Publications by authors named "Emilia Mancini"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oils from Cardamom Species.

Molecules 2018 Oct 30;23(11). Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.

To highlight the importance of the spices in the Mediterranean diet, the aim of the paper was to study the essential oil compositions and to clarify the potential differences in the biological activities of the three cardamom species. In the study, we compared the phytochemical profiles and biological activities of essential oils from , and . The oils were analyzed using the GC and GC/MS techniques and were mainly constituted of the oxygenated monoterpenes which represents 71.4%, 63.0%, and 51.0% of all compounds detected in , and essential oils, respectively, 1,8-cineole was the main common compound between the tree tested volatile oil. The essential oils showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms tested especially the fungal strains. The Ethiopian cardamom was the most active essential oil with fungal growth inhibition zone ranging from 12.67 to 34.33 mm, MICs values ranging from 0.048 to 0.19 mg/mL, and MBCs values from 0.19 to 1.75 mg/mL. The three tested essential oils and their main component (1,8-cineole) significantly increased the production of elastase and protease production, and motility in PAO1 in a dose dependent manner. In fact, at 10 mg/mL concentration, the three essential oils showed more than 50% of inhibition of elastolytic and proteolytic activities in PAO1. The same oils inhibited also the violacein production in strain. It was also noticed that at high concentrations, the essential oil significantly inhibited the germination of radish. A thorough knowledge of the biological and safety profiles of essential oils can produce applications of economic importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278479PMC
October 2018

Phytotoxic and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of New Peppermint Cultivar.

Nat Prod Commun 2016 Nov;11(11):1721-1724

A new menthol cultivar of Mentha x piperita L. bred in East Slovakia was evaluated for the biological activity of its essential oils (EOs). The content and composition of the EO components changed during plant development and the different effects of samples collected each month (April - September) within the growing season were noted. EOs are considered to be an important source of potential allelochemicals. Changes in EO composition influenced phytotoxic activity. Stimulation and inhibition of seed germination and root elongation occurred with different EO concentrations. The four tested bacterial strains: presented different resistance to the samples collected in different growing periods.
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November 2016

Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils.

Molecules 2015 Jul 1;20(7):12016-28. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Fisciano 84084, Salerno, Italy.

This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6-165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules200712016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332365PMC
July 2015

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

Nat Prod Commun 2014 Dec;9(12):1805-8

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.
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December 2014

Antifungal Activity of Some Constituents of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil Against Postharvest Disease of Peach Fruit.

J Med Food 2015 Aug 19;18(8):929-34. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

1 School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata , Potenza, Italy .

Plant essential oils (EOs) can potentially replace synthetic fungicides in the management of postharvest fruit and vegetable diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of thymol, carvacrol, linalool, and trans-caryophyllene, single constituents of the EO of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum against Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola, which are important phytopathogens and causal agents of brown rot of pome and stone fruits in pre- and postharvest. Moreover, the possible phytotoxic activity of these constituents was assessed and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. In vitro experiment indicated that thymol and carvacrol possess the highest antifungal activity. Results of in vivo trials confirmed the strong efficacy of thymol and carvacrol against brown rot of peach fruits. The thymol MIC resulted to be 0.16 μg/μL against M. laxa and M. fructigena and 0.12 μg/μL against M. fructicola, whereas for carvacrol they were 0.02 μg/μL against the first two Monilinia species and 0.03 μg/μL against the third. Results of this study indicated that thymol and carvacrol could be used after suitable formulation for controlling postharvest fruit diseases caused by the three studied Monilinia species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2014.0167DOI Listing
August 2015

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Anredera cordifolia grown in Brazil.

Nat Prod Commun 2014 Jul;9(7):1003-6

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 19 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil; hydrocarbons were the main constituents (67.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. At 1.25 microg/mL and 0.625 microg/mL, the oil significantly promoted the germination of S. arvensis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.
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July 2014

Seasonal variability of the main components in essential oil of Mentha × piperita L.

J Sci Food Agric 2015 Feb 23;95(3):621-7. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Department of Ecology, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, University of Prešov, 17 November St, 081 16, Prešov, Slovak Republic.

Background: Mentha × piperita is an important and commonly used flavoring plant worldwide. Its constituents, primarily menthol and menthone, change in the essential oil depending on internal and external factors, of which environmental conditions appear very important. The experiment was established in 2010 for three vegetation season, in order to observe the quantitative changes of the main components of peppermint. The determination of menthol, menthone, limonene, menthyl acetate, menthofuran and β-caryophyllene was registered.

Results: In the experimental season 2011 and 2012 a higher mean temperature than in 2010 and extreme rainfall in July 2011 and 2012 were recorded. Different environmental conditions affected the development of M. × piperita plants and the content and composition of the essential oil.

Conclusion: Seasonal and maturity variations are interlinked with each other, because the specific ontogenic growth stage differed as the season progressed. Fluctuations in monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns affected the quality of peppermint essential oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6802DOI Listing
February 2015

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).

Chem Biodivers 2014 Apr;11(4):639-51

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Salerno) (phone: +39-089969751; fax: +39-089969602).

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000 ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201300326DOI Listing
April 2014

Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cupressus arizonica Greene essential oils.

Chem Biodivers 2014 Jan;11(1):150-60

Laboratory for Forest Ecology, National Institute for Research in Rural Engineering, Water and Forests, BP 10, 2080 Ariana, Tunisia.

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, and female cones of Cupressus arizonica Greene, grown in Tunisia, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 62 compounds were identified, 62 in the leaf oil, 19 in the cone oil, and 24 in the stem oil. The cone and stem oils were mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (96.6 and 85.2%, resp.). In the leaf oil, the total sesquiterpene fraction constituted 36.1% and that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 33.8% of the total oil composition. The three oils were evaluated for their in vitro herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of the four weed species Sinapis arvensis L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Trifolium campestre Schreb., and Phalaris canariensis L. At the highest doses tested (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml), the leaf essential oil inhibited either totally or almost completely the seed germination and the shoot and root growth of S. arvensis and T. campestre. The oils were also tested for their antifungal activity; however, their effects on the fungal growth were statistically not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201300191DOI Listing
January 2014

Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic activity of the essential oils of Stachys rupestris and Salvia heldreichiana, two endemic plants of Turkey.

Nat Prod Commun 2013 Nov;8(11):1637-40

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.

The chemical composition of the essential oils of two endemic plants of Turkey, Stachys rupestris Montbret et Aucher ex Benth. and Salvia heldreichiana Boiss. ex Benth., were obtained by hydrodistillation and studied by GC and GC-MS. In all, 46 compounds were identified, 22 for S. rupestris accounting for 94.6% of the total oil and 30 for S. heldreichiana, accounting for 91.9% of the total oil. The presence of diterpenoids (50.7%) characterized the oil from S. rupestris, while S. heldreichiana oil was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (78.9%).The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro potential cytotoxic activity on three human cancer cell lines. The oil of S. rupestris showed the higher antiproliferative activity against PC-3 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines.
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November 2013

Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

Molecules 2013 Dec 4;18(12):14948-60. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy.

This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules181214948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6270476PMC
December 2013

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique.

Molecules 2013 Sep 9;18(9):10989-1000. Epub 2013 Sep 9.

Centre for Research and Development in Ethnobotany-CIDE, Rua de Igreja, Casa zero, Vila Namaacha, Maputo Province, Mozambique.

The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules180910989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269949PMC
September 2013

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

Nat Prod Commun 2013 Mar;8(3):407-10

Laboratorie d'Ecologie Forestière, Institut National de Recherches en Génie Rural, Eaux et Forêts, BP 10, 2080 Ariana, Tunisia.

Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant.
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March 2013

Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2013 Mar 23;9:19. Epub 2013 Mar 23.

Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano, (Salerno) 84084, Italy.

Background: This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions.

Methods: In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years.

Results: The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported.

Conclusions: Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3621777PMC
March 2013

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Calamintha nepeta plants from the wild in southern Italy.

Nat Prod Commun 2013 Jan;8(1):139-42

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

The chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, collected in the Campania Region, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 42 compounds were identified. The oil was characterized by a prevalence of the sesquiterpenic fraction (80.8%). The main components were 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (18.5%), allo-aromadendrene epoxide (11.4%) and cadalene (5.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil showed no antioxidant activity.
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January 2013

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from three Melaleuca species grown in Tunisia.

Int J Mol Sci 2012 Dec 5;13(12):16580-91. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Laboratory for Forest Ecology, National Institute for Research in Rural Engineering, Water and Forests, BP 10, 2080 Ariana, Tunisie.

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Melaleuca armillaris Sm., Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. and Melaleuca acuminata F. Muell., collected in Tunisia, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 46 compounds were identified, 38 for M. armillaris, 20 for M. acuminata and eight for M. styphelioides, respectively. The presence of a sesquiterpenic fraction (52.2%) characterized the oil from M. armillaris; M. sthypheliodes oil was rich in methyl eugenol, a phenolic compound (91.1%), while M. acuminata oil is mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenoids (95.6%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro potentially phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of five seeds was inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of all seeds was not affected. Moreover, the essential oils showed low antimicrobial activity against eight selected microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3546708PMC
December 2012

Traditional plant use in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern, Italy.

J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Jan 16;145(1):328-42. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche e Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano (SA) I-84084, Italy.

Aim Of Study: This paper reports an ethobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern Italy.

Materials And Methods: This study conducted between 2009 and 2011, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in Southern Italy (Campania Region). In all, we interviewed 70 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 85 years. This people belonged to families which had strong links with traditional activities of the area.

Results: The research resulted to the identification of 192 plants belonging to 64 families. Among the species reported, 86 are used in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 69 as human foods, 18 as animal feed, 61 for domestic and 8 for agricultural uses.

Conclusion: A survey of the available literature on Southern Italy ethnobotany reveals that some species have been never reported and about 10% of cited uses are new. Data obtained show that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.065DOI Listing
January 2013

In vitro phytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of selected flavonoids.

Int J Mol Sci 2012 4;13(5):5406-19. Epub 2012 May 4.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche e Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy; E-Mails: (L.D.M.); (T.M.); (E.M.); (R.P.A.).

The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms13055406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3382788PMC
August 2015

In vitro control of post-harvest fruit rot fungi by some plant essential oil components.

Int J Mol Sci 2012 21;13(2):2290-300. Epub 2012 Feb 21.

Department of Biology, Plant Protection and Agro-Forestry Biotechnology, Basilicata University, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100, Potenza, Italy; E-Mails: (I.C.); (L.A.); (G.L.R.);

Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare), previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292023PMC
August 2015

Chemical composition and possible in vitro antigermination activity of three Hypericum essential oils.

Nat Prod Commun 2011 Nov;6(11):1735-8

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.

The essential oils of Hypericum perforatum, H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum, growing in Southern Italy, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In the three oils, 111 compounds in all were identified: 53 for the oil of H. hircinum (93.7% of the total oil), 55 for H. perforatum (96.5% of the total oil) and 63 for H. perfoliatum (98.7% of the total oil). The major fraction of the essential oils of H. perforatum and H. hircinum was represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the monoterpene alpha-pinene, and the phenol thymol were the most abundant compounds in the essential oil of H. perfoliatum. The oils were evaluated for their potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativum. The germination of this latter was significantly inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum, at the highest doses tested, whereas radicle elongation of garden cress was significantly inhibited by the essential oils of H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum. The radicle elongation of radish was inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum to a major extent and by H. perforatum and perfoliatum in a minor measure.
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November 2011

Chemical composition and possible in vitro phytotoxic activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

Molecules 2011 Sep 8;16(9):7725-35. Epub 2011 Sep 8.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche e Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules16097725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264769PMC
September 2011

Chemical composition and phytotoxic effects of essential oils from four Teucrium species.

Nat Prod Commun 2010 Dec;5(12):1969-76

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

The essential oils of four Teucrium species were studied and 131 components, in all, were identified. All oils were rich in sesquiterpenes (50.0-61.9%). Caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide were the main components of Teucrium arduini; germacrene D, delta-cadinene and gamma-cadinene predominated in Teucrium maghrebinum. Carvacrol and caryophyllene predominated in Teucrium polium ssp. capitatum, while carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene were the most abundant components in Teucrium montbretii ssp. heliotropiifolium. The germination of radish and garden cress was less sensitive to the four essential oils. The radicle elongation, above all, of radish was significantly inhibited by all oils, in particular by the essential oil of T. arduini, at the highest doses tested. Among the main components of the oils, monoterpenes resulted the more active compounds.
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December 2010

The antigerminative activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes.

Molecules 2010 Sep 21;15(9):6630-7. Epub 2010 Sep 21.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.

Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±)-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules15096630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257799PMC
September 2010

An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

J Med Food 2010 Dec 27;13(6):1515-23. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Department of Biology, Protection and Agro-Forestry Biotechnology, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2009.0285DOI Listing
December 2010

Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

Molecules 2010 Jun 14;15(6):4309-23. Epub 2010 Jun 14.

Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, UNESP-Campu de Botucatu Distrito de Rubião Júnior, S/N, 18.618-000, Botucatu-SP, Brazil.

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules15064309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257658PMC
June 2010

Chemical composition and antigerminative activity of the essential oils from five Salvia species.

Molecules 2010 Feb 1;15(2):735-46. Epub 2010 Feb 1.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia africana L., Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia greggii A. Gray, Salvia mellifera Green and Salvia munzii Epling, cultivated in Eboli (Salerno, Southern Italy), was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analyses. In all, 88 compounds were identified, 54 for S. africana, accounting for 95.4% of the total oil, 55 for S. elegans (92.9%), 50 for S. greggii (96.9%), 54 for S. mellifera (90.4%) and 47 for S. munzii (97.5%), respectively. In S. africana,the amount of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids is very similar. For other species, the monoterpenoid percentage is greater than the amount of sesquiterpenoids. The oils of S. elegans, S. greggii and S. munzii were active inhibitors of germination and radical elongation of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules15020735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6263192PMC
February 2010

Chemical composition and phytotoxic effects of essential oils of Salvia hierosolymitana Boiss. and Salvia multicaulis Vahl. var. simplicifolia Boiss. growing wild in Lebanon.

Molecules 2009 Nov 19;14(11):4725-36. Epub 2009 Nov 19.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

The chemical composition of the essential oils of S. hierosolymitana Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. var. simplicifolia Boiss. collected in Lebanon was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all 115 compounds were identified: 82 for S hierosolymitana and 72 for S. multicaulis var. simplicifolia. The presence of carbonylic compounds (17%) characterizes the oil from S. hierosolymitana,while S. multicaulis var. simplicifolia oil is rich of monoterpenes (34.5%) and sesquiterpenes (46.9%). The effects of the essential oils on germination and initial radical elongation of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) were studied, indicating in a different activity against radical elongation of the species tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14114725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255438PMC
November 2009
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