Publications by authors named "Emilia Mendes"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multifactorial 10-Year Prior Diagnosis Prediction Model of Dementia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 14;17(18). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 371 79 Karlskrona, Sweden.

Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the older adult population. To date, no cure or treatment to change its course is available. Since changes in the brains of affected individuals could be evidenced as early as 10 years before the onset of symptoms, prognosis research should consider this time frame. This study investigates a broad decision tree multifactorial approach for the prediction of dementia, considering 75 variables regarding demographic, social, lifestyle, medical history, biochemical tests, physical examination, psychological assessment and health instruments. Previous work on dementia prognoses with machine learning did not consider a broad range of factors in a large time frame. The proposed approach investigated predictive factors for dementia and possible prognostic subgroups. This study used data from the ongoing multipurpose Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, consisting of 726 subjects (91 presented dementia diagnosis in 10 years). The proposed approach achieved an AUC of 0.745 and Recall of 0.722 for the 10-year prognosis of dementia. Most of the variables selected by the tree are related to modifiable risk factors; physical strength was important across all ages. Also, there was a lack of variables related to health instruments routinely used for the dementia diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557767PMC
September 2020

Bone age assessment with various machine learning techniques: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(7):e0220242. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.

Background: The assessment of bone age and skeletal maturity and its comparison to chronological age is an important task in the medical environment for the diagnosis of pediatric endocrinology, orthodontics and orthopedic disorders, and legal environment in what concerns if an individual is a minor or not when there is a lack of documents. Being a time-consuming activity that can be prone to inter- and intra-rater variability, the use of methods which can automate it, like Machine Learning techniques, is of value.

Objective: The goal of this paper is to present the state of the art evidence, trends and gaps in the research related to bone age assessment studies that make use of Machine Learning techniques.

Method: A systematic literature review was carried out, starting with the writing of the protocol, followed by searches on three databases: Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science to identify the relevant evidence related to bone age assessment using Machine Learning techniques. One round of backward snowballing was performed to find additional studies. A quality assessment was performed on the selected studies to check for bias and low quality studies, which were removed. Data was extracted from the included studies to build summary tables. Lastly, a meta-analysis was performed on the performances of the selected studies.

Results: 26 studies constituted the final set of included studies. Most of them proposed automatic systems for bone age assessment and investigated methods for bone age assessment based on hand and wrist radiographs. The samples used in the studies were mostly comprehensive or bordered the age of 18, and the data origin was in most of cases from United States and West Europe. Few studies explored ethnic differences.

Conclusions: There is a clear focus of the research on bone age assessment methods based on radiographs whilst other types of medical imaging without radiation exposure (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging) are not much explored in the literature. Also, socioeconomic and other aspects that could influence in bone age were not addressed in the literature. Finally, studies that make use of more than one region of interest for bone age assessment are scarce.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220242PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6657881PMC
March 2020

Towards understanding the relation between citations and research quality in software engineering studies.

Scientometrics 2018 22;117(3):1453-1478. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

BTH - Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Karlskrona, Sweden.

The importance of achieving high quality in research practice has been highlighted in different disciplines. At the same time, citations are utilized to measure the impact of academic researchers and institutions. One open question is whether the quality in the reporting of research is related to scientific impact, which would be desired. In this exploratory study we aim to: (1) Investigate how consistently a scoring rubric for rigor and relevance has been used to assess research quality of software engineering studies; (2) Explore the relationship between rigor, relevance and citation count. Through backward snowball sampling we identified 718 primary studies assessed through the scoring rubric. We utilized cluster analysis and conditional inference tree to explore the relationship between quality in the reporting of research (represented by rigor and relevance) and scientiometrics (represented by normalized citations). The results show that only rigor is related to studies' normalized citations. Besides that, confounding factors are likely to influence the number of citations. The results also suggest that the scoring rubric is not applied the same way by all studies, and one of the likely reasons is because it was found to be too abstract and in need to be further refined. Our findings could be used as a basis to further understand the relation between the quality in the reporting of research and scientific impact, and foster new discussions on how to fairly acknowledge studies for performing well with respect to the emphasized research quality. Furthermore, we highlighted the need to further improve the scoring rubric.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2907-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267265PMC
September 2018

Machine learning and microsimulation techniques on the prognosis of dementia: A systematic literature review.

PLoS One 2017 29;12(6):e0179804. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.

Background: Dementia is a complex disorder characterized by poor outcomes for the patients and high costs of care. After decades of research little is known about its mechanisms. Having prognostic estimates about dementia can help researchers, patients and public entities in dealing with this disorder. Thus, health data, machine learning and microsimulation techniques could be employed in developing prognostic estimates for dementia.

Objective: The goal of this paper is to present evidence on the state of the art of studies investigating and the prognosis of dementia using machine learning and microsimulation techniques.

Method: To achieve our goal we carried out a systematic literature review, in which three large databases-Pubmed, Socups and Web of Science were searched to select studies that employed machine learning or microsimulation techniques for the prognosis of dementia. A single backward snowballing was done to identify further studies. A quality checklist was also employed to assess the quality of the evidence presented by the selected studies, and low quality studies were removed. Finally, data from the final set of studies were extracted in summary tables.

Results: In total 37 papers were included. The data summary results showed that the current research is focused on the investigation of the patients with mild cognitive impairment that will evolve to Alzheimer's disease, using machine learning techniques. Microsimulation studies were concerned with cost estimation and had a populational focus. Neuroimaging was the most commonly used variable.

Conclusions: Prediction of conversion from MCI to AD is the dominant theme in the selected studies. Most studies used ML techniques on Neuroimaging data. Only a few data sources have been recruited by most studies and the ADNI database is the one most commonly used. Only two studies have investigated the prediction of epidemiological aspects of Dementia using either ML or MS techniques. Finally, care should be taken when interpreting the reported accuracy of ML techniques, given studies' different contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179804PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491044PMC
September 2017

Principal component analysis in ground reaction forces and center of pressure gait waveforms of people with transfemoral amputation.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2016 Dec 23;40(6):729-738. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Porto Biomechanics Laboratory and Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: The alterations in gait pattern of people with transfemoral amputation leave them more susceptible to musculoskeletal injury. Principal component analysis is a method that reduces the amount of gait data and allows analyzing the entire waveform.

Objectives: To use the principal component analysis to compare the ground reaction force and center of pressure displacement waveforms obtained during gait between able-bodied subjects and both limbs of individuals with transfemoral amputation.

Study Design: This is a transversal study with a convenience sample.

Methods: We used a force plate and pressure plate to record the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral and vertical ground reaction force, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral center of pressure positions of 12 participants with transfemoral amputation and 20 able-bodied subjects during gait. The principal component analysis was performed to compare the gait waveforms between the participants with transfemoral amputation and the able-bodied individuals.

Results: The principal component analysis model explained between 74% and 93% of the data variance. In all ground reaction force and center of pressure waveforms relevant portions were identified; and always at least one principal component presented scores statistically different (p < 0.05) between the groups of participants in these relevant portions.

Conclusion: Principal component analysis was able to discriminate many portions of the stance phase between both lower limbs of people with transfemoral amputation compared to the able-bodied participants.

Clinical Relevance: Principal component analysis reduced the amount of data, allowed analyzing the whole waveform, and identified specific sub-phases of gait that were different between the groups. Therefore, this approach seems to be a powerful tool to be used in gait evaluation and following the rehabilitation status of people with transfemoral amputation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309364615612634DOI Listing
December 2016

Influence of wedges on lower limbs' kinematics and net joint moments during healthy elderly gait using principal component analysis.

Hum Mov Sci 2014 Dec 17;38:319-30. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

Center of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The elderly are susceptible to many disorders that alter the gait pattern and could lead to falls and reduction of mobility. One of the most applied therapeutical approaches to correct altered gait patterns is the insertion of insoles. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a powerful method used to reduce redundant information and it allows the comparison of the complete waveform. The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of wedges on lower limbs' net joint moment and range of motion (ROM) during the gait of healthy elderly participants using PCA. In addition, discrete values of lower limbs' peak net moment and ROM were also evaluated. 20 subjects walked with no wedges (control condition) and wearing six different wedges. The variables analyzed were the Principal Components from joint net moments and ROM in the sagittal plane in the ankle and knee and joint net moments in frontal plane in the knee. The discrete variables were peak joint net moments and ROM in sagittal plane in knee and ankle. The results showed the influence of the wedges to be clearer by analyzing through PCA methods than to use discrete parameters of gait curves, where the differences between conditions could be hidden.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2014.09.007DOI Listing
December 2014

Plantar pressures and ground reaction forces during walking of individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputation.

PM R 2014 Aug 29;6(8):698-707.e1. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Center of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal(§).

Objective: To describe and compare the plantar pressures, temporal foot roll-over, and ground reaction forces (GRFs) between both limbs of subjects with unilateral transfemoral amputation and with those of able-bodied participants during walking. We also verify the relevance of a force plate and a pressure plate to discriminate changes in gait parameters of subjects with limb loss.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Biomechanics laboratory.

Subjects: A total of 14 subjects with unilateral transfemoral amputation and 21 able-bodied participants.

Methods: We used a force plate and a pressure plate to assess biomechanical gait parameters while the participants were walking at their self-selected gait speed.

Main Outcome Measurements: We measured plantar pressure peaks in 6 foot regions and the instant of their occurrence (temporal foot roll-over); and GRF peaks and impulses of anterior-posterior (braking and propulsive phases), medial-lateral, and vertical (load acceptance and thrust phases) components.

Results: The thrust, braking, and propulsive peaks, and the braking and propulsive impulses, were statistically significantly lower in the amputated limb than in the sound limb (P < .05) and in able-bodied participants (P < .05). In the amputated limb, we observed higher pressure peaks in the lateral rearfoot and medial and lateral midfoot, and lower values in the forefoot regions compared to those in the other groups (P < .05). The temporal foot roll-over showed statistically significant differences among the groups (P < .05).

Conclusions: The plantar pressures, temporal foot roll-over, and GRFs in subjects with unilateral transfemoral amputation showed an asymmetric gait pattern, and different values were observed in both of their lower limbs as compared with those of able-bodied subjects during walking. The force plate and pressure plate were able to determine differences between participants in gait pattern, suggesting that both plantar pressure and GRF analyses are useful tools for gait assessment in individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputation. Because of the convenience of pressure plates, their use in the clinical context for prosthetic management appears relevant to guide the rehabilitation of subjects with lower limb amputation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2014.01.019DOI Listing
August 2014