Publications by authors named "Emanuele Kauffmann"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pancreaticoduodenectomy in octogenarians: The importance of "biological age" on clinical outcomes.

Surg Oncol 2021 Nov 24;40:101688. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Gemelli Pancreatic Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli" IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center), Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: With the prolongation of life expectancy, an increasing number of elderly patients are evaluated for pancreatic surgery. However, the influence of increasing age on outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still unclear, especially in octogenarians. Aim of this study is to evaluate the perioperative characteristics and outcomes of octogenarians undergoing PD.

Methods: Data for 812 patients undergoing PD between 2019 and 2020 in 10 referral centers in Italy were reviewed. Patients aged 80 years or older were matched based on nearest neighbor propensity scores in a 1:1 ratio to patients younger than 80 years. Propensity scores were calculated using 7 perioperative variables including gender, ASA score, neoadjuvant treatment (NAT), biliary stent positioning, type of surgical approach (open, laparoscopic, robot-assisted), associated vascular resections, type of lesion. Perioperative characteristics and short-term postoperative outcomes were compared before and after matching.

Results: Overall, 81 (10%) patients had 80 years or more. Before matching, octogenarians had a higher rate of ASA score≥ 3 (n = 35, 43.2% vs. n = 207, 28.3%; p = 0.005) and less frequently underwent NAT (n = 11, 13.6% vs. n = 213, 29.1%; p = 0.003). Matching was successfully performed for 70 octogenarians. After matching, no differences in preoperative and intraoperative characteristics were found. Postoperatively, ICU admission was more frequent in octogenarians (50% vs 30%; p = 0.01). Although in-hospital mortality was higher in octogenarians before matching (7.4% vs 2.9% in the younger cohort; p = 0.03), no difference was noted between the matched cohorts (p = 0.36). Postoperative morbidity was comparable between groups in the whole and selected populations. At the multivariate analysis, chronological age was not recognized as a prognostic factor for cumulative major complications, while ASA ≥3 was the only confirmed influencing feature (OR 2.98; 95%CI: 1.6-6.8; p = 0.009).

Conclusio: In high-volume centers, PD in octogenarians shows similar outcomes than younger patients. Age itself should not be considered an exclusion criterion for PD, but a focused preoperative assessment is essential for adequate patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101688DOI Listing
November 2021

Quantitative assessment of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pancreatic surgery: an Italian multicenter analysis of 1423 cases from 10 tertiary referral centers.

Updates Surg 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Surgery, Gemelli Pancreatic Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli", IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Few evidences are present on the consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on pancreatic surgery. Aim of this study is to evaluate how COVID-19 influenced the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways of surgical pancreatic diseases. A comparative analysis of surgical volumes and clinical, surgical and perioperative outcomes in ten Italian referral centers was conducted between the first semester 2020 and 2019. One thousand four hundred and twenty-three consecutive patients were included in the analysis: 638 from 2020 and 785 from 2019. Surgical volume in 2020 decreased by 18.7% (p < 0.0001). Benign/precursors diseases (- 43.4%; p < 0.0001) and neuroendocrine tumors (- 33.6%; p = 0.008) were the less treated diseases. No difference was reported in terms of discussed cases at the multidisciplinary tumor board (p = 0.43), mean time between diagnosis and neoadjuvant treatment (p = 0.91), indication to surgery and surgical resection (p = 0.35). Laparoscopic and robot-assisted procedures dropped by 45.4% and 61.9%, respectively, during the lockdown weeks of 2020. No difference was documented for post-operative intensive care unit accesses (p = 0.23) and post-operative mortality (p = 0.06). The surgical volume decrease in 2020 will potentially lead, in the near future, to the diagnosis of a higher rate of advanced stage diseases. However, the reassessment of the Italian Health Service kept guarantying an adequate level of care in tertiary referral centers. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04380766.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-021-01171-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611384PMC
November 2021

Association of Genetic Variants Affecting microRNAs and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.

Front Genet 2021 30;12:693933. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Blood Transfusion Service, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Meyer, Children's Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Genetic factors play an important role in the susceptibility to pancreatic cancer (PC). However, established loci explain a small proportion of genetic heritability for PC; therefore, more progress is needed to find the missing ones. We aimed at identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting PC risk through effects on micro-RNA (miRNA) function. We searched the genome for SNPs in miRNA seed sequences or 3 prime untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of miRNA target genes. Genome-wide association data of PC cases and controls from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort (PanScan) Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control (PanC4) Consortium were re-analyzed for discovery, and genotyping data from two additional consortia (PanGenEU and PANDoRA) were used for replication, for a total of 14,062 cases and 11,261 controls. None of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis, but for three of them the associations were in the same direction in all the study populations and showed lower value of in the meta-analyses than in the discovery phase. Specifically, rs7985480 was consistently associated with PC risk (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.17, = 3.03 × 10 in the meta-analysis). This SNP is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs2274048, which modulates binding of various miRNAs to the 3'UTR of , a gene involved in PC progression. In conclusion, our results expand the knowledge of the genetic PC risk through miRNA-related SNPs and show the usefulness of functional prioritization to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with PC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.693933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435735PMC
August 2021

A fully implantable device for intraperitoneal drug delivery refilled by ingestible capsules.

Sci Robot 2021 08;6(57)

BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, 56127 Pisa, Italy.

Creating fully implantable robots that replace or restore physiological processes is a great challenge in medical robotics. Restoring blood glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes is particularly interesting in this sense. Intraperitoneal insulin delivery could revolutionize type 1 diabetes treatment. At present, the intraperitoneal route is little used because it relies on accessing ports connecting intraperitoneal catheters to external reservoirs. Drug-loaded pills transported across the digestive system to refill an implantable reservoir in a minimally invasive fashion could open new possibilities in intraperitoneal delivery. Here, we describe PILLSID (PILl-refiLled implanted System for Intraperitoneal Delivery), a fully implantable robotic device refillable through ingestible magnetic pills carrying drugs. Once refilled, the device acts as a programmable microinfusion system for precise intraperitoneal delivery. The robotic device is grounded on a combination of magnetic switchable components, miniaturized mechatronic elements, a wireless powering system, and a control unit to implement the refilling and control the infusion processes. In this study, we describe the PILLSID prototyping. The device key blocks are validated as single components and within the integrated device at the preclinical level. We demonstrate that the refilling mechanism works efficiently in vivo and that the blood glucose level can be safely regulated in diabetic swine. The device weights 165 grams and is 78 millimeters by 63 millimeters by 35 millimeters, comparable with commercial implantable devices yet overcoming the urgent critical issues related to reservoir refilling and powering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.abh3328DOI Listing
August 2021

The Impact of Neoadjuvant Treatment on Survival in Patients Undergoing Pancreatoduodenectomy With Concomitant Portomesenteric Venous Resection: An International Multicenter Analysis.

Ann Surg 2021 11;274(5):721-728

Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, CHLC, Lisbon, Portugal.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) critically influenced microscopically complete resection (R0) rates and long-term outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with portomesenteric vein resection (PVR) from a diverse, world-wide group of high-volume centers.

Summary Of Background Data: Limited size studies suggest that NAT improves R0 rates and overall survival compared to upfront surgery in R/BR-PDAC patients.

Methods: This multicenter study analyzed consecutive patients with R/BR-PDAC who underwent PD with PVR in 23 high-volume centers from 2009 to 2018.

Results: Data from 1192 patients with PD and PVR were collected and analyzed. The median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 60-73] years and 52% were males. Some 186 (15.6%) and 131 (10.9%) patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) alone and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, respectively. The R0/R1/R2 rates were 57%, 39.3%, and 3.2% in patients who received NAT compared to 46.6%, 49.9%, and 3.5% in patients who did not, respectively (P =0.004). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS in patients receiving NAT was 79%, 41%, and 29%, while for those that did not it was 73%, 29%, and 18%, respectively (P <0.001). Multivariable analysis showed no administration of NAT, high tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, R1/R2 resection, no adjuvant chemotherapy, occurrence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher postoperative complications within 90 days, preoperative diabetes mellitus, male sex and portal vein involvement were negative independent predictive factors for OS.

Conclusion: Patients with PDAC of the pancreatic head expected to undergo venous reconstruction should routinely be considered for NAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005132DOI Listing
November 2021

First World Consensus Conference on pancreas transplantation: Part II - recommendations.

Am J Transplant 2021 09 29;21 Suppl 3:17-59. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Transplantation Department, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University, Seoul, South Korea.

The First World Consensus Conference on Pancreas Transplantation provided 49 jury deliberations regarding the impact of pancreas transplantation on the treatment of diabetic patients, and 110 experts' recommendations for the practice of pancreas transplantation. The main message from this consensus conference is that both simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) and pancreas transplantation alone can improve long-term patient survival, and all types of pancreas transplantation dramatically improve the quality of life of recipients. Pancreas transplantation may also improve the course of chronic complications of diabetes, depending on their severity. Therefore, the advantages of pancreas transplantation appear to clearly surpass potential disadvantages. Pancreas after kidney transplantation increases the risk of mortality only in the early period after transplantation, but is associated with improved life expectancy thereafter. Additionally, preemptive SPK, when compared to SPK performed in patients undergoing dialysis, appears to be associated with improved outcomes. Time on dialysis has negative prognostic implications in SPK recipients. Increased long-term survival, improvement in the course of diabetic complications, and amelioration of quality of life justify preferential allocation of kidney grafts to SPK recipients. Audience discussions and live voting are available online at the following URL address: http://mediaeventi.unipi.it/category/1st-world-consensus-conference-of-pancreas-transplantation/246.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518376PMC
September 2021

Associations between pancreatic expression quantitative traits and risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Aug;42(8):1037-1045

Department of Gastroenterology and Institute for Digestive Research, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal cancers. Its poor prognosis is predominantly due to the fact that most patients remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage, alongside the lack of early markers and screening strategies. A better understanding of PDAC risk factors is essential for the identification of groups at high risk in the population. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a powerful tool for detecting genetic variants associated with complex traits, including pancreatic cancer. By exploiting functional and GWAS data, we investigated the associations between polymorphisms affecting gene function in the pancreas (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs) and PDAC risk. In a two-phase approach, we analysed 13 713 PDAC cases and 43 784 controls and identified a genome-wide significant association between the A allele of the rs2035875 polymorphism and increased PDAC risk (P = 7.14 × 10-10). This allele is known to be associated with increased expression in the pancreas of the keratin genes KRT8 and KRT18, whose increased levels have been reported to correlate with various tumour cell characteristics. Additionally, the A allele of the rs789744 variant was associated with decreased risk of developing PDAC (P = 3.56 × 10-6). This single nucleotide polymorphism is situated in the SRGAP1 gene and the A allele is associated with higher expression of the gene, which in turn inactivates the cyclin-dependent protein 42 (CDC42) gene expression, thus decreasing the risk of PDAC. In conclusion, we present here a functional-based novel PDAC risk locus and an additional strong candidate supported by significant associations and plausible biological mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgab057DOI Listing
August 2021

Pancreas transplantation.

Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2021 08;26(4):381-389

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To define recent changes and future directions in the practice of pancreas transplantation (PT). Two major events have occurred in the past 18 months: COVID-19 pandemic, and the first world consensus conference on PT. Several innovative studies were published after the consensus conference.

Recent Findings: During COVID-19 pandemic PT activity decreased. COVID-19 in transplant recipients increases mortality rates, but data from kidney transplantation show that mortality might be higher in waitlisted patients.The world consensus conference provided 49 jury deliberations on the impact of PT on management of diabetic patients and 110 practice recommendations.Recent evidence demonstrates that PT alone is safe and effective, that results of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) remain excellent despite older recipient age and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, that use of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive donors into HCV-negative recipients is associated with good outcomes, and that use of sirolimus as primary immunosuppressant and costimulation blockade does not improve results of SPK.

Summary: COVID-19 pandemic and the first world consensus conference on PT were major events. Although COVID-19 pandemic should not reduce PT activity in the future, a major positive impact on both volume and outcomes of PT is awaited from the proceedings of the world consensus conference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOT.0000000000000900DOI Listing
August 2021

State of the art of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy.

Updates Surg 2021 Jun 20;73(3):873-880. Epub 2021 May 20.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Current evidence shows that robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) is feasible with a safety profile equivalent to either open pancreatoduodenectomy (OPD) or laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy (LPD). However, major intraoperative bleeding can occur and emergency conversion to OPD may be required. RPD reduces the risk of emergency conversion when compared to LPD. The learning curve of RPD ranges from 20 to 40 procedures, but proficiency is reached only after 250 operations. Once proficiency is achieved, the results of RPD may be superior to those of OPD. As for now, RPD is at least equivalent to OPD and LPD with respect to incidence and severity of POPF, incidence and severity of post-operative complications, and post-operative mortality. A minimal annual number of 20 procedures per center is recommended. In pancreatic cancer (versus OPD), RPD is associated with similar rates of R0 resections, but higher number of examined lymph nodes, lower blood loss, and lower need of blood transfusions. Multivariable analysis shows that RPD could improve patient survival. Data from selected centers show that vein resection and reconstruction is feasible during RPD, but at the price of high conversion rates and frequent use of small tangential resections. The true Achilles heel of RPD is higher operative costs that limit wider implementation of the procedure and accumulation of a large experience at most single centers. In conclusion, when proficiency is achieved, RPD may be superior to OPD with respect to CR-POPF and oncologic outcomes. Achievement of proficiency requires commitment, dedication, and truly high volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-021-01058-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184559PMC
June 2021

Feasibility and safety of robotic-assisted total pancreatectomy: a pilot western series.

Updates Surg 2021 Jun 19;73(3):955-966. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

This study was designed to demonstrate non-inferiority of robot-assisted total pancreatectomy (RATP) to open total pancreatectomy (OPT) based on an intention-to-treat analysis, having occurrence of severe post-operative complications (SPC) as primary study endpoint. The two groups were matched (2:1) by propensity scores. Assuming a rate of SPC of 22.5% (non-inferiority margin: 15%; α: 0.05; β: 0.20; power: 80%), a total of 25 patients were required per group. During the study period (October 2008-December 2019), 209 patients received a total pancreatectomy. After application of exclusion and inclusion criteria, matched groups were extracted from an overall cohort of 132 patients (OPT: 107; RATP: 25). Before matching, the two groups were different with respect to prevalence of cardiac disease (24.3% versus 4.0%; p = 0.03), presence of jaundice (45.8% versus 12.0%; p = 0.002), presence of a biliary drainage (23.4% versus 0; p  = 0.004), history of weight loss (28.0% versus 8.0%; p = 0.04), and vein involvement (55.1% versus 28.0%) (p = 0.03). After matching, the two groups (OTP: 50; RATP: 25) were well balanced. Regarding primary study endpoint, SPC developed in 13 patients (26.0%) after OTP and in 6 patients (24.0%) after RATP (p = 0.85). Regarding secondary study endpoints, RATP was associated with longer median operating times [475 (408.8-582.5) versus 585 min (525-637.5) p = 0.003]. After a median follow-up time of 23.7 months (10.4-71), overall survival time [22.6 (11.2-81.2) versus NA (27.3-NA) p = 0.006] and cancer-specific survival [22.6 (11.2-NA) versus NA (27.3-NA) p = 0.02] were improved in patients undergoing RATP. In carefully selected patients, robot-assisted total pancreatectomy is non-inferior to open total pancreatectomy regarding occurrence of severe post-operative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-021-01079-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184722PMC
June 2021

Factors predicting survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer undergoing pancreatectomy with arterial resection.

Updates Surg 2021 Feb 25;73(1):233-249. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Pancreatectomy with arterial resection is a treatment option in selected patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to identify factors predicting cancer-specific survival in this patient population. A single-Institution prospective database was used. Pre-operative prognostic factors were identified and used to develop a prognostic score. Matching with pathologic parameters was used for internal validation. In a patient population with a median Ca 19.9 level of 19.8 U/mL(IQR: 7.1-77), cancer-specific survival was predicted by: metabolic deterioration of diabetes (OR = 0.22, p = 0.0012), platelet count (OR = 1.00; p = 0.0013), serum level of Ca 15.3 (OR = 1.01, p = 0.0018) and Ca 125 (OR = 1.02, p = 0.00000137), neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio (OR = 1.16; p = 0.00015), lymphocytes-to-monocytes ratio (OR = 0.88; p = 0.00233), platelets-to-lymphocytes ratio (OR = 0.99; p = 0.00118), and FOLFIRINOX neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR = 0.57; p = 0.00144). A prognostic score was developed and three risk groups were identified. Harrell's C-Index was 0.74. Median cancer-specific survival was 16.0 months (IQR: 12.3-28.2) for the high-risk group, 24.7 months (IQR: 17.6-33.4) for the intermediate-risk group, and 39.0 months (IQR: 22.7-NA) for the low-risk group (p = 0.0003). Matching the three risk groups against pathology parameters, N2 rate was 61.9, 42.1, and 23.8% (p = 0.04), median value of lymph-node ratio was 0.07 (IQR: 0.05-0.14), 0.04 (IQR:0.02-0.07), and 0.03 (IQR: 0.01-0.04) (p = 0.008), and mean value of logarithm odds of positive nodes was - 1.07 ± 0.5, - 1.3 ± 0.4, and - 1.4 ± 0.4 (p = 0.03), in the high-risk, intermediate-risk, and low-risk groups, respectively. An online calculator is available at www.survivalcalculator-lapdac-arterialresection.org . The prognostic factors identified in this study predict cancer-specific survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer and low Ca 19.9 levels undergoing pancreatectomy with arterial resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-020-00883-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889566PMC
February 2021

Additional modifications to the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy: Results of a propensity score-matched analysis versus Cattel-Warren pancreaticojejunostomy.

Surgery 2021 Apr 18;169(4):954-962. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana. University of Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Postoperative pancreatic fistula continues to occur frequently after pancreatoduodenectomy.

Methods: We have described a modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy. The modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy was compared to the Cattel-Warren pancreaticojejunostomy in cohorts of patients matched by propensity scores based on factors predictive of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula, which was the primary endpoint of this study. Based on a noninferiority study design, 95 open pancreatoduodenectomies per group were needed. Feasibility of the modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy in robotic pancreatoduodenectomy was also shown. All pancreaticojejunostomies were performed by a single surgeon.

Results: Between October 2011 and May 2019, there were 415 pancreatoduodenectomies with either a Cattel-Warren pancreaticojejunostomy (n = 225) or a modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy (n = 190). There was 1 grade C postoperative pancreatic fistula in 190 consecutive modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomies (0.5%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the rate of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula was not affected by consecutive case number. After exclusion of robotic pancreatoduodenectomies (the Cattel-Warren pancreaticojejunostomy: 82; modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy: 66), 267 open pancreatoduodenectomies were left, among which the matching process identified 109 pairs. The modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy was shown to be noninferior to the Cattel-Warren pancreaticojejunostomy with respect to clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (11.9% vs 22.9%; odds ratio: 0.46 [0.21-0.93]; P = .03), grade B postoperative pancreatic fistula (11.9% vs 18.3%; P = .18), and grade C postoperative pancreatic fistula (0 vs 4.6%; P = .05) as well as to all secondary study endpoints. The modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy was feasible in 66 robotic pancreatoduodenectomies. In this subgroup with 1 conversion to open surgery (1.5%), a clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred after 9 procedures (13.6%) with no case of grade C postoperative pancreatic fistula and a 90-day mortality of 3%.

Conclusion: The modification of the Blumgart pancreaticojejunostomy described herein is noninferior to the Cattel-Warren pancreaticojejunostomy in open pancreatoduodenectomy. This technique is also feasible in robotic pancreatoduodenectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.08.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Defining Benchmark Outcomes for Pancreatoduodenectomy With Portomesenteric Venous Resection.

Ann Surg 2020 11;272(5):731-737

Department of Surgery, University Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish clinically relevant outcome benchmark values using criteria for pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with portomesenteric venous resection (PVR) from a low-risk cohort managed in high-volume centers.

Summary Background Data: PD with PVR is regarded as the standard of care in patients with cancer involvement of the portomesenteric venous axis. There are, however, no benchmark outcome indicators for this population which hampers comparisons of patients undergoing PD with and without PVR resection.

Methods: This multicenter study analyzed patients undergoing PD with any type of PVR in 23 high-volume centers from 2009 to 2018. Nineteen outcome benchmarks were established in low-risk patients, defined as the 75th percentile of the median outcome values of the centers (NCT04053998).

Results: Out of 1462 patients with PD and PVR, 840 (58%) formed the benchmark cohort, with a mean age was 64 (SD11) years, 413 (49%) were females. Benchmark cutoffs, among others, were calculated as follows: Clinically relevant pancreatic fistula rate (International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery): ≤14%; in-hospital mortality rate: ≤4%; major complication rate Grade≥3 and the CCI up to 6 months postoperatively: ≤36% and ≤26, respectively; portal vein thrombosis rate: ≤14% and 5-year survival for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: ≥9%.

Conclusion: These novel benchmark cutoffs targeting surgical performance, morbidity, mortality, and oncological parameters show relatively inferior results in patients undergoing vascular resection because of involvement of the portomesenteric venous axis. These benchmark values however can be used to conclusively assess the results of different centers or surgeons operating on this high-risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004267DOI Listing
November 2020

Tumor Regression Grading Assessment in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer After Neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX: Interobserver Agreement and Prognostic Implications.

Front Oncol 2020 7;10:64. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Neoadjuvant therapy represents an increasingly used strategy in pancreatic cancer, and this means that more pancreatic resections need to be evaluated for therapy effect. Several grading systems have been proposed for the histological assessment of tumor regression in pre-treated patients with pancreatic cancer, but issues like practical application, level of agreement and prognostic significance are still debated. To date, a standardized and widely accepted score has not been established yet. In this study, two pathologists with expertise in pancreatic cancer used 4 of the most frequently reported systems (College of American Pathologists, Evans, MD Anderson, and Hartman) to evaluate tumor regression in 29 locally advanced pancreatic cancers previously treated with modified FOLFIRINOX regimen, to establish the level of agreement between pathologists and to determine their potential prognostic value. Cases were additionally evaluated with a fifth grading system inspired to the Dworak score, normally used for colo-rectal cancer, to identify an alternative, relevant option. Results obtained for current grading systems showed different levels of agreement, and they often proved to be very subjective and inaccurate. In addition, no significant correlation was observed with survival. Interestingly, Dworak score showed a higher degree of concordance and a significant correlation with overall survival in individual assessments. These data reflect the need to re-evaluate grading systems for pancreatic cancer to establish a more reproducible and clinically relevant score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025535PMC
February 2020

Resection or repair of large peripancreatic arteries during robotic pancreatectomy.

Updates Surg 2020 Mar 18;72(1):145-153. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is eventually gaining momentum, but concerns remain regarding the ability to manage challenging operative scenarios. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to identify patients who received arterial resection, or required arterial repair, during robot-assisted pancreatic resection (RA-PR). All procedures were video recorded. Between October 2008 and June 2019, a total of 361 RA-PR were performed. Associated vascular procedures were required in 31 patients (8.5%), including resection or repair of arterial segments in five cases (1.3%): celiac trunk (n = 1), hepatic artery (n = 2), splenic artery (n = 1), and superior mesenteric artery (n = 1). In three patients, an arterial resection was required to manage tumor infiltration. In the remaining two patients, an intraoperative injury demanded arterial repair. All procedures were completed without conversion to open surgery and no patient developed severe complications. At the longest follow-up, all vascular reconstructions are patent. Our results do not call for more liberal use of robotic assistance in borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic tumors, but rather emphasize the importance of proper preoperative planning and the need for advanced vascular skills for safe implementation of RA-PR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-020-00715-8DOI Listing
March 2020

Robot-Assisted Radical Antegrade Modular Pancreatosplenectomy Including Resection and Reconstruction of the Spleno-Mesenteric Junction.

J Vis Exp 2020 01 3(155). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa;

This article shows the technique of robot-assisted radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy, including resection and reconstruction of the spleno-mesenteric junction, for cancer of the body-tail of the pancreas. The patient is placed supine with the legs parted and a pneumoperitoneum is established and maintained at 10 mmHg. To use the surgical system, four 8 mm ports and one 12 mm port are required. The optic port is placed at the umbilicus. The other ports are placed, on either side, along the pararectal line and the anterior axillary line at the level of the umbilical line. The assistant port (12 mm) is placed along the right pararectal line. Dissection begins by detaching the gastrocolic ligament, thus opening the lesser sac, and by a wide mobilization of the splenic flexure of the colon. The superior mesenteric vein is identified along the inferior border of the pancreas. Lymph node number 8a is removed to permit clear visualization of the common hepatic artery. A tunnel is then created behind the neck of the pancreas. To permit safe resection and reconstruction of the spleno-mesenteric junction, further preemptive dissection is required before dividing the pancreatic neck to bring in clear view all relevant vascular pedicles. Next, the splenic artery is ligated and divided, and the pancreatic neck is divided, with selective ligature of the pancreatic duct. After vein resection and reconstruction, dissection proceeds to complete the clearance of peripancreatic arteries that are peeled off from all lympho-neural tissues. Both celiac ganglia are removed en-bloc with the specimen. The Gerota fascia covering the upper pole of the left kidney is also removed en-bloc with the specimen. Division of short gastric vessels and splenectomy complete the procedure. A drain is left near the pancreatic stump. The round ligament of the liver is mobilized to protect the vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/60370DOI Listing
January 2020

Early Tumor Shrinkage and Depth of Response Evaluation in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Treated with First Line Chemotherapy: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Jul 4;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Division of Medical Oncology, Pisa University Hospital, Via Roma 67, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and depth of response (DoR) predict favorable outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer. We aim to evaluate their prognostic role in metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC) patients treated with first-line modified-FOLFIRINOX (FOLFOXIRI) or Gemcitabine + Nab-paclitaxel (GemNab). Hence, 138 patients were tested for ETS, defined as a ≥20% reduction in the sum of target lesions' longest diameters (SLD) after 6-8 weeks from baseline, and DoR, i.e., the maximum percentage shrinkage in the SLD from baseline. Association of ETS and DoR with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed. ETS was reached in 49 patients (39.5% in the FOLFOXIRI, 29.8% in the GemNab group; = 0.280). In the overall population, ETS was significantly associated with better PFS (8.0 vs. 4.8 months, < 0.001) and OS (13.2 vs. 9.7 months, = 0.001). Median DoR was -27.5% (-29.4% with FOLFOXIRI and -21.4% with GemNab, = 0.016): DoR was significantly associated with better PFS (9.0 vs. 6.7 months, < 0.001) and OS (14.3 vs. 11.1 months, = 0.031). Multivariate analysis confirmed both ETS and DoR are independently associated with PFS and OS. In conclusion, our study added evidence on the role of ETS and DoR in the prediction of outcome of PC patients treated with first-line combination chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678367PMC
July 2019

A propensity score-matched analysis of robotic versus open pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer based on margin status.

Surg Endosc 2019 01 25;33(1):234-242. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: No study has shown the oncologic non-inferiority of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) versus open pancreatoduodenectomy (OPD) for pancreatic cancer (PC).

Methods: This is a single institution propensity score matched study comparing RPD and ODP for resectable PC, based on factors predictive of R1 resection (≤ 1 mm). Only patients operated on after completion of the learning curve in both procedures and for whom circumferential margins were assessed according to the Leeds pathology protocol were included. The primary study endpoint was the rate of R1 resection. Secondary study endpoints were as follows: number of examined lymph nodes (N), rate of perioperative transfusions, percentage of patients receiving adjuvant therapies, occurrence of local recurrence, overall survival, disease-free survival, and sample size calculation for randomized controlled trials (RCT).

Results: Factors associated with R1 resection were tumor diameter, number of positive N, N ratio, logarithm odds of positive N, and duodenal infiltration. The matching process identified 20 RPDs and 24 OPDs. All RPDs were completed robotically. R1 resection was identified in 11 RPDs (55.0%) and in 10 OPDs (41.7%) (p = 0.38). There was no difference in the rate of R1 at each margin as well as in the proportion of patients with multiple R1 margins. RPD and OPD were also equivalent with respect to all secondary study endpoints, with a trend towards lower rate of blood transfusions in RPD. Based on the figures presented herein, a non-inferiority RCT comparing RPD and OPD having the rate of R1 resection as the primary study endpoint requires 3355 pairs.

Conclusions: RPD and OPD achieved the same rate of R1 resections in resectable PC. RPD was also non-inferior to OPD with respect to all secondary study endpoints. Because of the high number of patients required to run a RCT, further assessment of RPD for PC would require the implementation of an international registry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6301-2DOI Listing
January 2019

Incidence and reasons of pancreatic resection in patients with asymptomatic serous cystadenoma.

Pancreatology 2018 Jul 8;18(5):577-584. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Background/objectives: Despite diagnostic refinements, pancreatic resection (PR) is eventually performed in some patients with asymptomatic serous cystadenoma (A-SCA). The aim of this study was to define incidence and reasons of PR in A-SCA.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for all the patients referred for pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) between January 2005 and March 2016.

Results: Overall, there were 1488 patients with PCL, including 1271 (85.4%) with incidental PCL (I-PCL). During the study period referral of I-PCL increased 8.5-fold. Surgery was immediately advised in 94 I-PCL (7.3%) and became necessary later on in 11 additional patients (0.9%), because of the development of symptoms. Overall, PR was performed in 105/1271 patients presenting with I-PCL (8.2%), including 27 with A-SCA (2.1%). All patients with A-SCA underwent ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 21 patients (77.8%), 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography in 8 (29.6%), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in 2 (7.4%), and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in 1 (3.7%). These studies demonstrated a combination of atypical features such as solid tumor (3; 11.1%), oligo-/macrocystic tumor (24; 88.8%), mural nodules (14; 51.8%), enhancing cyst walls (17; 62.9%), dilation of the main pancreatic duct (3; 11.1%), and upstream pancreatic atrophy (1; 3.7%). Additionally, 14/27 patients (51.8%) were females with oligo-/macrocystic tumors located in the body-tail of the pancreas.

Conclusions: Management of patients with A-SCA entails a small risk of PR especially when these tumors demonstrate atypical radiologic features associated with confounding anatomic and demographic characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2018.06.001DOI Listing
July 2018

Robotic versus open pancreatoduodenectomy: a propensity score-matched analysis based on factors predictive of postoperative pancreatic fistula.

Surg Endosc 2018 03 15;32(3):1234-1247. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Improvement in morbidity of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) largely depends on the reduction in the incidence of clinically relevant (CR) postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF).

Methods: After internal validation of the clinical risk score (CRS) of POPF, and identification of other predictive factors for POPF, robotic (RPD), and open (OPD) PDs were stratified into risk categories and matched by propensity scores. The primary endpoint of this study was incidence of CR-POPF. Secondary endpoints were 90-day morbidity and mortality, and sample size calculation for randomized controlled trials (RCT).

Results: No patient undergoing RPD was classified at negligible risk for POPF, and no CR-POPF occurred in 7 RPD at low risk. The matching process identified 48 and 11 pairs at intermediate and high risk for POPF, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group, RPD was associated with higher rates of CR-POPF (31.3% vs 12.5%) (p = 0.0026), with equivalent incidence of grade C POPF. In the high-risk group, CR-POPF occurred frequently, but in similar percentages, after either procedures. Starting from an unadjusted point estimate of the effect size of 1.71 (0.91-3.21), the pair-matched odds ratio for CR-POPF after RPD was 2.80 (1.01-7.78) for the intermediate-risk group, and 0.20 (0.01-4.17) for the high-risk group. Overall morbidity and mortality were equivalent in matched study groups. Sample size calculation for a non-inferiority RCT demonstrated that a total of 31,669 PDs would be required to randomize 682 patients at intermediate risk and 1852 patients at high risk.

Conclusions: In patients at intermediate risk, RPD is associated with higher rates of CR-POPF. Incidence of grade C POPF is similar in RPD and OPD, making overall morbidity and mortality also equivalent. A RCT, with risk stratification for POPF, would require an enormous number of patients. Implementation of an international registry could be the next step in the assessment of RPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5798-0DOI Listing
March 2018

A Splenic IgG4+ Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation (SANT) Treated by Hemisplenectomy: A Radiologic, Histochemical, and Immunohistochemical Study.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2020 May/Jun;28(5):e40-e46

U.O. Pathological Anatomy III, Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Clinical Care Medicine.

Introduction: Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) is a rare benign lesion of unknown origin for which total splenectomy is the standard treatment.

Case Presentation: A 54-year-old man with a history of recurrent pancreatitis, bicuspid aortic valve, and aortic dissection underwent abdominal ultrasound, Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a 6-cm hypoechoic splenic mass diagnosed as cavernous hemangioma. Owing to his relevant past history, he was considered eligible for emisplenectomy and not for total excision, which is associated with long-term risks, especially infections.

Results: Histologic examination revealed several nodules of varying size separated by sclerotic stroma with scattered inflammatory cells rich in IgG4+ in a background of splenic red pulp. Immunohistochemical stains showed a characteristic panel for CD34, CD31, and CD8.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of SANT should be considered in any patient presenting with a splenic lesion containing an angiomatoid or inflammatory component. The only method able to establish a correct diagnosis is histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Complete splenectomy is generally considered the best approach. However, if the patient is at high risk of infection and localization of the lesion allows for selective devascularization of the affected part of the spleen, the lesion could be removed by hemisplenectomy. In some patients SANT is related to high blood levels of IgG4. Thus, corticosteroids might be useful for treating IgG4+ SANT and for preventing other IgG4-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000560DOI Listing
May 2021

Indications, technique, and results of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy.

Updates Surg 2016 Sep 10;68(3):295-305. Epub 2016 Sep 10.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Robotic assistance improves surgical dexterity in minimally invasive operations, especially when fine dissection and multiple sutures are required. As such, robotic assistance could be rewarding in the setting of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD). RPD was implemented at a high volume center with preemptive experience in advanced laparoscopy. Indications, surgical technique, and results of RPD are discussed against the background of current literature. RPD was performed in 112 consecutive patients. Conversion to open surgery was required in three patients, despite nine required segmental resection and reconstruction of the superior mesenteric/portal vein. No patient was converted to laparoscopy. A pancreato-jejunostomy was created in 106 patients (94.6 %), using either a duct-to-mucosa (n = 82; 73.2 %) or an invaginating (n = 24; 21.4 %) technique. Pancreato-gastrostomy was performed in one patient, the pancreatic duct was occluded in two patients, and a pancreatico-cutaneous fistula was created in three patients. Mean operative time was 526.3 ± 102.4 in the entire cohort and reduced significantly over the course of time. Experience was also associated with reduced rates of delayed gastric emptying and increased proportion of malignant tumor histology. Ninety day mortality was 3.6 %. Postoperative complications occurred in 83 patients (74.1 %) with a median comprehensive complication index of 20.9 (0-30.8). Clinically relevant pancreatic fistula occurred in 19.6 % of the patients. No grade C pancreatic fistula was noted in the last 72 consecutive patients. RPD is safely feasible in selected patients. Implementation of RPD requires sound experience with open pancreatoduodenectomy and advanced laparoscopic procedures, as well as specific training with the robotic platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-016-0387-7DOI Listing
September 2016

Robotic pancreatoduodenectomy with vascular resection.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2016 Dec 24;401(8):1111-1122. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, University of Pisa and Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Purpose: This study aims to define the current status of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) with resection and reconstruction of the superior mesenteric/portal vein (RPD-SMV/PV).

Methods: Our experience on RPD, including RPD-SMV/PV, is presented along with a description of the surgical technique and a systematic review of the literature on RPD-SMV/PV.

Results: We have performed 116 RPD and 14 RPD-SMV/PV. Seven additional cases of RPD-SMV/PV were identified in the literature. In our experience, RPD and RPD-SMV/PV were similar in all baseline variables, but lower mean body mass and higher prevalence of pancreatic cancer in RPD-SMV/PV. Regarding the type of vein resection, there were one type 2 (7.1 %), five type 3 (35.7 %) and eight type 4 (57.2 %) resections. As compared to RPD, RPD-SMV/PV required longer operative time, had higher median estimated blood loss, and blood transfusions were required more frequently. Incidence and severity of post-operative complications were not increased in RPD-SMV/PV, but post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage occurred more frequently after this procedure. In pancreatic cancer, RPD-SMV/PV was associated with a higher mean number of examined lymph nodes (60.0 ± 13.9 vs 44.6 ± 11.0; p = 0.02) and with the same rate of microscopic margin positivity (25.0 % vs 26.1 %). Mean length or resected vein was 23.1 ± 8.08 mm. Actual tumour infiltration was discovered in ten patients (71.4 %), reaching the adventitia in four patients (40.0 %), the media in two patients (20.0 %), and the intima in four patients (40.0 %). Literature review identified seven additional cases, all reported to have successful outcome.

Conclusions: RPD-SMV/PV is feasible in carefully selected patients. The generalization of these results remains to be demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-016-1499-8DOI Listing
December 2016

Laparoscopic Microwave Liver Ablation and Portal Vein Ligation: An Alternative Approach to the Conventional ALPPS Procedure in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2016 12 8;23(Suppl 5):884. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

EndoCAS, Center for Computer-Assisted Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a new procedure aimed at promoting the overgrowth of small future liver remnants (FLR). The role of ALPPS in hilar cholangiocarcinoma (h-CCA) is currently considered marginal because liver split in the presence of bile duct obstruction increases postoperative morbidity and mortality (Schadde et al. in Ann Surg 260:829-836,2014; Nadalin et al. in Z Gastroenterol 52:35-42,2014). Virtual liver split (Gall et al. in Ann Surg 261:e45-e46,2015) could improve the outcome of ALPPS in h-CCA.

Methods: A 64-year-old woman with a type IIIA h-CCA without evidence of vascular involvement had a small FLR (FLR/body weight: 0.47 cm/kg). After bilateral percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) and bilirubin normalization, the patient was planned for laparoscopic step 1 ALPPS using microwave ablation (MWA). Because of possible challenge in hilar dissection in this tumor type, robotic assistance was preferred to conventional laparoscopy for step 1.

Results: The patient recovered promptly from step 1, with a 68 % increase in the volume of FLR by postoperative day (POD) 10 (FLR/body weight of 0.79 cm/kg). On POD 15, the patient underwent open right hepatectomy with en bloc resection of the caudate lobe, bile duct bifurcation, and extrahepatic biliary duct (T2N1M0R0). Estimated blood loss was negligible during step 1 and 150 mL during step 2. The patient recovered well. Chemotherapy was started 6 weeks after ALPPS stage 2, and was well tolerated and full course. Twenty months after resection the patient is alive, well, and disease-free.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic ALPPS (Machado et al. in Ann Surg 256:e13,2012) and MWA on the intended split line (Gringeri and Boetto in Ann Surg 261:e42-e43,2015) have been recently described. The combination of these techniques with PBD allowed successful ALPPS in a patient with h-CCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-016-5297-xDOI Listing
December 2016

Robotic-Assisted Pancreatic Resections.

World J Surg 2016 Oct;40(10):2497-506

Division of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Robotic assistance enhances surgical dexterity and could facilitate wider adoption of laparoscopy for pancreatic resections (PR).

Methods: Data were prospectively entered into a database and analyzed retrospectively to assess feasibility and safety of robotic-assisted PR (RAPR). Additionally, robotic-assisted pancreaticoduodenectomy (RAPD) was compared to a contemporary group of open pancreaticoduodenectomies (OPD).

Results: Between October 2008 and October 2014, 200 consecutive patients underwent RAPR. Three procedures were converted to open surgery (1.5 %), despite 14 patients required associated vascular procedures. RAPD was performed in 83 patients (41.5 %), distal pancreatectomy in 83 (41.5 %), total pancreatectomy in 17 (8.5 %), tumor enucleation in 12 (6 %), and central pancreatectomy in 5 (2.5 %). Thirty-day and 90-day mortality rates were 0.5 and 1 %, respectively. Both deaths occurred after RAPD with vein resection. Complications occurred in 63.0 % of the patients (≥Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb in 4 %). Median comprehensive complication index was 20.9 (0-26.2). Incidence of grade B/C pancreatic fistula was 28.0 %. Reoperation was required in 14 patients (7.0 %). The risk of reoperation decreased after post-operative day 20 (OR 0.072) (p = 0.0015). When compared to OPD, RAPD was associated with longer mean operative time (527.2 ± 166.1 vs. 425.3 ± 92.7; <0.0001) but had an equivalent safety profile. The median number of examined lymph nodes (37; 28.8-45.3 vs. 36; 28-52.8) and the rate of margin positivity in patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer were also similar (12.5 vs. 45.5 %).

Conclusions: RAPR, including RAPD, are safely feasible in selected patients. The results of RAPD in pancreatic cancer are encouraging but deserve further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3565-3DOI Listing
October 2016

Robotic surgery and hemostatic agents in partial nephrectomy: a high rate of success without vascular clamping.

J Robot Surg 2015 Sep 30;9(3):215-22. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

EndoCAS (Center for Computer Assisted Surgery), University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy has been proposed as a technique to overcome technical challenges of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. We prospectively collected and analyzed data from 31 patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy with systematic use of hemostatic agents, between February 2009 and October 2014. Thirty-three renal tumors were treated in 31 patients. There were no conversions to open surgery, intraoperative complications, or blood transfusions. The mean size of the resected tumors was 27 mm (median 20 mm, range 5-40 mm). Twenty-seven of 33 lesions (82%) did not require vascular clamping and therefore were treated in the absence of ischemia. All margins were negative. The high partial nephrectomy success rate without vascular clamping suggests that robotic nephron-sparing surgery with systematic use of hemostatic agents may be a safe, effective method to completely avoid ischemia in the treatment of selected renal masses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11701-015-0519-yDOI Listing
September 2015

The learning curve in robotic distal pancreatectomy.

Updates Surg 2015 Sep 20;67(3):257-64. Epub 2015 May 20.

Division of General and Transplant Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Università di Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy,

No data are available on the learning curve in robotic distal pancreatectomy (RADP). The learning curve in RADP was assessed in 55 consecutive patients using the cumulative sum method, based on operative time. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database and analyzed retrospectively considering all events occurring within 90 days of surgery. No operation was converted to laparoscopic or open surgery and no patient died. Post-operative complications occurred in 34 patients (61.8%), being of Clavien-Dindo grade I-II in 32 patients (58.1%), including pancreatic fistula in 29 patients (52.7%). No grade C pancreatic fistula occurred. Four patients received blood transfusions (7.2%), three were readmitted (5.4%) and one required repeat surgery (1.8%). Based on the reduction of operative times (421.1 ± 20.5 vs 248.9 ± 9.3 min; p < 0.0001), completion of the learning curve was achieved after ten operations. Operative time of the first 10 operations was associated with a positive slope (0.47 + 1.78* case number; R (2) 0.97; p < 0.0001*), while that of the following 45 procedures showed a negative slope (23.52 - 0.39* case number; R (2) 0.97; p < 0.0001*). After completion of the learning curve, more patients had a malignant histology (0 vs 35.6%; p = 0.002), accounting for both higher lymph node yields (11.1 ± 12.2 vs 20.9 ± 18.5) (p = 0.04) and lower rate of spleen preservation (90 vs 55.6%) (p = 0.04). RADP was safely feasible in selected patients and the learning curve was completed after ten operations. Improvement in clinical outcome was not demonstrated, probably because of the limited occurrence of outcome comparators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-015-0299-yDOI Listing
September 2015

The role of laparoscopy in adult bowel obstruction caused by intussusception.

Ann Ital Chir 2014 Jul-Aug;85(4):328-31

Aim: The intestinal intussusception in the adult represent 1% of all occlusions. Organic causes are detectable in 90% of cases. Aim of this study is to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic iter of adult intestinal intussusception with particular emphasis on role of laparoscopy.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively considered 10 cases of intussusception between January 2000 and January 2013, demographic and clinical issue, location of invagination, the type of surgical treatment, the post-operative morbidity and mortality and histological nature of occlusion cause.

Results: Ten (F: M 1.5:1) patients were admitted in emergency with bowel obstruction, the median age was 50 years (r.18-91). All required surgical treatment. Three patients (30%) underwent a totally laparoscopic procedure, four patients (40%) laparoscopic exploration followed by laparotomy, three patients (30%) open surgery directly. The invagination was ileo-ileal (50%), ileo-colonic (40%) and colo-colonic (10%). Nine out of ten underwent to surgical resection. The malignancy was the most frequent cause.

Discussion: In case of colonic intussusception should not be performed any reduction because the frequent association with neoplastic disease. The laparoscopy can be safe and effective to allow, in entero-enteric and entero-colic intussusception, the definitive treatment of the occlusion. In the case of colo-colonic intussusception laparoscopy is a valuable diagnostic aid and can facilitate the later processing.

Conclusion: The intestinal invaginations diagnosis can often be difficult. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception.
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September 2016
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