and other confounders (P values < .001).

Conclusions: EA appears to be an important predictor of MDD and GAD symptomatology in older adolescents, potentially serving as a treatment target. Findings suggest a possible trait-like nature for EA, perhaps increasing risk for the emergence and persistence of MDD and/or GAD.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02147184​.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.18m12265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854672PMC
October 2019

Drug screening during pregnancy: Urine dip cups measure up.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 11 30;204:107461. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; Arkansas Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention, Arkansas Children's Research Institute, Little Rock, AR, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Substance use during pregnancy is a major medical and public health concern. Determination of the most appropriate screening protocol remains a clinical conundrum. Interviews and/or laboratory drug screens may be costly, inaccurate, and are frequently inadequate to identify patterns of substance use for a given population or geographic area. We compared commercially available urine "dip cup" toxicology screens obtained in the clinic to university hospital drug toxicology results.

Methods: 267 observed urine samples were collected from pregnant women with known substance use disorders enrolled in a specialized treatment program that included access to buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment. Each urine sample was tested by commercial dip cup with temperature confirmation and then sent to the university hospital laboratory for analyses. The number of substances detected and cost for each screening method were compared.

Results: Uniformly, the dip cup had comparable detection of amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine, methadone, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol to the university hospital laboratory with the exception of benzodiazepines. In addition, the dip cup detected use of buprenorphine (a commonly misused opiate receptor ligand not included in the hospital screen) and was significantly less expensive.

Conclusions: Commercially available urine dip cups are cost-effective, equally comparable to hospital based screening, and provide 'real time' results germane to clinical care and treatment planning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.04.032DOI Listing
November 2019

Distress predicts utilization of psychosocial health services in oncology patients.

Psychooncology 2019 01 29;28(1):61-67. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

Objective: The prevalence of increased distress among cancer patients has been well established and is known to be associated with negative consequences. Limited research has examined the association between distress and utilization of services, however, which is critical to understanding whether measurements of distress are being used to optimize patient care in the context of cancer.

Methods: One thousand two hundred thirteen adult cancer patients completed the Distress Thermometer and Patient Needs Assessment early in their cancer care. Electronic medical record (EMR)-abstracted data included psychosocial service utilization in the 12 months following the completion of these psychosocial metrics. Logistic regressions followed by t tests were completed to assess if distress or unmet needs were affiliated with service utilization rates.

Results: When controlling for age, distress significantly predicted service utilization rates overall. Follow-up t tests suggest that use of social work and registered dietician services was higher among those with distress scores greater than 6. When assessing unmet needs, utilization rates were positively associated with number of unmet needs, specifically for social work and dieticians.

Conclusions: Distress and unmet needs were related to higher rates of psychosocial service utilization during the 12 months following assessment of symptoms. These results support the continued mandate for evaluation of distress and suggest that psychosocial screening may be assisting in directing referrals and enhancing comprehensive care for patients. As psychosocial services grow, the need for continued evaluation is recommended to determine if psychology and chaplaincy services are utilized at higher rates as available providers increase.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.4910DOI Listing
January 2019

Childhood trauma and problem behavior: Examining the mediating roles of experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes.

J Am Coll Health 2019 01 19;67(1):17-26. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

a Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences , University of Iowa , Iowa City , Iowa , USA.

Objective: Childhood trauma is associated with a variety of risky, unhealthy, or problem behaviors. The current study aimed to explore experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes as mechanisms through which childhood trauma and problem behavior are linked in a college sample.

Participants: The sample consisted of college-aged young adults recruited November-December, 2016 (N = 414).

Methods: Participants completed self-report measures of childhood trauma, current problem behavior, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness processes. Bootstrapped mediation analyses examined the mechanistic associations of interest.

Results: Mediation analyses indicated that experiential avoidance was a significant mediator of the association between childhood trauma and problem behavior. Additionally, multiple mediation analyses indicated that specific mindfulness facets-act with awareness and nonjudgment of inner experience-significantly mediated the same association.

Conclusions: Interventions for college students who have experienced childhood trauma might profitably target mechanisms such as avoidance and mindfulness in order to minimize engagement in problem behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2018.1455689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296903PMC
January 2019

The impact of maternal flood-related stress and social support on offspring weight in early childhood.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2018 04 28;21(2):225-233. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The current study examined the moderating role of social support in the association between prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) and childhood body mass index (BMI) in the context of the Iowa floods of 2008. In addition, the mediating role of offspring birthweight was examined in the association between PNMS and childhood BMI. We recruited women from eastern Iowa who were pregnant in 2008 when disastrous floods occurred. Self-report measures of PNMS and cognitive appraisal of the flood's consequences were obtained shortly after the disaster. Social support was assessed during pregnancy. Offspring anthropometric measures were collected at birth and 30 months. Moderated mediation results indicated that greater PNMS predicted greater BMI at age 30 months through effects on higher birthweight as a mediator, but only for participants with low social support. High social support (satisfaction or number) buffered the effect of PNMS or a negative appraisal of the flood on birthweight. The combination of high PNMS or a negative appraisal of the flood's consequences and low social support resulted in higher offspring birthweight, which predicted greater BMI at 30 months. Providing strong social support to pregnant women following a stressor might buffer the effects of PNMS on offspring birthweight and later obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-017-0786-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318548PMC
April 2018

A meta-analysis of fear-avoidance and pain intensity: The paradox of chronic pain.

Authors:
Emily B Kroska

Scand J Pain 2016 10 27;13:43-58. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

University of Iowa, E11 Seashore Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Background: The fear-avoidance model of chronic pain has established avoidance as a predictor of negative outcomes in chronic pain patients. Avoidance, or deliberate attempts to suppress or prevent unwanted experiences (e.g., pain), has been studied extensively, with multiple reviews implicating this behavior as a predictor of disability, physical disuse, and depression. Despite hundreds of studies examining the associations between different components of this model (i.e., catastrophizing, fear, avoidance, depression), the association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity has remained unclear. The present study seeks to clarify this association across samples.

Method: The present analyses synthesize the literature (articles from PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest) to determine if fear-avoidance and pain intensity are consistently correlated across studies, samples, and measures. Eligible studies measured pain intensity and fear-avoidance cross-sectionally in chronic pain patients. The search resulted in 118 studies eligible for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to estimate the weighted mean effect size. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software was used for all analyses. Moderation analyses elucidate the variables that affect the strength of this association. Meta-regression and meta-ANOVA analyses were conducted to examine moderating variables. Moderator variables include demographic characteristics, pain characteristics, study characteristics, and national cultural characteristics (using Hofstede's cultural dimensions). Publication bias was examined using the funnel plot and the p-curve.

Results: Results indicate a small-to-moderate positive association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity. The results were stable across characteristics of the sample, including mean age, gender distribution, marital status, and duration of pain. Moderation analyses indicate that the measures utilized and cultural differences affect the strength of this association. Weaker effect sizes were observed for studies that utilized measures of experiential avoidance when compared to studies that utilized pain-specific fear-avoidance measures. Studies that utilized multiple measures of fear-avoidance had stronger effect sizes than studies that utilized a single measure of fear-avoidance. Three of Hofstede's cultural dimensions moderated the association, including Power Distance Index, Individualism versus Collectivism, and Indulgence versus Restraint.

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis synthesizes the results from studies examining the association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity among individuals with chronic pain. The positive association indicates that those with increased fear-avoidance have higher pain intensity, and those with higher pain intensity have increased fear-avoidance. Findings indicate that cultural differences and measurement instruments are important to consider in understanding the variables that affect this association. The significant cultural variations may indicate that it is important to consider the function of avoidance behavior in different cultures in an effort to better understand each patient's cultural beliefs, as well as how these beliefs are related to pain and associated coping strategies.

Implications: The results from the current meta-analysis can be used to inform interventions for patients with chronic pain. In particular, those with more intense pain or increased fear-avoidance should be targeted for prevention and intervention work. Within the intervention itself, avoidance should be undermined and established as an ineffective strategy to manage pain in an effort to prevent disability, depression, and physical deconditioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2016.06.011DOI Listing
October 2016

Effects of traumatic experiences on obsessive-compulsive and internalizing symptoms: The role of avoidance and mindfulness.

J Affect Disord 2018 01 31;225:326-336. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

University of Iowa, USA.

Background: Trauma exposure is associated with adverse psychological outcomes including anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a period of vulnerability for the onset of these types of psychological symptoms. The current study explored the mediating roles of experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes in the association between retrospective reports of childhood trauma and current internalizing and OC symptoms in adolescents.

Method: A group of at-risk adolescents (N = 51) and a group of college students (N = 400) reported on childhood trauma, experiential avoidance, mindfulness, anxiety, depressive, and OC symptoms. Mediation analyses were performed to examine the mechanistic roles of avoidance and mindfulness in the association between trauma and internalizing and OC-specific symptoms.

Results: In the group of at-risk adolescents, experiential avoidance and mindfulness both significantly mediated the association between childhood trauma and OC symptoms. In the college student sample, experiential avoidance mediated the association between trauma and OC symptoms. Experiential avoidance, as well as the observe, act with awareness, and nonjudgmental facets of mindfulness all significantly mediated the association between trauma and internalizing symptoms.

Limitations: The group of at-risk adolescents was small, and the college student group was demographically homogeneous. All data was self-report and cross-sectional.

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that experiential avoidance and mindfulness processes may be the mechanisms through which the association between trauma and obsessive-compulsive and trauma and internalizing symptoms exist in adolescents. These findings provide potential targets for clinical intervention to improve outcomes for adolescents who have experienced trauma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5654743PMC
January 2018

Immediate postpartum mood assessment and postpartum depressive symptoms.

J Affect Disord 2017 Jan 23;207:69-75. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

University of Iowa, United States.

Background: Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression).

Methods: Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N=526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n=364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n=271).

Results: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression.

Limitations: The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments.

Conclusions: The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107139PMC
January 2017
-->