Publications by authors named "Emilia Kaczmarek"

3 Publications

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Transparency or restricting gifts? Polish medical students' opinions about regulating relationships with pharmaceutical sales representatives.

Monash Bioeth Rev 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Relationships between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) often create conflicts of interest, not least because of the various benefits received by physicians. Many countries attempt to control pharmaceutical industry marketing strategies through legal regulation, and this is true in Poland where efforts are underway to eliminate any practices that might be considered corrupt in medicine. The present research considered Polish medical students' opinions about domestic laws restricting doctors' acceptance of expensive gifts from the industry, the idea of compulsory transparency, and the possibility of introducing a Polish Sunshine Law. A qualitative, focus group-based, interview method was used. Data were gathered from nine focus groups involving 92 medical students from three universities located in major Polish cities. The article presents a classification of opposing student views with regard to the consequences of introducing different legal solutions; this should be useful for policy makers deliberating on how to optimally regulate pharmaceutical marketing. The study's results are discussed in the context of the public bioethical debate in Poland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40592-021-00128-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183325PMC
June 2021

Promoting diseases to promote drugs: The role of the pharmaceutical industry in fostering good and bad medicalization.

Authors:
Emilia Kaczmarek

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

The pharmaceutical industry and drugs advertisements are sometimes accused of "creating diseases". This article assesses and describes the role of that industry in fostering medicalization. First, the notions of medicalization and pharmaceuticalization are defined. Then, the problem of distinguishing between harmful overmedicalization and well-founded medicalization is presented. Next, the phenomenon of disease mongering is explained and illustrated by the case analysis of medicalizing pain and suffering in three contexts: (1) the general idea of medicalizing physical pain, (2) the medicalization of grief and (3) disease mongering of pseudoaddiction-a condition promoted in order to increase the demand for opioid pain relievers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14835DOI Listing
March 2021

How to distinguish medicalization from over-medicalization?

Authors:
Emilia Kaczmarek

Med Health Care Philos 2019 Mar;22(1):119-128

Ethics Department, Center for Bioethics and Biolaw, Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 3, 00-097, Warsaw, Poland.

Is medicalization always harmful? When does medicine overstep its proper boundaries? The aim of this article is to outline the pragmatic criteria for distinguishing between medicalization and over-medicalization. The consequences of considering a phenomenon to be a medical problem may take radically different forms depending on whether the problem in question is correctly or incorrectly perceived as a medical issue. Neither indiscriminate acceptance of medicalization of subsequent areas of human existence, nor criticizing new medicalization cases just because they are medicalization can be justified. The article: (i) identifies various consequences of both well-founded medicalization and over-medicalization; (ii) demonstrates that the issue of defining appropriate limits of medicine cannot be solved by creating an optimum model of health; (iii) proposes four guiding questions to help distinguish medicalization from over-medicalization. The article should foster a normative analysis of the phenomenon of medicalization and contribute to the bioethical reflection on the boundaries of medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11019-018-9850-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394498PMC
March 2019
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