Publications by authors named "Emi Furukawa"

25 Publications

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Development of a Classical Conditioning Task for Humans Examining Phasic Heart Rate Responses to Signaled Appetitive Stimuli: A Pilot Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 1;15:639372. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Lab of Electric Stimulation of the Nervous System Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Cardiac responses to appetitive stimuli have been studied as indices of motivational states and attentional processes, the former being associated with cardiac acceleration and latter deceleration. Very few studies have examined heart rate changes in appetitive classical conditioning in humans. The current study describes the development and pilot testing of a classical conditioning task to assess cardiac responses to appetitive stimuli and cues that reliably precede them. Data from 18 adults were examined. They were shown initially neutral visual stimuli (putative CS) on a computer screen followed by pictures of high-caloric food (US). Phasic cardiac deceleration to food images was observed, consistent with an orienting response to motivationally significant stimuli. Similar responses were observed to non-appetitive stimuli when they were preceded by the cue associated with the food images, suggesting that attentional processes were engaged by conditioned stimuli. These autonomic changes provide significant information about classical conditioning effects in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.639372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052094PMC
April 2021

Influence of Stochastic Resonance on Manual Dexterity in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Double-Blind Interventional Study.

Front Neurol 2021 30;12:626608. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University , Kitakatsuragi-gun, Japan.

There is increasing evidence that the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon provided by subthreshold mechanical noise stimulation improves the sensory-motor system. However, the effect of SR on children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess whether SR activated by subthreshold vibrotactile noise stimulation of the wrist influences manual dexterity in children with DCD. A double-blind interventional study was conducted. Participants were 30 children (age: 9.3 ± 1.44 years, range 6-11 years; 27 male, three female; 25 right-handed, five left-handed) meeting DCD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. The manual dexterity test was administered the day before SR intervention (baseline-data). SR was elicited using subthreshold vibrotactile noise stimulation at 60% of the vibrotactile threshold measured at the wrist. SR was delivered two times and the manual dexterity test was administered during each SR stimulation block (SR-on condition) and after each SR stimulation block (SR-off), for a total of four measurements. Target outcomes were the component score, the standard score, and the percentile score of the manual dexterity test. The manual dexterity test scores in the SR-on condition were significantly improved compared to scores at the baseline and in the SR-off condition ( < 0.001). The present study showed that subthreshold noise stimulation eliciting SR significantly improved manual dexterity outcomes in children with DCD during stimulation but not after stimulation. Future studies will need to investigate the carry-over effects of SR stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.626608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042204PMC
March 2021

Increased visual bias in children with developmental coordination disorder: Evidence from a visual-tactile temporal order judgment task.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Feb 17;75:102743. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umaminaka, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara 635-0832, Japan; Graduate School of Health Science, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umaminaka, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara 635-0832, Japan.

Background: Previous studies have suggested that children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) rely heavily on vision to perform movements, which may contribute to their clumsy movements. However, few studies have objectively and quantitatively investigated the perceptual biases of children with DCD.

Methods: A visual-tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) task was used to measure and compare the perceptual biases of 19 children with DCD and 19 age- and sex-matched typically developing children. The point of subjective equality, which demonstrates when "visual first" and "tactile first" judgment probabilities are equal (50%), obtained by analyzing the results of the visual-tactile TOJ task, was used as an indicator of perceptual biases. Further, variables (age and manual dexterity in all participants; motor function, autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder traits, and depressive symptoms in children with DCD) associated with perceptual biases were examined with correlation analysis.

Results: Children with DCD had significantly stronger visual bias than typically developing children. Overall correlation analysis showed that increased visual bias was significantly correlated with poor manual dexterity.

Conclusion: Children with DCD had a strong visual bias, which was associated with poor manual dexterity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2020.102743DOI Listing
February 2021

Altered sense of agency in children with developmental coordination disorder.

Res Dev Disabil 2020 Dec 18;107:103794. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umaminaka, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara, 635-0832, Japan; Graduate School of Health Science, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umaminaka, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara, 635-0832, Japan.

Background: There is increasing evidence that children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in sensory-motor integration, but it is unclear whether the sense of agency (SoA) generated by sensory-motor integration is altered.

Aims: To investigate whether there is a difference in the time window for SoA between children with DCD and typically developing (TD) children.

Methods And Procedures: An agency attribution task was used to quantitatively measure and compare the time window for SoA in 15 children with DCD and 46 children in the TD group. Variables that correlated with the time window for SoA were also examined in both groups of children.

Outcomes And Results: The time window for SoA was significantly extended in children with DCD compared to TD children. The time window for SoA in TD children was significantly associated with manual dexterity, whereas the time window for SoA in children with DCD was significantly associated with depressive tendency.

Conclusions And Implications: The time window for SoA is altered in children with DCD. The present results suggest that there may be a bidirectional relationship between an internal model deficit and depressive tendency and SoA in children with DCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103794DOI Listing
December 2020

Online Japanese-Language Information on Lifestyle Factors Associated With Reduced Fertility: Content Analysis.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 25;22(8):e19777. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Health Communication, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Approximately one-third of Japanese couples currently worry or previously worried about infertility. To develop strategies for the primary prevention of infertility as a population approach, it is important for the general population to be knowledgeable about fertility and infertility. The internet may contribute to the dissemination of information regarding infertility and fertility. However, few studies have examined online information about fertility.

Objective: This study aimed to quantitatively examine online Japanese-language information about lifestyle factors associated with reduced fertility.

Methods: We conducted online searches, using the 10 search terms with the highest numbers of searches that people hoping to conceive are likely to input in two major search engines in Japan (Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan). From the 2200 retrieved websites, 1181 duplicates and 500 websites unrelated to our objective were excluded, resulting in a final dataset of 519 websites. Coding guidelines were developed for the following lifestyle factors associated with reduced fertility: sexually transmitted diseases, psychological stress, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, nutrition and diet, physical activity and exercise, underweight, overweight and obesity, and environmental pollutants.

Results: In terms of the website author's professional expertise, 69.6 % of the coding instances for the selected lifestyle factors were mentioned by hospitals, clinics, or the media, whereas only 1.7% were mentioned by laypersons. Psychological stress (20.1%) and sexually transmitted diseases (18.8%) were the most frequently mentioned lifestyle factors associated with reduced fertility. In contrast, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, nutrition and diet, physical activity and exercise, underweight, overweight and obesity, and environmental pollutants were mentioned relatively infrequently. The association between reduced fertility and sexually transmitted diseases was mentioned significantly more frequently by hospitals and clinics than by the media (P<.001). The association between reduced fertility and nutrition and diet was mentioned significantly more frequently by the media than by hospitals and clinics (P=.008). With regard to the sex of the target audience for the information, female-specific references to psychological stress, sexually transmitted diseases, nutrition and diet, underweight, physical activity and exercise, and overweight and obesity were significantly more frequent than were male-specific references to these lifestyle factors (psychological stress: P=.002, sexually transmitted diseases: P<.001, nutrition and diet: P<.001, underweight: P<.001, physical activity and exercise: P<.001, overweight and obesity: P<.001).

Conclusions: Of the lifestyle factors known to be related to reduced fertility, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and male-specific lifestyle factors are mentioned relatively infrequently in online information sources in Japan, and these factors should be discussed more in information published on websites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/19777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479583PMC
August 2020

Dorsal type letter-by-letter reading accompanying alexia with agraphia due to a lesion of the lateral occipital gyri.

Neurocase 2020 10 17;26(5):285-292. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Neurology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital , Tokyo, Japan.

We report a patient with alexia with agraphia accompanied by letter-by-letter reading after hemorrhage in the left middle and inferior occipital gyri that spared the angular gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. Kanji (Japanese morphograms) and kana (Japanese phonetic writing) reading and writing tests revealed that alexia with agraphia was characterized by kana-predominant alexia and kanji-predominant agraphia. This type of "dorsal" letter-by-letter reading is discernable from conventional letter-by-letter reading that is observed in pure alexia in that (1) kinesthetic reading is less effective, (2) kana or literal agraphia coexists, and (3) fundamental visual discrimination is nearly normal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554794.2020.1803922DOI Listing
October 2020

An Adaptation of Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) Methodology to Examine the Energizing Effects of Reward-Predicting Cues on Behavior in Young Adults.

Front Psychol 2020 14;11:195. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

D'Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

There is growing recognition that much of human behavior is governed by the presence of classically conditioned cues. The Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) paradigm offers a way to measure the effects of classically conditioned stimuli on behavior. In the current study, a novel behavioral task, an adaptation of the PIT framework, was developed for use in conjunction with an fMRI classical conditioning task. Twenty-four healthy young adults completed (1) instrumental training, (2) Pavlovian conditioning, and (3) a Transfer test. During instrumental training, participants learned to apply force to a handgrip to win money from slot machines pictured on a computer screen. During Pavlovian conditioning, slot machines appeared with one of two abstract symbols (cues), one symbol was predictive of monetary reward. During the Transfer test, participants again applied force to a handgrip to win money. This time, the slot machines were presented with the Pavlovian cues, but with the outcomes hidden. The results indicated increased effort on the instrumental task, i.e. higher response frequency and greater force, in the presence of the reward-predicting cue. Our findings add to the growing number of studies demonstrating PIT effects in humans. This new paradigm is effective in measuring the effects of a conditioned stimulus on behavioral activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034436PMC
February 2020

Manual Dexterity is not Related to Media Viewing but is Related to Perceptual Bias in School-Age Children.

Brain Sci 2020 Feb 13;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Nara 635-0832, Japan.

Although the media can have both negative and positive effects on children's cognitive and motor functions, its influence on their perceptual bias and manual dexterity is unclear. Thus, we investigated the association between media viewing time, media preference level, perceptual bias, and manual dexterity in 100 school-aged children. Questionnaires completed by children and their parents were used to ascertain media viewing time and preference levels. Perceptual bias and manual dexterity were measured using the visual-tactile temporal order judgment task and Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between age and media viewing time and between media viewing time and media preference level. There was also a significant negative correlation between visual bias and manual dexterity. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that increasing visual bias was a significant predictor of decreasing manual dexterity. Further, children with low manual dexterity showed significant visual bias compared to those with high manual dexterity, when matched for age and gender. The present results demonstrated that, in school-aged children, although viewing media was not associated with perceptual bias and manual dexterity, there was a significant association between perceptual bias and manual dexterity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071373PMC
February 2020

Methylphenidate modifies reward cue responses in adults with ADHD: An fMRI study.

Neuropharmacology 2020 01 2;162:107833. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

D'Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with neural hyposensitivity to reward-predicting cues. Methylphenidate is widely used in the management of the disorder's symptoms, but its effects on reward sensitivity in ADHD are unknown. The current study used fMRI to measure striatal responses to reward-predicting cues in adults with ADHD on and off methylphenidate and a control group, during a classical conditioning task. Responses to cued reward were also explored. Larger differences in the ventral striatum activation to reward cues versus non-reward cues were observed when the ADHD participants were on methylphenidate compared to placebo. In response to cued-reward outcome, an exploratory analysis showed methylphenidate reduced the BOLD time-series correlation between the dorsal striatum and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Methylphenidate's therapeutic effects may be mediated by altering reward processing in individuals with ADHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107833DOI Listing
January 2020

Subthreshold Vibrotactile Noise Stimulation Immediately Improves Manual Dexterity in a Child With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Single-Case Study.

Front Neurol 2019 2;10:717. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Koryo, Japan.

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is the most common childhood movement disorder. It is characterized by clumsiness of fine and gross motor skills in developing children. Children with DCD have low ability to effectively use tactile information for movements, instead relying on visual information. In addition, children with DCD have deficits in visuo-motor temporal integration, which is important in motor control. These traits subsequently lead to clumsiness of movements. Conversely, however, imperceptible vibrotactile noise stimulation (at 60%-intensity of the sensory threshold) to the wrist provides stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon to the body, improving the sensory and motor systems. However, the effects of SR have not yet been validated in children with DCD. Thus, we conducted a single case study of a 10-year-old boy with a diagnosis of DCD to investigate the effect of SR on visual dependence, visuo-motor temporal integration, and manual dexterity. SR was provided by vibrotactile noise stimulation (at an intensity of 60% of the sensory threshold) to the wrist. Changes in manual dexterity (during the SR on- and off-conditions) were measured using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition. The point of subjective equality measured by visual or tactile temporal order judgment task served as a quantitative indicator reflecting specific sensory dependence. The delay detection threshold and steepness of delay detection probability curve, which were measured using the delayed visual feedback detection task, were used as quantitative indicators of visuo-motor temporal integration. The results demonstrated alleviated visual dependence and improved visuo-motor temporal integration during the SR on-conditions rather than the SR off-conditions. Most importantly, manual dexterity during the SR on-conditions was significantly improved compared to that during the SR off-conditions. Thus, the present results highlighted that SR could contribute to improving poor movement in children with DCD. However, since this was a single case study, a future interventional study with a large sample size is needed to determine the effectiveness of SR for children with DCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6614204PMC
July 2019

Incidence and risk factors of contrast-induced nephropathy after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2019 Sep 10;23(9):1141-1146. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Division of Internal Medicine, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1 Kanda-izumi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 1018643, Japan.

Background: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is widely used for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to investigate incidence and risk factors of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after TACE in patients with HCC.

Methods: In this single-center retrospective study, we examined 461 consecutive TACE sessions in 260 patients between January 2003 and October 2015. CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine levels by ≥ 0.5 mg/dl or ≥ 25% from baseline within 72 h after TACE. We calculated incidence rate of CIN and tried to identify its risk factors by logistic regression analysis.

Results: Twenty-one cases of CIN (5%) were observed in 461 TACE sessions. One patient required subsequent hemodialysis transiently. In univariate analysis, tumor size > 5 cm [odds ratio (OR) 5.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.34-14.14, p < 0.001], chronic kidney disease (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.05-6.14, p = 0.04), serum hemoglobin level [OR 0.79 (per 1 g/dl increase), 95% CI 0.64-0.98, p = 0.03] and serum albumin level [OR 0.44 (per 1 g/dl increase), 95% CI 0.19-1.02, p = 0.05] were associated with the development of CIN. Stepwise logistic regression methods showed that tumor size > 5 cm (OR 7.81, 95% CI 2.99-20.46, p < 0.001) and serum albumin [OR 0.29 (per 1 g/dl increase), 95% CI 0.11-0.75, p = 0.01] were risk factors of CIN.

Conclusions: In this study, HCC tumor size and lower serum albumin level were independent predictors of CIN after TACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-019-01751-4DOI Listing
September 2019

Is increased sensitivity to punishment a common characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? An experimental study of response allocation in Japanese children.

Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2019 Dec 16;11(4):433-443. Epub 2019 May 16.

Human Developmental Neurobiology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan.

Research on motivational processes in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) focuses on reward. Studies with punishment are limited and findings mixed. This study evaluated the effects of punishment on response allocation in Japanese children with and without ADHD. Thirty-four children meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and 59 typically developing control-group children completed an operant task in which they choose between playing two simultaneously available games. Reward was arranged symmetrically across the games under concurrent variable interval schedules. Asymmetric punishment schedules were superimposed with responses on one game punished four times as often as responses on the other. Children with ADHD showed greater behavioral sensitivity to punishment than controls. They allocated significantly more responses to the less frequently punished alternative and were more likely to play this game on consecutive trials and responded more slowly to the more punished game. Control group children allocated their responses evenly across games. Punishment exerted greater control over the behavior of Japanese children with ADHD than controls, similar to findings with children from Western countries, suggesting this is a common characteristic of the disorder. The behavior of typically developing Japanese children, while demonstrating awareness of punishment, was not controlled by the frequency of its occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12402-019-00307-6DOI Listing
December 2019

Behavioral adjustment to asymmetric reward availability among children with and without ADHD: effects of past and current reinforcement contingencies.

Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2019 Jun 6;11(2):149-158. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Human Developmental Neurobiology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna, Kunigami, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan.

Altered reinforcement sensitivity is hypothesized to underlie symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we evaluate the behavioral sensitivity of Brazilian children with and without ADHD to a change in reward availability. Forty typically developing children and 32 diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different frequencies of reinforcement. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched, without warning, after 30 rewards were delivered. The task continued until another 30 rewards were delivered. Both groups of children developed a response bias toward the initially more frequently reinforced alternative. This effect was larger in the control group. The response allocation of the two groups changed following the shift in reward availability. Over time the ADHD group developed a significant response bias toward the now more frequently reinforced alternative. In contrast, the bias of the control group stayed near zero after an initial decline following the contingency change. The overall shift in bias was similar for the two groups. The behavior of both groups of children was sensitive to the asymmetric reward distribution and to the change in reward availability. Subtle group differences in response patterns emerged, possibly reflecting differences in the time frame of reward effects and sensitivity to reward exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12402-018-0265-xDOI Listing
June 2019

Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in Hemodialysis Patients.

Ther Apher Dial 2018 Oct 10;22(5):514-518. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Division of Internal Medicine, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio showed inverse associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population. However, this has not been examined enough in dialysis patients. We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between EPA/AA ratio and prevalence of CVD in 321 chronic hemodialysis patients (64 ± 11 years old; 110 women; dialysis vintage 10 ± 8 years) in an urban area of Tokyo. CVD was defined as a composite of ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. The frequency of dietary fish intake was also examined. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association of EPA/AA ratio with CVD. EPA/AA ratio was 0.31 ± 0.19 and 154 patients (48%) consumed fish once or less weekly. One hundred and thirty patients (41%) had CVD, including 65 with ischemic heart disease, 70 with ischemic stroke, and 20 with hemorrhagic stroke. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; P = 0.01), hypertension (OR, 2.25; P = 0.002), and dialysis vintage (OR, 1.04; P = 0.02) were associated with CVD; however, EPA/AA was not after adjustment for other risk factors. A similar relationship was observed between fish intake and CVD prevalence. We did not find any significant association between EPA/AA ratio and prevalence of CVD, although traditional risk factors such as age, hypertension and dialysis vintage were associated with CVD. These results might have been influenced by the fact that only a small proportion of our patients showed a high EPA/AA ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12677DOI Listing
October 2018

Manual Dexterity Is a Strong Predictor of Visuo-Motor Temporal Integration in Children.

Front Psychol 2018 12;9:948. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Graduate School of Clinical Education & The Center for the Study of Child Development, Institute for Education, Mukogawa Women's University, Hyogo, Japan.

Although visuo-motor temporal integration in children is suggested to be related to motor control and motor learning, its relevance is still unclear. On the other hand, visuo-motor temporal integration ability undergoes developmental changes with age. In the current correlational study, we measured manual dexterity and visuo-motor temporal integration ability in 132 children with typical development (age, 4-15 years) and investigated the relationship between the two functions. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition was used as an indicator of manual dexterity. The delay detection threshold (DDT) and steepness of the probability curve for delay detection, which was measured by the delayed visual feedback detection task for self-generated movement, were used as indices of the visuo-motor temporal integration ability. The results indicated significant correlations between manual dexterity/age and DDT/steepness of the probability curve for delay detection. In addition, hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that both manual dexterity and age significantly contributed to visuo-motor temporal integration, indicating a better fit than when only age was employed as an independent variable. Importantly, there was no interaction effect between age and manual dexterity. These findings were the first to suggest that manual dexterity is a significant predictor of visuo-motor temporal integration ability in children, regardless of age. The present study validated the important relationship between visuo-motor temporal integration and manual dexterity in children. Considering the limitations of the current study, including the non-homogeneous sample, further studies are still warranted to validate the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005835PMC
June 2018

Frontal Phonological Agraphia and Acalculia with Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory due to Left Inferior Precentral Gyrus Lesion.

Case Rep Neurol 2018 Jan-Apr;10(1):72-82. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Neurology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000487849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903121PMC
March 2018

Deficits in Visuo-Motor Temporal Integration Impacts Manual Dexterity in Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder.

Front Neurol 2018 5;9:114. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Hyogo Children's Sleep and Development Medical Research Center, Kobe, Japan.

The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group. The former was comprised of 29 children with clumsy manual dexterity, while the latter consisted of 42 children with normal manual dexterity. Visuo-motor temporal integration ability and automatic-imitation function were measured using the delayed visual feedback detection task and motor interference task, respectively. Further, the current study investigated whether autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) traits, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits, and depressive symptoms differed among the two groups, since these symptoms are frequent comorbidities of DCD. In addition, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to extract factors affecting clumsy manual dexterity. In the results, the delay-detection threshold (DDT) and steepness of the delay-detection probability curve, which indicated visuo-motor temporal integration ability, were significantly prolonged and decreased, respectively, in children with pDCD. The interference effect, which indicated automatic-imitation function, was also significantly reduced in this group. These results highlighted that children with clumsy manual dexterity have deficits in visuo-motor temporal integration and automatic-imitation function. There was a significant correlation between manual dexterity, and measures of visuo-motor temporal integration, and ASD traits and ADHD traits and ASD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the DDT, which indicated visuo-motor temporal integration, was the greatest predictor of poor manual dexterity. The current results supported and provided further evidence for the internal model deficit hypothesis. Further, they suggested a neurorehabilitation technique that improved visuo-motor temporal integration could be therapeutically effective for children with DCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844924PMC
March 2018

Behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reinforcer availability: an experimental study using signal detection methodology.

Behav Brain Funct 2017 Sep 25;13(1):13. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Human Developmental Neurobiology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan.

Background: Most research on motivational processes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been undertaken in Western Europe and North America. The extent to which these findings apply to other cultural groups is unclear. The current study evaluated the behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reward availability. Forty-one school-aged children, 19 diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD, completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different reinforcement frequencies. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched twice during the task without warning.

Findings: Both groups of children developed an initial bias toward the more frequently reinforced response alternative. When the reward contingencies switched the response allocation (bias) of the control group children followed suit. The response bias scores of the children with ADHD did not, suggesting impaired tracking of reward availability over time.

Conclusions: Japanese children with ADHD adjust their behavioral responses to changing reinforcer availability less than their typically developing peers. This is not explained by poor attention to task or a lack of sensitivity to reward. The current results are consistent with altered sensitivity to changing reward contingencies identified in non-Japanese samples of children with ADHD. Irrespective of their country of origin, children with ADHD will likely benefit from behavioral expectations and reinforcement contingencies being made explicit together with high rates of reinforcement for appropriate behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12993-017-0131-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613339PMC
September 2017

Evidence for increased behavioral control by punishment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2017 03 9;58(3):248-257. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan.

Background: The behavioral sensitivity of children with ADHD to punishment has received limited theoretical and experimental attention. This study evaluated the effects of punishment on the response allocation of children with ADHD and typically developing children.

Method: Two hundred and ten children, 145 diagnosed with ADHD, completed an operant task in which they chose between playing two simultaneously available games. Reward was arranged symmetrically across the games under concurrent variable interval schedules. Asymmetric punishment schedules were superimposed; responses on one game were punished four times as often as responses on the other.

Results: Both groups allocated more of their responses to the less frequently punished alternative. Response bias increased significantly in the ADHD group during later trials, resulting in missed reward trials and reduced earnings.

Conclusions: Punishment exerted greater control over the response allocation of children with ADHD with increased time on task. Children with ADHD appear more sensitive to the cumulative effects of punishment than typically developing children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12635DOI Listing
March 2017

Behavioral sensitivity to changing reinforcement contingencies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2016 08 15;57(8):947-56. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Japan.

Background: Altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement has been hypothesized to contribute to the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we evaluated the ability of children with and without ADHD to adapt their behavior to changing reinforcer availability.

Method: Of one hundred sixty-seven children, 97 diagnosed with ADHD completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different frequencies of reinforcement. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched twice during the task without warning. For a subset of participants, this was followed by trials for which no reinforcement was delivered, irrespective of performance.

Results: Children in both groups developed an initial bias toward the more frequently reinforced response alternative. When the response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched, the children's response allocation (bias) followed suit, but this effect was significantly smaller for children with ADHD. When reinforcement was discontinued, only children in the control group modified their response pattern.

Conclusions: Children with ADHD adjust their behavioral responses to changing reinforcer availability less than typically developing children, when reinforcement is intermittent and the association between an action and its consequences is uncertain. This may explain the difficulty children with ADHD have adapting their behavior to new situations, with different reinforcement contingencies, in daily life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12561DOI Listing
August 2016

Abnormal striatal BOLD responses to reward anticipation and reward delivery in ADHD.

PLoS One 2014 26;9(2):e89129. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

D'Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089129PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3935853PMC
January 2015

Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-Item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS).

Crim Justice Behav 2012 Oct;39(10):1340-1360

George Mason University.

Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians' ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854812451092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3779895PMC
October 2012

Altered functional brain connectivity in a non-clinical sample of young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

J Neurosci 2012 Dec;32(49):17753-61

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity that often persist in adulthood. There is a growing consensus that ADHD is associated with abnormal function of diffuse brain networks, but such alterations remain poorly characterized. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterized multivariate (complex network measures), bivariate (network-based statistic), and univariate (regional homogeneity) properties of brain networks in a non-clinical, drug-naive sample of high-functioning young men and women with ADHD (nine males, seven females) and a group of matched healthy controls. Data from our sample allowed the isolation of intrinsic functional connectivity alterations specific to ADHD diagnosis and symptoms that are not related to developmental delays, general cognitive dysfunction, or history of medication use. Multivariate results suggested that frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices were abnormally connected locally as well as with the rest of the brain in individuals with ADHD. Results from the network-based statistic support and extend multivariate results by isolating two brain networks comprising regions between which inter-regional connectivity was significantly altered in the ADHD group; namely, a frontal amygdala-occipital network and a frontal temporal-occipital network. Brain behavior correlations further highlighted the key role of altered orbitofrontal-temporal and frontal-amygdala connectivity for symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. All univariate properties were similar between groups. Taken together, results from this study show that the diagnosis and the two main symptom dimensions of ADHD are related to altered intrinsic connectivity in orbitofrontal-temporal-occipital and fronto-amygdala-occipital networks. Accordingly, our findings highlight the importance of extending the conceptualization of ADHD beyond segregated fronto-striatal alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3272-12.2012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6621678PMC
December 2012

Psychological and behavioral implications of connectedness to communities with opposing values and beliefs.

J Soc Clin Psychol 2006 Apr;25(4):404-428

Department of Psychology, George Mason University.

Without a doubt, people can feel simultaneously connected to multiple communities (e.g., Deaux, 1993; Roccas & Brewer, 2002). But, to what degree can people feel simultaneously connected to communities with opposing beliefs and values? And, more importantly, what are the psychological implications of being dually connected to these communities? Capitalizing on a sample of individuals positioned to potentially feel connected to two very distinct communities, we examined jail inmates' (N = 256) sense of connectedness to the criminal community and to the community at large. Results indicated that (a) connectedness to the community at large is orthogonal to connectedness to the criminal community, supporting the supposition that it is possible to be dually connected to opposing communities; and (b) connectedness to the community at large moderated the relationship between criminal connectedness and indicators of psychological distress, suggesting that connectedness to the criminal community is especially problematic when it occurs in tandem with connectedness to the community at large. These findings are consistent with predictions from the self-expansion model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2006.25.4.404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084011PMC
April 2006