Publications by authors named "Emile Ferrari"

70 Publications

Value of 3D right ventricular function over 2D assessment in acute pulmonary embolism.

Echocardiography 2021 10 21;38(10):1694-1701. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Service de Cardiologie, Nice, France.

Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common life-threatening disease, with mortality related to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction.

Aims: To investigate the value of 3D global and regional RV strain in patients with acute PE and at 1 month, as compared to a control population.

Methods And Results: We conducted a longitudinal case-control prospective study, including 24 consecutive intermediate-risk PE patients. All patients underwent 2D and 3D transthoracic echocardiography within 12 hours of PE diagnosis and 1 month after hospital discharge. A control group was recruited, consisting of healthy volunteers matched on age and sex with PE patients. 3D RV echocardiographic sequences were analyzed by commercial RV-specific software and output meshes were post-processed to extract regional deformation. 3D echocardiographic 1-month follow-up was available in 18 patients. During acute PE, area strain was substantially altered in the RV free wall and within the trabecular septum. PE patients initially had RV dysfunction as assessed by 2D and 3D parameters. At follow-up, 2D parameters were restored compared to the control group, contrary to 3D RV area and circumferential strains. The McConnell's sign was identified in 83% of patients and was associated with reduced apical and global RV area strain.

Conclusions: Our 3D RV strain study demonstrates an incomplete recovery of 3D strain parameters 1 month after an episode of intermediate-risk acute PE despite restored 2D parameters. Further studies are required to assess the prognostic role and implications of this residual RV strain impairment after PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.15167DOI Listing
October 2021

Is pulmonary embolism recurrence linked with the severity of the first event? A French retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 09 29;11(9):e050910. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Cardiology Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice Hopital Pasteur, Nice, France.

Objectives: Severity of a first pulmonary embolism (PE) is sometimes proposed as a criterion for prolonging anticoagulant treatment. However, little evidence supports this idea. We attempted to determine the connection between severity of first PE and the risk of recurrence.

Participants: Patients admitted with PE between 2012 and 2018 and for whom anticoagulant treatment had been discontinued were followed. PEs were classified according to the severity into the following two groups: those with associated cardiac involvement (increased cardiac biomarker(s) and/or echocardiographic right ventricular dysfunction) and those with no cardiac involvement which were classified as non-severe. Recurrence-free survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.

Results: 417 patients with PEs (186 with cardiac involvement) were followed for at least 1 year after discontinuation of treatment with a mean follow-up of: 3.5±1.9 years. 72 patients (17.3%) experienced venous thromboembolism recurrence: 24 (5.8%), 44 (12 %) and 72 (28.3 %) respectively, at 1, 2 and 5 years. In 63 patients (88%), recurrence was a PE. Mean time to onset of recurrence was 24.9±19.9 months. At 5 years, the recurrence rate is higher when the first PE was associated with cardiac involvement p=0.043. In contrast, in patients with provoked PE, the recurrence rate is higher when the first PE event was associated with cardiac involvement: p=0.032. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that PE severity is an independent factor of recurrence (HR 1.634 (1.015-2.632), p=0.043).

Conclusion: We report for the first time a possible link between a higher recurrence rate and the severity of the first PE. This result which must be confirmed in a dedicated prospective trial could become an important criterion for the duration of anticoagulant therapy after a PE.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04980924.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483023PMC
September 2021

Cohort study: "Outcomes of kidney transplantation in patients with prosthetic heart valves".

Transpl Int 2021 Nov 19;34(11):2297-2304. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Department, Pasteur 2 Hospital, Nice University Hospital, Nice, France.

The number of kidney transplant candidates with prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) is increasing. Yet, outcomes of kidney transplantation in these patients are still unclear. This is the first report of post-transplant outcomes in patients with PHVs at time of kidney transplantation. We conducted a matched cohort study among recipients from the multicentric and prospective DIVAT cohort to compare the outcomes in patients with left-sided PHVs at time of transplantation and a group of recipients without PHV matched according to age, dialysis time, initial disease, pretransplant DSA, diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Of 23 018 patients, 92 patients with PHVs were included and compared to 276 patients without PHV. Delayed graft function and postoperative bleeding occurred more frequently in patients with PHVs. Kidney graft survival was similar between groups. 5-year overall survival was 68.5% in patients with PHV vs. 87.9% in patients without PHV [HR, 2.72 (1.57-4.70), P = 0.0004]. Deaths from infection, endocarditis, and bleeding were more frequent in patients with PHV. Mechanical valves, but not bioprosthetic valves, were independent risk factors for mortality [HR, 2.89 (1.68-4.97), P = 0.0001]. Patients with PHV have high mortality rates after kidney transplantation. These data suggest that mechanical valves, but not biological valves, increase risks of post-transplant mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.14008DOI Listing
November 2021

Slow pathway elimination using antegrade conduction improvement with fast atrial pacing during AVNRT radiofrequency ablation: a proof-of-concept study.

Acta Cardiol 2021 Aug 20:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Pasteur University Hospital Centre, Nice, France.

Background: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of slow pathway (SP) is usually performed in sinus rhythm while monitoring the occurrence of a slow junctional rhythm (JR). JR although sensitive, is not specific for elimination of SP conduction. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate feasibility and safety of SP elimination using fast atrial rate pacing (FAP) during RF delivery.

Methods: Consecutive patients admitted for atrioventricular nodal re-rentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) ablation were included. The rate of proximal coronary sinus (CS) pacing was set to a value constantly yielding antegrade SP conduction, while carefully monitoring the AH interval. RF delivery (at the lower part of Koch's triangle) was considered successful if the AH shortened ≥ 14 ms or if transition from Wenckebach (WK) periods to a 1:1 conduction occurred.

Results: 24 patients were included (54 ± 20 y). Typical AVNRT was induced in all (cycle length 349 ± 83 ms). RF delivery during CS pacing (335 ± 73 ms) led to AH shortening by 51 ± 25 ms in 13 patients. In 10 patients, a transition from 3:2 or 4:3 WK periods to 1:1 conduction occurred during the successful pulse. In one patient, atrial fibrillation was systematically induced during FAP, requiring conventional ablation. Non-inducibility, and SP conduction disappearance was obtained in all patients. No patient developed AV block. After a follow-up of 12 ± 3 months, no recurrences were observed.

Conclusion: SP ablation using FAP during RF delivery allows direct visualisation of its disappearance. In our cohort of patients, this technique was feasible without safety compromise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00015385.2021.1965355DOI Listing
August 2021

Early switch to oral anticoagulation in patients with acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PEITHO-2): a multinational, multicentre, single-arm, phase 4 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Sep 4;8(9):e627-e636. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Internal and Subintensive Medicine Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Ancona, Italy.

Background: Current guidelines recommend a risk-adjusted treatment strategy for the management of acute pulmonary embolism. This is a particular patient category for whom optimal treatment (anticoagulant treatment, reperfusion strategies, and duration of hospitalisation) is currently unknown. We investigated whether treatment of acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism with parenteral anticoagulation for a short period of 72 h, followed by a switch to a direct oral anticoagulant (dabigatran), is effective and safe.

Methods: We did a multinational, multicentre, single-arm, phase 4 trial at 42 hospitals in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with symptomatic intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, with or without deep-vein thrombosis, were enrolled. Patients received parenteral low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin for 72 h after diagnosis of pulmonary embolism before switching to oral dabigatran 150 mg twice per day following a standard clinical assessment. The primary outcome was recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism or pulmonary embolism-related death within 6 months. The primary and safety outcomes were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The study was terminated early, as advised by the data safety and monitoring board, following sample size adaptation after the predefined interim analysis on Dec 18, 2018. This trial is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2015-001830-12) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02596555).

Findings: Between Jan 1, 2016, and July 31, 2019, 1418 patients with pulmonary embolism were screened, of whom 402 were enrolled and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (median age was 69·5 years [IQR 60·0-78·0); 192 [48%] were women and 210 [52%] were men). Median follow-up was 217 days (IQR 210-224) and 370 (92%) patients adhered to the protocol. The primary outcome occurred in seven (2% [upper bound of right-sided 95% CI 3]; p<0·0001 for rejecting the null hypothesis) patients, with all events occurring in those with intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism (seven [3%; upper bound of right-sided 95% CI 5] of 283). At 6 months, 11 (3% [95% CI 1-5]) of 402 patients had at least one major bleeding event and 16 (4% [2-6]) had at least one clinically relevant non-major bleeding event; the only fatal haemorrhage occurred in one (<1%) patient before the switch to dabigatran.

Interpretation: A strategy of early switch from heparin to dabigatran following standard clinical assessment was effective and safe in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. Our results can help to refine guideline recommendations for the initial treatment of acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, optimising the use of resources and avoiding extended hospitalisation.

Funding: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, University Medical Center Mainz, and Boehringer Ingelheim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00203-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Quality of life in patients with pulmonary embolism treated with edoxaban versus warfarin.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2021 Jul 14;5(5):e12566. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Daiichi Sankyo Pharma Development Basking Ridge NJ USA.

Background: Long-term sequelae of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) include decreased quality of life (QoL). Evidence suggests that adequacy of initial anticoagulant treatment in the acute phase of venous thrombosis has a key impact on late postthrombotic complications. We hypothesize that patients with acute PE treated with edoxaban for acute PE experience have improved QoL compared to those treated with warfarin.

Methods: Patients with PE who participated in the Hokusai-VTE trial were contacted between June 2017 and September 2020 for a single long-term follow-up visit. Main outcomes were the generic and disease-specific QoL measured by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life questionnaire.

Results: We included 251 patients from 26 centers in eight countries, of which 129 (51%) had been assigned to edoxaban and 122 (49%) to warfarin. Patient- and thrombus-specific characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean time since randomization in the Hokusai-VTE trial was 7.0 years (standard deviation, 1.0). No relevant or statistical differences were observed in the QoL for patients treated with edoxaban compared to patients treated with warfarin. The mean difference between patients treated with edoxaban and patients with PE treated with warfarin was 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]. -1.6 to 3.2) for the SF-36 summary mental score and 1.6 (95% CI, -0.9 to 4.1) for summary physical score.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that patients with an index PE treated with edoxaban or warfarin have a similar long-term QoL. Since our study was a follow-up study from a well-controlled clinical trial setting, future studies should be designed in a daily clinical practice setting. We suggest a longitudinal design for investigation of changes in QoL over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279124PMC
July 2021

Does Unidirectional Block Exist after a Radiofrequency Line Creation? Insights from Ultra-High-Density Mapping (The UNIBLOCK Study).

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 6;10(11). Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Cardiology Department, Pasteur University Hospital, 06000 Nice, France.

Background: Whether unidirectional conduction block (UB) can be observed after creation of a radiofrequency (RF) line is still debated. Previous studies reported a prevalence of 9 to 33% of UB, but the assessment was performed using a point-by-point recording across the line. Ultra-high-density (UHD) system may bring some new insights on the exact prevalence of UB.

Purpose: A prospective study was conducted to assess the prevalence of UB and bidirectional block (BB) using UHD system after RF line creation.

Methods: Patients referred for atrial RF ablation procedure were included in this multicenter prospective study. UHD maps were performed by pacing both sides of the created line.

Results: A total of 80 maps were created in 40 patients (67 ± 12 years, 70% male) by pacing (mean cycle length 600 ± 57 ms) from both sides of the cavotricuspid isthmus line. After a 47 ± 17 min waiting time after the last RF application, UHD maps (mean number of 4842 ± 5010 electrograms, acquired during 6 ± 5 min) showed that BB was unambiguously confirmed on all of them. UB was not observed in any map. After a mean follow-up of 12 ± 4 months, 6 (14%) patients experienced an arrhythmia recurrence.

Conclusion: After creation of an RF line, no case of UB was observed using UHD mapping, suggesting that the presence of a conduction block along a RF line is always associated with a block in the opposite direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201044PMC
June 2021

Endovascular therapies for pulmonary embolism.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 1;7(4):e06574. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Service d'imagerie CHU Toulouse, Rangueil, France.

Purpose: The aim of this article is to define the place of new endovascular methods for the management of pulmonary embolisms (PE), on the basis of a multidisciplinary consensus.

Method And Results: Briefly, from the recent literature, for high-risk PE presenting with shock or cardiac arrest, systemic thrombolysis or embolectomy is recommended, while for lowrisk PE, anticoagulation alone is proposed. Normo-tense patients with PE but with biological or imaging signs of right heart dysfunction constitute a group known as "at intermediate risk" for which the therapeutic strategy remains controversial. In fact, some patients may require more aggressive treatment in addition to the anticoagulant treatment, because approximately 10% will decompensate hemodynamically with a high risk of mortality. Systemic thrombolysis may be an option, but with hemorrhagic risks, particularly intra cranial. Various hybrid pharmacomechanical approaches are proposed to maintain the benefits of thrombolysis while reducing its risks, but the overall clinical experience of these different techniques remains limited. Patients with high intermediate and high risk pulmonary embolism should be managed by a multidisciplinary team combining the skills of cardiologists, resuscitators, pneumologists, interventional radiologists and cardiac surgeons. Such a team can determine which intervention - thrombolysis alone or assisted, percutaneous mechanical fragmentation of the thrombus or surgical embolectomy - is best suited to a particular patient.

Conclusions: This consensus document define the place of endovascular thrombectomy based on an appropriate risk stratification of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047492PMC
April 2021

Effect of a Restrictive vs Liberal Blood Transfusion Strategy on Major Cardiovascular Events Among Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Anemia: The REALITY Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 02;325(6):552-560

Université de Paris, AP-HP, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials (FACT), INSERM U1148, Paris, France.

Importance: The optimal transfusion strategy in patients with acute myocardial infarction and anemia is unclear.

Objective: To determine whether a restrictive transfusion strategy would be clinically noninferior to a liberal strategy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Open-label, noninferiority, randomized trial conducted in 35 hospitals in France and Spain including 668 patients with myocardial infarction and hemoglobin level between 7 and 10 g/dL. Enrollment could be considered at any time during the index admission for myocardial infarction. The first participant was enrolled in March 2016 and the last was enrolled in September 2019. The final 30-day follow-up was accrued in November 2019.

Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a restrictive (transfusion triggered by hemoglobin ≤8; n = 342) or a liberal (transfusion triggered by hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL; n = 324) transfusion strategy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary clinical outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; composite of all-cause death, stroke, recurrent myocardial infarction, or emergency revascularization prompted by ischemia) at 30 days. Noninferiority required that the upper bound of the 1-sided 97.5% CI for the relative risk of the primary outcome be less than 1.25. The secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome.

Results: Among 668 patients who were randomized, 666 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 77 [69-84] years; 281 [42.2%] women) completed the 30-day follow-up, including 342 in the restrictive transfusion group (122 [35.7%] received transfusion; 342 total units of packed red blood cells transfused) and 324 in the liberal transfusion group (323 [99.7%] received transfusion; 758 total units transfused). At 30 days, MACE occurred in 36 patients (11.0% [95% CI, 7.5%-14.6%]) in the restrictive group and in 45 patients (14.0% [95% CI, 10.0%-17.9%]) in the liberal group (difference, -3.0% [95% CI, -8.4% to 2.4%]). The relative risk of the primary outcome was 0.79 (1-sided 97.5% CI, 0.00-1.19), meeting the prespecified noninferiority criterion. In the restrictive vs liberal group, all-cause death occurred in 5.6% vs 7.7% of patients, recurrent myocardial infarction occurred in 2.1% vs 3.1%, emergency revascularization prompted by ischemia occurred in 1.5% vs 1.9%, and nonfatal ischemic stroke occurred in 0.6% of patients in both groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with acute myocardial infarction and anemia, a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy resulted in a noninferior rate of MACE after 30 days. However, the CI included what may be a clinically important harm.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02648113.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.0135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873781PMC
February 2021

Active compression versus standard anterior-posterior defibrillation for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: A prospective randomized study.

Heart Rhythm 2021 03 10;18(3):360-365. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

CHU de Nice, Hôpital Pasteur, Service de Cardiologie, Nice, France.

Background: Electrical cardioversion is the first-line rhythm control therapy for symptomatic persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Contemporary use of biphasic shock waveforms and anterior-posterior positioning of defibrillation electrodes have improved cardioversion efficacy; however, it remains unsuccessful in >10% of patients.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of applying active compression on defibrillation electrodes during AF cardioversion.

Methods: We performed a bicenter randomized study including patients referred for persistent AF cardioversion. Elective external cardioversion was performed by a standardized step-up protocol with increasing biphasic shock energy (50-100-150-200 J). Patients were randomly assigned to standard anterior-posterior defibrillation or to defibrillation with active compression applied over the anterior electrode. If sinus rhythm was not achieved at 200 J, a single crossover shock (200 J) was applied. Defibrillation threshold, total delivered energy, number of shocks, and success rate were compared between groups.

Results: We included 100 patients, 50 in each group. In the active compression group, defibrillation threshold was lower (103.1 ± 49.9 J vs 130.4 ± 47.7 J; P = .008), as well as total delivered energy (203 ± 173.3 J vs 309 ± 213.5 J; P = .0076) and number of shocks (2.2 ± 1.1 vs 2.9 ± 1.2; P = .0033), and cardioversion was more often successful (48 of 50 patients [96%] vs 42 of 50 patients [84%]; P = .0455) than that in the standard anterior-posterior group. Crossover from the compression group to the standard group was not successful (0 of 2 patients), whereas crossover from the standard group to the compression group was successful in 50% of patients (4 of 8).

Conclusion: Active compression applied to the anterior defibrillation electrode is more effective for persistent AF cardioversion than standard anterior-posterior cardioversion, with lower defibrillation threshold and higher success rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.11.005DOI Listing
March 2021

Characteristics of Cardiac Injury in Critically Ill Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Chest 2021 05 28;159(5):1974-1985. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Hôpital Cochin, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Centre, Paris, France; Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Cardiac injury has been reported in up to 30% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, cardiac injury is defined mainly by troponin elevation without description of associated structural abnormalities and its time course has not been studied.

Research Question: What are the ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities as well as their time course in critically ill COVID-19 patients?

Study Design And Methods: The cardiac function of 43 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to two ICUs was assessed prospectively and repeatedly, combining ECG, cardiac biomarker, and transthoracic echocardiographic analyses from ICU admission to ICU discharge or death or to a maximum follow-up of 14 days. Cardiac injury was defined by troponin elevation and newly diagnosed ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities, or both.

Results: At baseline, 49% of patients demonstrated a cardiac injury, and 70% of patients experienced cardiac injury within the first 14 days of ICU stay, with a median time of occurrence of 3 days (range, 0-7 days). The most frequent abnormalities were ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of left ventricular (LV) abnormalities (87% of patients with cardiac injury), right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (47%), pericardial effusion (43%), new-onset atrial arrhythmias (33%), LV relaxation impairment (33%), and LV systolic dysfunction (13%). Between baseline and day 14, the incidence of pericardial effusion and of new-onset atrial arrhythmias increased and the incidence of ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities as well as the incidence of LV relaxation impairment remained stable, whereas the incidence of RV and LV systolic dysfunction decreased.

Interpretation: Cardiac injury is common and early in critically ill COVID-19 patients. ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities were the most frequent abnormalities, and patients with cardiac injury experienced more RV than LV systolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.10.056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591864PMC
May 2021

High Prevalence of Acquired Thrombophilia Without Prognosis Value in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 11 25;9(21):e017773. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Hematology Laboratory University Hospital of Nice France.

Background Recent literature reports a strong thrombotic tendency in patients hospitalized for a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This characteristic is unusual and seems specific to COVID-19 infections, especially in their severe form. Viral infections can trigger acquired thrombophilia, which can then lead to thrombotic complications. We investigate for the presence of acquired thrombophilia, which could participate in this phenomenon, and report its prevalence. We also wonder if these thrombophilias participate in the bad prognosis of severe COVID-19 infections. Methods and Results In 89 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection, we found a 20% prevalence of PS (protein S) deficiency and a high (ie, 72%) prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies: mainly lupus anticoagulant. The presence of PS deficiency or antiphospholipid antibodies was not linked with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time nor with D-dimer, fibrinogen, or CRP (C-reactive protein) concentrations. These coagulation abnormalities are also not linked with thrombotic clinical events occurring during hospitalization nor with mortality. Conclusions We assess a high prevalence of positive tests detecting thrombophilia in COVID-19 infections. However, in our series, these acquired thrombophilias are not correlated with the severity of the disease nor with the occurrence of thrombotic events. Albeit the strong thrombotic tendency in COVID-19 infections, the presence of frequent acquired thrombophilia may be part of the inflammation storm of COVID-19 and should not systematically modify our strategy on prophylactic anticoagulant treatment, which is already revised upwards in this pathological condition. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04335162.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763401PMC
November 2020

Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after lockdown according to regional prevalence of COVID-19 and patient profile in France: a registry study.

Lancet Public Health 2020 10 18;5(10):e536-e542. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Cardiology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Université de Paris, Paris, France; French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on general health care. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a nationwide lockdown in France on admissions to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, by patient characteristics and regional prevalence of the pandemic.

Methods: In this registry study, we collected data from 21 centres participating in the ongoing French Cohort of Myocardial Infarction Evaluation (FRENCHIE) registry, which collects data from all patients admitted for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) within 48 h of symptom onset. We analysed weekly hospital admissions over 8 weeks: the 4 weeks preceding the institution of the lockdown and the 4 weeks following lockdown. The primary outcome was the change in the number of hospital admissions for all types of acute myocardial infarction, NSTEMI, and STEMI between the 4 weeks before lockdown and the 4 weeks after lockdown. Comparisons between categorical variables were made using χ tests or Fisher's exact tests. Comparisons of continuous variables were made using Student's t tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Poisson regression was used to determine the significance of change in hospital admissions over the two periods, after verifying the absence of overdispersion. Age category, region, and type of acute myocardial infarction (STEMI or NSTEMI) were used as covariables. The FRENCHIE cohort is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04050956.

Findings: Between Feb 17 and April 12, 2020, 1167 patients were consecutively admitted within 48 h of acute myocardial infarction (583 with STEMI, 584 with NSTEMI) and were included in the study. Admissions for acute myocardial infarction decreased between the periods before and after lockdown was instituted, from 686 before to 481 after lockdown (30% decrease; incidence rate ratio 0·69 [95% CI 0·51-0·70]). Admissions for STEMI decreased from 331 to 252 (24%; 0·72 [0·62-0·85]), and admissions for NSTEMI decreased from 355 to 229 (35%; 0·64 [0·55-0·76]) following institution of the lockdown, with similar trends according to sex, risk factors, and regional prevalence of hospital admissions for COVID-19.

Interpretation: A marked decrease in hospital admissions was observed following the lockdown, irrespective of patient characteristics and regional prevalence of COVID-19. Health authorities should be aware of these findings, in order to adapt their message if the COVID-19 pandemic persists or recurs, or in case of future major epidemics.

Funding: Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire en Santé iVasc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30188-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498416PMC
October 2020

Atypical right heart failure in a septuagenarian.

Heart 2020 10;106(19):1524-1536

Cardiology Department, Nice University Hospital, Nice, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-316980DOI Listing
October 2020

Three-dimensional right ventricular shape and strain in congenital heart disease patients with right ventricular chronic volume loading.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 09;22(10):1174-1181

Université Côte d'Azur, Inria Epione Team, Sophia Antipolis, France.

Aims: Right ventricular (RV) function assessment is crucial in congenital heart disease patients, especially in atrial septal defect (ASD) and repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients with pulmonary regurgitation (PR). In this study, we aimed to analyse both 3D RV shape and deformation to better characterize RV function in ASD and TOF-PR.

Methods And Results: We prospectively included 110 patients (≥16 years old) into this case-control study: 27 ASD patients, 28 with TOF, and 55 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Endocardial tracking was performed on 3D transthoracic RV echocardiographic sequences and output RV meshes were post-processed to extract local curvature and deformation. Differences in shape and deformation patterns between subgroups were quantified both globally and locally. Curvature highlights differences in RV shape between controls and patients while ASD and TOF-PR patients are similar. Conversely, strain highlights differences between controls and TOF-PR patients while ASD and controls are similar [global area strain: -31.5 ± 5.8% (controls), -34.1 ± 7.9% (ASD), -24.8 ± 5.7% (TOF-PR), P < 0.001, similar significance for longitudinal and circumferential strains]. The regional and local analysis highlighted differences in particular in the RV free wall and the apical septum.

Conclusion: Chronic RV volume loading results in similar RV shape remodelling in both ASD and TOF patients while strain analysis demonstrated that RV strain is only reduced in the TOF group. This suggests a fundamentally different RV remodelling process between both conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeaa189DOI Listing
September 2021

QT Interval Prolongation Under Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin Association for Inpatients With SARS-CoV-2 Lower Respiratory Tract Infection.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 11 20;108(5):1090-1097. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Cardiology Department, Pasteur University Hospital, Nice, France.

Association between Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZT) is under evaluation for patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Both drugs have a known torsadogenic potential, but sparse data are available concerning QT prolongation induced by this association. Our objective was to assess for COVID-19 LRTI variations of QT interval under HCQ/AZT in patients hospitalized, and to compare manual versus automated QT measurements. Before therapy initiation, a baseline 12 lead-ECG was electronically sent to our cardiology department for automated and manual QT analysis (Bazett and Fridericia's correction), repeated 2 days after initiation. According to our institutional protocol (Pasteur University Hospital), HCQ/AZT was initiated only if baseline QTc ≤ 480ms and potassium level> 4.0 mmol/L. From March 24 to April 20 2020, 73 patients were included (mean age 62 ± 14 years, male 67%). Two patients out of 73 (2.7%) were not eligible for drug initiation (QTc ≥ 500 ms). Baseline average automated QTc was 415 ± 29 ms and lengthened to 438 ± 40 ms after 48 hours of combined therapy. The treatment had to be stopped because of significant QTc prolongation in two out of 71 patients (2.8%). No drug-induced life-threatening arrhythmia, nor death was observed. Automated QTc measurements revealed accurate in comparison with manual QTc measurements. In this specific population of inpatients with COVID-19 LRTI, HCQ/AZT could not be initiated or had to be interrupted in less than 6% of the cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361407PMC
November 2020

Cardiac anatomical axes by CT scan and confirmation of the accuracy of fluoroscopic individualized left anterior oblique projection for right ventricular lead implantation.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Mar 26;60(2):213-219. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Cardiology Department, Pasteur University Hospital, 30 avenue de la Voie Romaine, CS 51069, 06001, Nice CEDEX 1, France.

Background: The fluoroscopic individualized LAO (i-LAO) projection has demonstrated high accuracy for identifying right ventricular (RV) lead positioning, likely by approximating a view along the septal or RV long axes. However, RV and septal anatomical axes have not been studied, and their relation with i-LAO is unknown. We sought to determine RV, septal, and left ventricular (LV) long-axis orientations by CT scan and to compare them to the i-LAO angle, to confirm the anatomical relevance of i-LAO.

Methods: We prospectively included patients (pts) for whom i-LAO angle was determined during pacemaker or defibrillator implant. Then, RV, septal, and LV long-axis orientations were determined by CT scan by a physician blinded to i-LAO data. The horizontal components of the cardiac axes were compared with those of the i-LAO angle.

Results: We included 26 pts. Median values were 57.5° for i-LAO angle (range 47.5-70), 64.5° for RV axis (range 48-90), 51.5° for septal axis (range 39-74), and 37° for LV axis (range 25-67). i-LAO angle best correlated with septal axis (r = 0.91 and ρ = 0.71). Up to an angle of 70° (maximal measurable i-LAO value; 23/26 pts), the i-LAO angle was comprised between the septal and the RV axes (21/23 pts, 91.3%), or within 2° of this interval (2/23 pts, 8.7%).

Conclusions: RV and septal anatomical axes present major interindividual variations, prompting the use of individualized fluoroscopy criteria for lead implantation. i-LAO angle demonstrated to be almost constantly between the septal and RV long axes, thus confirming its anatomical relevance for RV lead implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-020-00729-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Incidence, clinical features and outcome of Takotsubo syndrome in the intensive care unit.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Mar 23;113(3):176-188. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, Archet 1 University Hospital, 06200 Nice, France.

Background: Most diseases encountered in the intensive care unit are associated with major stress that can potentially trigger Takotsubo syndrome. Many severe cardiovascular complications are associated with Takotsubo syndrome, yet little is known about Takotsubo syndrome in the intensive care unit.

Aims: We sought to determine the incidence of Takotsubo syndrome, and to describe its clinical features and outcome in an intensive care unit.

Methods: This prospective single-centre study included all patients admitted consecutively over a 12-month period who had transthoracic echocardiography, electrocardiography and a troponin I assay performed on admission, at 24 and 48hours after admission, and at discharge and in the case of clinical worsening.

Results: The incidence of Takotsubo syndrome was 4.6% (13/280 patients) and female sex predominated (69.2%). The median age of the subgroup with Takotsubo syndrome was 64 (56-72) years. Pulmonary disease and sepsis were the most frequent triggers (46.2% and 38.5%, respectively). Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 29.0% (20.0-37.0). Patients with Takotsubo syndrome presented with shock and arrhythmias and needed ventilation more frequently than patients without Takotsubo syndrome (69.2% vs. 36.3%, P=0.035; 46.2% vs. 13.5%, P=0.006; and 92.3% vs. 60.7%, P=0.021), but mortality rates were similar. The median delay to cardiac index recovery, when impaired, was 2.0 (1.0-2.75) days, and that of left ventricular ejection fraction was 12.5 (7-14.75) days.

Conclusion: Takotsubo syndrome in the intensive care unit is not uncommon and is associated with substantial haemodynamic and respiratory instability. New-onset arrhythmias and respiratory and haemodynamic worsening could arouse suspicion of and prompt screening for Takotsubo syndrome in the intensive care unit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2019.11.005DOI Listing
March 2020

Cavotricuspid isthmus is constantly a zone of slow conduction: Data from ultra-high-resolution mapping.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 02 6;43(2):189-193. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Cardiology, Pasteur University Hospital, Nice, France.

Background: Whether cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) is a region of conduction slowing during typical flutter has been discussed with conflicting results in the literature. We aimed to evaluate conduction velocity (CV) along the different portions of the typical flutter circuit with a recently proposed method by means of ultra-high-resolution (UHR) mapping.

Methods: Consecutive patients referred for typical atrial flutter (AFL) ablation underwent UHR mapping (Rhythmia, Boston Scientific). CVs were measured in the CTI as well as laterally and septally, respectively, from its lateral and septal borders.

Results: A total of 33 patients (mean age: 65 ± 13 years; right atrial volume: 134 ± 57 mL) were mapped either during ongoing counterclockwise (n = 25), or clockwise (n = 3) AFL (mean cycle length: 264 ± 38 ms), or during coronary sinus pacing at 400 ms (n = 1), 500 ms (n = 1), or 600 ms (n = 3). A total of 13 671 ± 7264 electrograms were acquired in 14 ± 9 min. CTI CV was significantly lower (0.56  ± 0.18 m/s) in comparison with the lateral CV (1.31 ± 0.29 m/s; P < .0001) and the septal border CV of the CTI (1.29 ± 0.31 m/s; P < .0001).

Conclusion: UHR mapping confirmed that CTI CV was systematically twice lower than atrial conduction velocities outside the CTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13862DOI Listing
February 2020

Clinical outcomes after AF cardioversion in patients presenting left atrial sludge in trans-esophageal echocardiography.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2020 Jan 22;57(1):149-156. Epub 2019 May 22.

Hôpital Pasteur, Service de Cardiologie, 30 avenue de la Voie Romaine, CS 51069 06001, Nice Cedex 1, France.

Background: Direct-current cardioversion (DCC) for atrial fibrillation carries a risk of stroke, probably associated with the temporary atrial stunning following cardioversion. The presence of a cardiac thrombus, usually localized in the left atrial appendage (LAA), is recognized as a clear contra-indication to the cardioversion. However, the presence of atrial sludge without LAA thrombus in trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) remains, for many cardiologists, a relative contra-indication to the cardioversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCC in patients presenting atrial sludge without LAA thrombus.

Methods: We prospectively included all consecutive patients demonstrating atrial sludge without LAA thrombus in TEE and undergoing DCC for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Safety of DCC was evaluated by the occurrence of clinical events at 1 month following cardioversion, i.e., up to the end of the atrial stunning period, as assessed by clinical examination and the standardized and validated Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS).

Results: Over a period of 2 years, 21 patients presenting atrial sludge without LAA thrombus underwent DCC for AF. During the follow-up period of 1 month after DCC, no clinical embolic event, cardiac event, or unscheduled consultations/hospitalizations occurred. At 1 month, 67% of the patients remained in sinus rhythm.

Conclusion: No clinical event occurred in patients demonstrating atrial sludge without thrombus and undergoing DCC for AF. These findings support current guidelines that only keep atrial thrombus as a contraindication to cardioversion, but warrant further investigation in large studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-019-00561-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Incomplete echocardiographic recovery at 6 months predicts long-term sequelae after intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. A post-hoc analysis of the Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis (PEITHO) trial.

Clin Res Cardiol 2019 Jul 18;108(7):772-778. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Introduction: Symptoms and functional limitation are frequently reported by survivors of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, current guidelines provide no specific recommendations on which patients should be followed after acute PE, when follow-up should be performed, and which tests it should include. Definition and classification of late PE sequelae are evolving, and their predictors remain to be determined.

Methods: In a post hoc analysis of the Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis (PEITHO) trial, we focused on 219 survivors of acute intermediate-risk PE with clinical and echocardiographic follow-up 6 months after randomisation as well as over the long term (median, 3 years after acute PE). The primary outcome was a composite of (1) confirmed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or (2) 'post-PE impairment' (PPEI), defined by echocardiographic findings indicating an intermediate or high probability of pulmonary hypertension along with New York Heart Association functional class II-IV.

Results: Confirmed CTEPH or PPEI occurred in 29 (13.2%) patients, (6 with CTEPH and 23 with PPEI). A history of chronic heart failure at baseline and incomplete or absent recovery of echocardiographic parameters at 6 months predicted CTEPH or PPEI at long-term follow-up.

Conclusions: CTEPH or PPEI occurs in almost one out of seven patients after acute intermediate-risk PE. Six-month echocardiographic follow-up may be useful for timely detection of late sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-018-1405-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6584226PMC
July 2019

Giant pulmonary arteriovenous malformation revealed by recurrent pregnancy loss.

Eur Heart J 2018 12;39(45):4045

Université Côte d'Azur, Faculté de Médecine, 28, avenue Valombrose NICE Cedex 2, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy579DOI Listing
December 2018

Right Ventricular Function Evolution With Pregnancy in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

Can J Cardiol 2018 10 30;34(10):1369.e9-1369.e11. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Creatis, CNRS UMR5220, INSERM U1206, Université Lyon 1, France.

This case illustrates the evolution of right ventricular (RV) 3-dimensional (3D) area strain during pregnancy in a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. The report highlights impairment in RV function with pregnancy, suggesting the importance of prepregnancy RV systolic function assessment, especially using 3D echocardiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2018.06.010DOI Listing
October 2018

Individualized Left Anterior Oblique Projection: A Highly Reliable Patient-Tailored Fluoroscopy Criterion for Right Ventricular Lead Positioning.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2018 07;11(7):e006107

Service de Cardiologie, CHU de Nice, Hôpital Pasteur, France.

Background: Classical fluoroscopic criteria for the documentation of septal right ventricular (RV) lead positioning have poor accuracy. We sought to evaluate the individualized left anterior oblique (LAO) projection as a novel fluoroscopy criterion.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing pacemaker or defibrillator implantation were prospectively included. RV lead positioning was assessed by fluoroscopy using posteroanterior, right anterior oblique 30° to rule out coronary sinus positioning, and LAO 40° in the classical group or individualized LAO in the individualized group. Individualized LAO was defined by the degree of LAO that allowed the perfect superposition of the RV apex (using the tip of the RV lead temporarily placed at the apex) and of the superior vena cava-inferior vena cava axis (materialized by a guidewire), hence providing a true profile view of the interventricular septum. Accuracy of fluoroscopy for RV lead positioning was then assessed by comparison with true RV lead positioning using transthoracic echocardiography.

Results: We included 100 patients, 50 in each study group. Agreement between RV lead septal/free wall positioning in transthoracic echocardiography and fluoroscopy was excellent in the individualized group (k=0.91), whereas it was poor in the classical group (k=0.35). Septal/free wall RV lead positioning was correctly identified in 48/50 (96%) patients in the individualized group versus 38/50 (76%) in the classical group (=0.004). For septal lead positioning, fluoroscopy had 100% Se and 89.5% Sp in the individualized group versus 91.4% Se and 40% Sp in the classical group. Complications and procedural data were comparable in both groups.

Conclusion: Individualized LAO is a quick and highly reliable patient-tailored fluoroscopy projection for RV lead positioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.117.006107DOI Listing
July 2018

Axillary vein access with or without venography: is this the dilemma in the ultrasounds era?-Authors' reply.

Europace 2018 08;20(8):1390

CHU de Nice, Hôpital Pasteur, Service de Cardiologie, 30 Avenue de la Voie Romaine, CS, Nice, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy069DOI Listing
August 2018

Multi-modality imaging in repaired anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 08;19(8):952

Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice-Hôpital Pasteur, Avenue de la voie romaine, CS 51069-06001 Nice, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jey046DOI Listing
August 2018

Classical fluoroscopy criteria poorly predict right ventricular lead septal positioning by comparison with echocardiography.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2018 Jul 13;52(2):209-215. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

CHU de Nice, Hôpital Pasteur, Service de Cardiologie, 30 Avenue de la Voie Romaine, CS 51069, 06001, Nice Cedex 1, France.

Background: Fluoroscopic criteria have been described for the documentation of septal right ventricular (RV) lead positioning, but their accuracy remains questioned.

Methods And Results: Consecutive patients undergoing pacemaker or defibrillator implantation were prospectively included. RV lead was positioned using postero-anterior and left anterior oblique 40° incidences, and right anterior oblique 30° to rule out coronary sinus positioning when suspected. RV lead positioning using fluoroscopy was compared to true RV lead positioning as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Precise anatomical localizations were determined with both modalities; then, RV lead positioning was ultimately dichotomized into two simple clinically relevant categories: RV septal or RV free wall. Accuracy of fluoroscopy for RV lead positioning was then assessed by comparison with TTE. We included 100 patients. On TTE, 66/100 had a septal RV lead and 34/100 had a free wall RV lead. Fluoroscopy had moderate agreement with TTE for precise anatomical localization of RV lead (k = 0.53), and poor agreement for septal/free wall localization (k = 0.36). For predicting septal RV lead positioning, classical fluoroscopy criteria had a high sensitivity (95.5%; 63/66 patients having a septal RV lead on TTE were correctly identified by fluoroscopy) but a very low specificity (35.3%; only 12/34 patients having a free wall RV lead on TTE were correctly identified by fluoroscopy).

Conclusion: Classical fluoroscopy criteria have a poor accuracy for identifying RV free wall leads, which are most of the time misclassified as septal. This raises important concerns about the efficacy and safety of RV lead positioning using classical fluoroscopy criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-018-0355-xDOI Listing
July 2018

Transesophageal echocardiography for the assessment of left atrial appendage thrombus: Study of the additional value of systematic real time 3D imaging after regular 2D evaluation.

Echocardiography 2018 04 4;35(4):474-480. Epub 2018 Feb 4.

Cardiology Department, Pasteur University Hospital, Nice, France.

Background: Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2DTEE) is currently validated for left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus assessment but has some limitations.

Aims: To evaluate the performance and interest of systematic real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) for LAA thrombus assessment, when performed after 2DTEE.

Methods And Results: Consecutive patients undergoing TEE were prospectively included. LAA was first evaluated using 2DTEE, and patients were classified as "2D-NT" if no thrombus was found, "2D-T" in case of clear thrombus, or "2D-EQ" if equivocal. Then, 3DTEE of the LAA was performed and patients were similarly classified as "3D-NT," "3D-T," or "3D-EQ." Additional LAA CT scan was only performed if LAA thrombus was not clearly ruled out or confirmed by TEE. Additional value of 3DTEE after 2DTEE LAA evaluation was then assessed. We included 104 patients undergoing TEE. Agreement between 2DTEE and 3DTEE was very good for thrombus diagnosis (k = 0.936), but moderate for vacant LAA (k = 0.562) due to more frequent 2D-EQ than 3D-EQ (11.5% vs 2.9%; P = .016). 3DTEE allowed to refine the LAA status in 11 of 12 (91.7%) 2D-EQ patients: 10 3D-NT, 1 3D-T, and 1 3D-EQ. Coupling 3DTEE to 2DTEE permitted a definite LAA diagnosis in 103 of 104 (99%) vs 92 of 104 (88.5%) patients when 2DTEE was used alone (P = .002). Nine (8.7%) LAA thrombi were diagnosed, and 3 CT scan were performed.

Conclusion: 3DTEE of the LAA is more effective for thrombus assessment than 2DTEE. 3DTEE should be particularly considered in case of equivocal 2DTEE, as it allows to reach a definite LAA diagnosis in almost all of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13813DOI Listing
April 2018

Diuretics versus volume expansion in acute submassive pulmonary embolism.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Nov 10;110(11):616-625. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Cardiology department, CHU Pasteur, 06000 Nice, France.

Background: The benefit of volume expansion (VE) in submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is unclear.

Aim: To compare the effects of diuretic treatment versus VE in patients hospitalized for PE with RV dysfunction.

Methods: We prospectively included 46 consecutive patients with submassive PE treated on admission with a 40mg bolus of furosemide (D group, n=24) or 500mL of saline infusion (VE group, n=22). The primary endpoint was the timing of normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin Ic concentrations. The secondary endpoints were variations in RV function variables, recorded at baseline, at the 4th hour after treatment initiation (H4) and every day until discharge, and a clinical composite endpoint of thrombolysis or death at 7 and 30 days.

Results: No differences were observed between patients at baseline. The primary endpoint occurred earlier in the D group than in the VE group (67.5±34.8 vs 111.6±63.3hours; P=0.006). Furosemide treatment on admission was well tolerated, and was not associated with serious adverse events. At H4, substantial improvements were observed in the D group versus the VE group in terms of heart rate reduction (-8.15±21.0 vs -0.71±6.30 beats/min; P<0.01) and peak tricuspid annular systolic velocity (Doppler tissue imaging) (11.4±2.10 vs 9.90±2.80cm/s; P=0.02). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of severe outcomes at 7 and 30 days.

Conclusions: In the acute management of submassive PE patients, a single furosemide bolus on admission seems to produce significant and earlier improvements in RV function markers compared with VE, without adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2017.01.016DOI Listing
November 2017
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