Publications by authors named "Emilio H Moriguchi"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Role of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Patients With Heart Failure, Regardless of Diabetes Status: Focus on Cardiovascular Disease.

Ann Pharmacother 2021 10 5;55(10):1267-1275. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Postgraduate Program in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Sciences, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul School of Medicine, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective: To provide clinical guidance and an overview of the available data on the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Data Sources: We searched the MEDLINE database via PubMed (from January 2015 to November 2020) for the following key terms: , and .

Study Selection And Data Extraction: To be included in the review, the articles needed to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in the heart failure (HF) scenario.

Data Synthesis: There is consistent evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events and hospitalization in patients with HFrEF, even in the absence of T2DM. On May 5, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dapagliflozin for adults with HFrEF, regardless of the presence of T2DM, even in those patients on standard therapy, including an angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor.

Relevance To Patient Care And Clinical Practice: The SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated, and their once-daily dosing without the need for adjustments is convenient. These drugs can be considered a major breakthrough in pharmacotherapy for HF, providing physicians with a new treatment approach to reduce major clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: SGLT2 inhibitor therapy reduces CV death and hospitalizations in HFrEF patients regardless of T2DM. The decision to prescribe this class of drugs should not be determined by glycemic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028020985111DOI Listing
October 2021

Implementation of a Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program for improvement on quality of diet and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events: A randomized, multicenter trial.

Am Heart J 2019 09 21;215:187-197. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

Background: Appropriate dietary recommendations represent a key part of secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the effectiveness of the implementation of a nutritional program on quality of diet, cardiovascular events, and death in patients with established CVD.

Methods: In this open-label, multicenter trial conducted in 35 sites in Brazil, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 45 years or older to receive either the BALANCE Program (experimental group) or conventional nutrition advice (control group). The BALANCE Program included a unique nutritional education strategy to implement recommendations from guidelines, adapted to the use of affordable and regional foods. Adherence to diet was evaluated by the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Secondary end points included biochemical and anthropometric data, and blood pressure levels.

Results: From March 5, 2013, to Abril 7, 2015, a total of 2534 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either the BALANCE Program group (n = 1,266) or the control group (n = 1,268) and were followed up for a median of 3.5 years. In total, 235 (9.3%) participants had been lost to follow-up. After 3 years of follow-up, mean modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (scale 0-70) was only slightly higher in the BALANCE group versus the control group (26.2 ± 8.4 vs 24.7 ± 8.6, P < .01), mainly due to a 0.5-serving/d greater intake of fruits and of vegetables in the BALANCE group. Primary end point events occurred in 236 participants (18.8%) in the BALANCE group and in 207 participants (16.4%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI 0.95-1.38; P = .15). Secondary end points did not differ between groups after follow-up.

Conclusions: The BALANCE Program only slightly improved adherence to a healthy diet in patients with established CVD and had no significant effect on the incidence of cardiovascular events or death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.06.010DOI Listing
September 2019

ST-elevation myocardial infarction risk in the very elderly.

BBA Clin 2016 Dec 4;6:108-12. Epub 2016 Sep 4.

Cardiology Department, State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Background: Despite the high incidence and mortality of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) among the very elderly, risk markers for this condition remain poorly defined. This study was designed to identify independent markers of STEMI among individuals carefully selected for being healthy or manifesting STEMI in < 24 h.

Methods: We enrolled participants aged 80 years or older of whom 50 were STEMI patients and 207 had never manifested cardiovascular diseases. Blood tests, medical and psychological evaluations were obtained at study admission. Odds Ratio (OR) and attributed risk (AR) were obtained by multivariate regression models using STEMI as dependent variable.

Results: Low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [OR:4.41 (1.78-10.95); p = 0.001], reduced levels of HDL-C [OR:10.70 (3.88-29.46); p = 0.001], male gender [OR:12.08 (5.82-25.08); p = 0.001], moderate to severe depressive symptoms [OR:10.00 (2.82-35.50); p = 0.001], prior smoking [OR:2.00 (1.05-3.80); p = 0.034] and current smoking [OR:6.58 (1.99-21.70); p = 0.002] were significantly associated with STEMI. No association was found between STEMI and age, diabetes, hypertension, mild depressive symptoms, triglyceride or LDL-C.

Conclusions: This is the first case-control study carried out with very elderlies to assess STEMI risk. Our findings indicate that reduced HDL-C, GFR, male gender, smoking habits and moderate to severe depressive symptoms are markers of STEMI in this age group.

General Significance: In Individuals aged 80 or more years, a greater attention must be paid to low HDL-C and GFR at the expense of conventional STEMI risk factors for younger adults such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and high LDL-C or triglyceride.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5024138PMC
December 2016

The Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program to reduce events and risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: study protocol (The BALANCE Program Trial).

Am Heart J 2016 Jan 15;171(1):73-81.e1-2. Epub 2015 Aug 15.

Research Institute, Hospital do Coração (IP-HCor), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This article reports the rationale for the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE Program) Trial. This pragmatic, multicenter, nationwide, randomized, concealed, controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of the BALANCE Program in reducing cardiovascular events. The BALANCE Program consists of a prescribed diet guided by nutritional content recommendations from Brazilian national guidelines using a unique nutritional education strategy, which includes suggestions of affordable foods. In addition, the Program focuses on intensive follow-up through one-on-one visits, group sessions, and phone calls. In this trial, participants 45 years or older with any evidence of established cardiovascular disease will be randomized to the BALANCE or control groups. Those in the BALANCE group will receive the afore mentioned program interventions, while controls will be given generic advice on how to follow a low-fat, low-energy, low-sodium, and low-cholesterol diet, with a view to achieving Brazilian nutritional guideline recommendations. The primary outcome is a composite of death (any cause), cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation for peripheral arterial disease, or hospitalization for unstable angina. A total of 2468 patients will be enrolled in 34 sites and followed up for up to 48 months. If the BALANCE Program is found to decrease cardiovascular events and reduce risk factors, this may represent an advance in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2015.08.010DOI Listing
January 2016

Effects of interactions between ApoE polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and obesity on age-related trends of blood pressure levels in postmenopausal women: the Bambuì cohort study of aging (1997-2008).

Maturitas 2013 Sep 14;76(1):57-63. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Institute of Biomedical Technologies, National Research Council, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of interactions between ApoE genotypes, alcohol consumption and obesity on the age-related trends of blood pressure (BP) levels in postmenopausal women.

Study Design: A population-based prospective cohort study of all residents in Bambuì, south-eastern Brazil, aged 60 years or older. Repeated BP measurements were obtained in four waves from 851 women who underwent ApoE genotyping at baseline (88.3% of those enrolled), and multi-level random-effects pattern-mixture models were used to evaluate the age-related BP trajectories, while accounting for non-ignorable dropouts/deaths and handling heterogeneities as random parameter variations. The few measurements (2.1%) made during hormone replacement therapy were excluded from the analysis.

Results: Alcohol consumption was associated with high levels of systolic and diastolic BP in an age×genotype-dependent manner only in the non-obese women (BMI<27 kg/m(2)). Among those with the ɛ3/3 genotype, the differences in systolic and diastolic levels between drinkers and non-drinkers estimated at the age of 60 years were respectively 13.7 mmHg (p=0.022) and 10.7 mmHg (p=0.002), and disappeared in the older age groups, in which drinking was associated with systolic/diastolic hypertension if the non-obese women were ɛ4 carriers.

Conclusion: In non-obese postmenopausal women, alcohol consumption is associated with systolic and diastolic hypertension early in those with the ɛ3/3 ApoE genotype, and late in ɛ4 carriers. We hypothesize the mediation of androgen hormones and the influence of ApoE genotypes on age at natural menopause. A better understanding of these mechanisms may guide better preventive choices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.05.012DOI Listing
September 2013

Age-related trends of blood pressure levels by apolipoprotein E genotype: the Bambuì Cohort Study of Ageing (1997-2008).

Hypertens Res 2013 Mar 18;36(3):270-6. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Institute of Biomedical Technologies/CNR, National Research Council, Milan, Italy.

The role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphisms in regulating blood pressure (BP) is still not clear. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in BP levels by apoE genotypes in a population-based prospective cohort of elderly subjects, and explore interactions with plasma lipids and uric acid. Subjects whose apoE genes had been genotyped at baseline (1408, representing 80.8% of all the elderly residents in Bambuì city, south-eastern Brazil; age range 60-95 years) were included in the analysis. Repeated BP measurements were obtained in four waves. Multi-level random-effects pattern-mixture models were used to evaluate the age-related BP trajectories, accounting for non-ignorable dropouts/deaths and handling heterogeneities as random parameter variations. Subjects with the ɛ4/4 genotype and high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had higher systolic BP levels at 60 years of age than those with the other genotypes (154.5 vs. 133.2 mm Hg, P=0.020), but this was not the case among the older subjects. Systolic BP increased more rapidly with age in the ɛ2 carriers, leading to significantly higher levels among the oldest. This relationship seemed to be modulated by uric acid levels, as it was present in the subjects with the ɛ2/3 genotype and high uric acid levels, and in those with the ɛ2/4 genotype and low or normal uric acid levels. The differences in systolic BP between the genotypes were age dependent, and the shift between the ɛ4 and ɛ2 alleles suggest that these alleles are involved in the different mechanisms leading to increased BP in middle-aged and elderly subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2012.175DOI Listing
March 2013

Waist circumference in children and adolescents correlate with metabolic syndrome and fat deposits in young adults.

Clin Nutr 2013 Feb 28;32(1):93-7. Epub 2012 Jul 28.

Medical School of the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do RS, Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Background & Aims: To determine the relevance of waist circumference (WC) measurement and monitoring in children and adolescents as an early indicator of overweight, metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular problems in young adults in comparison with visceral and subcutaneous adiposity.

Methods: A cohort study with 159 subjects (51.6% female) started in 1999 with an average age of 13.2 years. In 1999, 2006 and 2008 weight, height, and WC were evaluated. In 2006 blood samples for laboratory diagnosis of MS were added. In 2008 abdominal computed tomography (ACT) to quantify the fat deposits were also added.

Results: The WC measured in children and adolescents was strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI) measured simultaneously. A strong correlation was established between WC in 1999 with measures of WC and BMI as young adults. WC strongly correlated with fat deposits in ACT. The WC in 1999 expressed more subcutaneous fat (SAT), while the WC when young adults expressed strong correlation with both visceral fat (VAT) and SAT. The correlation of WC with fat deposits was stronger in females. WC and not BMI in 1999 was significantly higher in the group that evolved to MS.

Conclusions: The WC in children and adolescents was useful in screening patients for MS. WC expressed the accumulation of abdominal fat; especially subcutaneous fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2012.05.020DOI Listing
February 2013

Association of lipoprotein lipase D9N polymorphism with myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: the genetics, outcomes, and lipids in type 2 diabetes (GOLD) study.

Atherosclerosis 2009 May 14;204(1):165-70. Epub 2008 Aug 14.

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Rua Pedro de Toledo 276, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The association of polymorphisms affecting lipid metabolism with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. The Genetics, Outcomes and Lipids in type 2 Diabetes (GOLD) Study is a prospective, multicenter study, conducted on 990 patients presenting diabetes and MI (n=386), or diabetes without previous manifestation of stroke, peripheral or coronary arterial disease (n=604), recruited from 27 institutions in Brazil. APO A1 (A/G -75 and C/T +83) and APO C3 (C/G 3'UTR) non-coding sequences, CETP (Taq 1B), LPL (D9N), APO E (epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4,), PON-1 (Q192R), and two LCAT variants Arg(147)-->Trp and Tyr(171)-->Stop were tested by PCR-RFLP. There was a higher prevalence of LPL DN genotype (19% vs.12%, p=0.03) and a higher frequency of the N allele (11% vs. 7%) among subjects with MI when compared to controls, with an odds ratio of MI for carriers of 9N allele of 2.46 (95% CI=1.79-3.39, p<0.0001). This association was present in men and women, in non-smokers and in hypertensive patients. A logistic regression model including gender, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, HDL-C, left ventricle hypertrophy and D9N polymorphism showed that the latter still remained significantly associated with MI (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.02-2.25, p=0.049). These findings suggest that D9N polymorphism can be a useful risk marker for myocardial infarction and that further potential candidate genes should be screened for exploratory analysis and for future therapeutic intervention in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.08.006DOI Listing
May 2009

Elderly people's definition of quality of life.

Braz J Psychiatry 2003 Mar;25(1):31-9

Geriatric neuropsychiatric ambulatory (ANPEG) of the Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology of the Catholic University of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS). Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objectives: Senescence for some elderly people is a phase of with development and satisfaction, whereas for others is a negative stage of life. The determinants of a good quality of life in old age vary from person to person. The aims of this study were to identify 1) the prevalence of octogenarian people who evaluate their current life as being mainly characterized by a positive quality and 2) which were the domains that they identified as being the determinants of this positive quality. A same parallel study was conducted with subjects who evaluated senescence as a preponderantly negative experience.

Methods: A random and representative sample of 35% of the octogenarian people, living residing in the community, was selected among the dwellers of the city of Veranópolis, state of Rio Grande do Sul. A semi-structured questionnaire on quality of life quality was applied as well as the scale of depressive symptoms Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the index of general health Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS).

Results: Slightly more than half of the studied sample (57%) defined their current quality of life with positive evaluations, whereas 18% presented a negative evaluation of it. A group 0f 25% defined their current lives as neutral or having both values (positive and negative). Those who were dissatisfied presented more health problems according to the CIRS and more depressive symptoms when evaluated by the GDS. Satisfied subjects ones had different reasons to justify this state, however, the dissatisfied had mainly the lack of health as a reason for their suffering. The main source of reported daily well-being was the involvement with rural or domestic activities. Among the interviewed, lack of health was the main source for not presenting well-being, although there was interpersonal variability regarding what each subject considered as loss of health.

Conclusion: Possibly, for the elderly subjects a negative quality of life is equivalent to loss of health and a positive life quality is equivalent to a greater range of categories such as activity, income, social life and relationship with the family, categories which differed from subject to subject. Therefore, health seems to be a good indicator of negative quality of life, though an insufficient indicator of successful elderliness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1516-44462003000100007DOI Listing
March 2003

Comparison of the effect of two HMG CoA reductase inhibitors on LDL susceptibility to oxidation.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2003 Feb 25;80(2):156-61, 150-5. Epub 2003 Feb 25.

Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul/Fundaçao Universitária de Cardiologia, Pontifícia Univesidade Católica do RGS E Laboratório Weinmann, Porto Alegre, RS Brasil.

Objective: To study the differences between fluvastatin and pravastatin regarding LDL susceptibility to oxidation, plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides (TG) in hypercholesterolemic patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD).

Methods: A double-blind randomized parallel study was conducted that included 41 hypercholesterolemic outpatients with CHD treated at the Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul. The inclusion criteria were LDL-C above 100 mg/dL and triglycerides below 400 mg/dL based on 2 measures. After 4 weeks on a low cholesterol diet, those patients that fullfilled the inclusion criteria were randomized into 2 groups: the fluvastatin group (fluvastatin 40 mg/day) and the pravastatin group (pravastatin 20 mg/day), for 24 weeks of treatment. LDL susceptibility to oxidation was analyzed with copper-induced production of conjugated dienes (Cu2+) and water-soluble free radical initiator azo-bis (2'-2'amidinopropanil) HCl (AAPH). Spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance was used for determination of lipids.

Results: After 24 weeks of drug therapy, fluvastatin and pravastatin significantly reduced LDL susceptibility to oxidation as demonstrated by the reduced rate of oxidation (azo and Cu) and by prolonged azo-induced lag time (azo lag). The TC, LDL-C, and TG reduced significantly and HDL-C increased significantly. No differences between the drugs were observed.

Conclusion: In hypercholesterolemic patients with CHD, both fluvastatin and pravastatin reduced LDL susceptibility to oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0066-782x2003000200004DOI Listing
February 2003

Allopurinol for the treatment of aggressive behaviour in patients with dementia.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2003 Jan;18(1):53-5

Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Faculdade de Biociências, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Aggressive behaviour is commonly observed in patients with dementia, and current pharmacological treatments are still deficient in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Allopurinol is an inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, with previously suggested anti-aggressive effects. After successful treatment of aggression in two patients, we performed a case-series study with allopurinol 300 mg a day orally for 6 weeks (increasing 300 mg every 2 weeks if the response was less than 50%) in six patients with dementia associated with prominent aggressive behaviour who failed to respond to two previous treatment strategies. Five patients were considerably responsive to allopurinol (four with 300 mg within 2 weeks and one with 600 mg), apparently without side-effects, which is in accordance with its well-established safety and tolerability profile. The observed therapeutic effect of allopurinol might be due to the inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, possibly decreasing production of oxygen-free radicals or promoting the accumulation of purines. Controlled studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004850-200301000-00009DOI Listing
January 2003

Proposition of a feasible protocol to evaluate salt sensitivity in a population-based setting.

Hypertens Res 2002 Nov;25(6):801-9

Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan.

Although a variety of techniques have been devised to assess salt sensitivity, most have proven cumbersome from a methodological perspective. We therefore attempted to develop a 2-week method by which participants could be tested in an outpatient setting without requirement of a strict dietary regimen. In this method, subjects take 140 mEq of an NaCl supplement per day for 1 week and 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily for another week while maintaining their customary diet. In our first trial, 8 healthy volunteers submitted to this method, as well as to a widely-used rapid volume expansion and contraction protocol. Blood pressure measurements, blood sampling and 24-h urine collection were performed before, in the middle of, and after each intervention. There was a fair correlation (r = 0.69) between the two protocols with respect to the changes in mean blood pressure (deltaMBP), a measure of salt sensitivity. In our second trial, we tested the method on 82 Japanese subjects who had never been treated with antihypertensive drugs. DeltaMBP was significantly correlated with plasma renin activity (PRA) during salt loading (r = 0.52, p < 0.0001) and with the changes in atrial natriuretic peptide (deltaANP) (r = -0.34, p = 0.0018). When total subjects were divided into two subgroups by age, a similar tendency of correlation was observed. Age, PRA during salt loading, deltaANP, and delta norepinephrine were proven to be significant predictors of salt sensitivity and accounted for 46% of the deltaMBP variances. Based on these results, the dietary method presented here seems to be applicable for a population-based survey. Our preliminary data also suggest that PRA and ANP would be of predictive value in the salt sensitivity test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1291/hypres.25.801DOI Listing
November 2002

Soybean isoflavones reduce postmenopausal bone resorption in female Japanese immigrants in Brazil: a ten-week study.

J Am Coll Nutr 2002 Dec;21(6):560-3

WHO Collaborating Center for Research on Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective: Some human studies and animal models of experimental osteoporosis have shown that soy isoflavones may be effective on bone health. In this study, we carried out an intervention study to explore the effects of dietary isoflavone on bone metabolism.

Methods: Forty healthy female postmenopausal Japanese immigrants living in Brazil were divided into two groups: isoflavone-administered (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20). Subjects in the isoflavone-administered group ingested 37.3 mg per day for 10 weeks. The collection of 24-hour urine and the measurement of bone stiffness were performed at 0 and 10 weeks. Urinary excretion of isoflavones and bone resorption markers were analyzed.

Results: Urinary isoflavone excretion in the isoflavone-administered group was significantly increased at weeks 3 and 10. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers was reduced in the isoflavone-administered group, while the placebo group did not show any significant reduction. Differences in levels of urinary isoflavones and bone resorption markers between the two groups were significant.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the bone resorption was associated with the intake of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women, and continuous dietary intake of isoflavone may inhibit postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2002.10719255DOI Listing
December 2002

Bereavement-related cognitive impairment in an oldest-old community-dwelling Brazilian sample.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2002 May;24(3):294-301

Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil.

As it is already known that depression can cause a demonstrable impact on cognition in elderly subjects, the objective of this study was to determine whether also the mourning process is associated with any cognitive impairment in this age range. A random and representative sample (a sample with 77 subjects/total county population of oldest-old with 219 subjects = 35%) aged 80 years or more was selected from the county of Veranópolis in the Brazilian rural southern region. Of this group, the cognitive function of subjects without grief and of subjects with the presence of grief were compared. Five neuropsychological tests (the Buschke-Fuld Selective Reminding Test, the word-list from the CERAD battery, the Verbal Fluency Test, and two subtests of the Wechsler memory scale), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and two self-perceived memory impairment questionnaires were used. Presence of depressive symptomatology was identified by the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The prevalence rates of some psychiatric diagnoses (syndromic general anxiety disorder, major and minor depression) were compared between the bereaved group and the control group. There was not a statistically significant difference between the scores of controls and subjects with grief in the GDS. The frequency of affective disorders in both groups did not differ. However, the recently bereaved elderly subjects presented a mild cognitive impairment when evaluated with the MMSE, with the digit span test and with Word-list neuropsychological memory test. Likewise these bereaved octogenarian subjects presented more frequently a diagnosis of 'aging-associated cognitive decline' when compared with non-bereaved oldest-old. These results suggest that the normal sadness and/or the chronic stress of the grieving process, even without the presence of an identifiable syndromal-level depression, are associated with memory and cognitive differences among the bereaved oldest-old. Cause-effect relationships, however, cannot be established from this cross-sectional correlational study: Grief may influence cognitive functioning in the elderly, but mildly cognitively compromised elderly persons may be more likely to experience strong grief reactions after loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/jcen.24.3.294.983DOI Listing
May 2002

Prevalence of dementia in the older Japanese-Brazilian population.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002 Feb;56(1):71-5

Department of Internal Medicine and Health Care, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The prevalence of dementing disorders in Campo Grande of a community of Japanese-Brazilians who immigrated from Okinawa was studied. Previous reports showed that the dietary pattern in Japanese immigrants in Brazil, which characterized by a low fish and large meat intake, is possibly responsible for increased risk of cardiovascular diseases compared with Japanese in Okinawa. A total of 157 persons over 70-year-old were examined, and 19 cases were diagnosed as having dementia. The prevalence (cases/100 aged 70-year-older) was 12.1 for all types of dementia, 5.7 for Alzheimer's disease (AD), 0.6 for vascular dementia (VD), 4.5 for mixed dementia (AD/VD) and 1.3 for other types of dementia. There was no case of dementia with Lewy bodies or frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These results are similar to many previous studies in Western countries and some recent surveys in Japan, and clearly show that more AD than VD appears even in the Japanese-Brazilian population. The higher prevalence rate of dementia in Japanese-Brazilians compared with several studies in Japan may indicate the importance of dietary factors rather than genetic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1819.2002.00931.xDOI Listing
February 2002

The DSM-IV 'minor depression' disorder in the oldest-old: prevalence rate, sleep patterns, memory function and quality of life in elderly people of Italian descent in Southern Brazil.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002 Feb;17(2):107-16

Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: (1) To describe the prevalence of minor depression in a community-dwelling population aged 80 years and over. (2) To compare the sleep pattern, memory function and the prevalence rate of other psychiatric diagnoses between normal controls and subjects with minor depressive disorder.

Design: A random representative sample (sample=77 subjects/county population of oldest-old =219--35%) aged 80 years or more was selected from the county of Veranópolis in the Brazilian rural southern region. Of this group, eight subjects who met the DSM-IV criteria for minor depression, and 50 subjects without diagnosed delirium disorder, cognitive or affective problems were compared.

Results: The prevalence rate of minor depression was 12%. Subjects with this diagnosis were more likely to complain about sleep and memory problems than elderly people without any other affective disorder (major depression or dysthymic disorder). Otherwise, objective evaluation of these two areas, memory and sleep, did not show differences between the groups. Moreover, in terms of factors such as life satisfaction and some domains from the Short-form 36 Quality of Life Scale (SF-36), subjects with minor depression presented worse self-reported evaluations. Female gender was associated (p=0.01) with a more frequent presence of minor depression disorder, and those with this diagnosis were more likely to have co-morbidity with generalized anxiety disorder (p=0.007) when compared with elderly people without any depressive disorder.

Conclusion: In this study, minor depression has been significantly associated with lower life satisfaction and worse indexes of life quality. The results supported the current concept that minor depression is prevalent in later life, especially among the oldest-old. Subjects with minor depression had worse self-reported opinions about memory and sleep patterns, but when these variables were objectively measured, no meaningful differences could be determined by the research team. Female gender and the concurring presence of generalized anxiety disorder were both significantly associated with the presence of minor depression diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.517DOI Listing
February 2002
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