Publications by authors named "Eman S El-Shetry"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Scrutinizing pathways of nicotine effect on renal Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice: Role of Chlorella vulgaris.

Gene 2022 Aug 25;837:146697. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Nicotine is one of several physiologically stable and active chemicals found in tobacco. The mechanism through which nicotine causes kidney damage is still obscure. As a result, the goal of this research was to investigate how oral nicotine intake can lead to kidney damage. Naturaly occurring superfood green algae are immense supplements help us using extra chemicals during cancer prevalence if the patient is exposed to nicotine. Hence, the mitigating role of Chlorella vulgaris extract (CVE) against nicotine-nephrotoxic impact in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice was studied. For this purpose, four groups of Swiss female mice were assigned, nicotine group (NIC) (100 µg/ml/kg), CVE group (100 mg/kg), CVE + Nicotine, and a control group. Renal dysfunction was evaluated by estimating serum biomarkers ofrenal damage. The expression pattern of Nf-B, MAPK, P53, and α7-nAchR, lipid peroxidation biomarker, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in kidney tissue. Also, micro-morphometric examination and apoptosis immunohistochemical reactivity of kidney tissue were applied. The obtained results indicated up-regulation of all estimated genes and oxidative stress. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.05) increment in the apoptotic marker Caspase-3 and declined BCL-2 proteins were recorded. In serum, a significant (P < 0.05) elevation of urea, creatinine, TNF-α, IL-1β, and Kim-1 were evident. Histological investigation reinforced the aforementioned data, revealing structural changes involving the tubules, glomeruli, and interstitium of mice kidneys. CVE may be a strong contender for protecting renal tissue damage since it reduces renal tissue injury and oxidative stress. Cancer patients who regularly use nicotine through direct smoking or second-hand exposure can benefit from CVE usage as a dietary supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146697DOI Listing
August 2022

Multi-Strain-Probiotic-Loaded Nanoparticles Reduced Colon Inflammation and Orchestrated the Expressions of Tight Junction, NLRP3 Inflammasome and Caspase-1 Genes in DSS-Induced Colitis Model.

Pharmaceutics 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Gut modulation by multi-strain probiotics (MSPs) is considered an effective strategy for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The combination of nanomaterial-based MSPs can improve their viability and resistance and can allow their targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract to be achieved. Thus, our aim is to investigate the prospective role of MSP integration into nanomaterials (MSPNPs) and the underlying molecular mechanisms supporting their application as an alternative therapy for IBD using a colitis rat model. To induce the colitis model, rats received 5% DSS, and the efficacy of disease progression after oral administration of MSPNPs was assessed by evaluating the severity of clinical signs, inflammatory response, expressions of tight-junction-related genes and NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 genes, microbial composition and histopathological examination of colonic tissues. The oral administration of MSPNPs successfully alleviated the colonic damage induced by DSS as proved by the reduced severity of clinical signs and fecal calprotectin levels. Compared with the untreated DSS-induced control group, the high activities of colonic NO and MPO and serum CRP levels were prominently reduced in rats treated with MSPNPs. Of note, colonic inflammation in the group treated with MSPNPs was ameliorated by downstreaming NLRP3 inflammasome, caspase-1, and expressions. After colitis onset, treatment with MSPNPs was more effective than that with free MSPs in restoring the expressions of tight-junction-related genes (upregulation of occludin, ZO-1, JAM, MUC and FABP-2) and beneficial gut microbiota. Interestingly, treatment with MSPNPs accelerated the healing of intestinal epithelium as detected in histopathological findings. In conclusion, the incorporation of MPSs into nanomaterials is recommended as a perspective strategy to overcome the challenges they face and augment their therapeutic role for treating of colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14061183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9228487PMC
May 2022

Hepatic and renal toxicity following the injection of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in mature male Westar rats: histochemical and caspase 3 immunohistochemical reactivities.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Copper nanoparticles are widely utilized in a variety of applications, including metal catalysts, semiconductors, heat transfer fluids in machine tools, and even in antibacterial medications. Forty mature healthy Westar rats were utilized in the current investigation and grouped randomly into four groups (n = 10 rats/group). Group I (G1) was kept as a control group, but G2, G3, and G4 were intraperitoneally injected with CuO NPs with a dose (5 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg/kg body weight/day) respectively for 9 days. Rats were sacrificed; then, the livers and kidneys were dissected and subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Our findings of G2 and G3 revealed mild to moderate degenerative changes within the hepatic parenchyma, moderate blood vessel congestions, glycogen depletion, hemosiderosis, and microvesicular steatosis (fatty changes within the hepatocytes). In addition, at the level of kidney, our examination clarified moderate degenerations of the renal corpuscles and renal tubules with moderate swelling and congestions of the glomerulus with moderate vacuolations in the renal tubules lining epithelium. On the other hand, increasing the dose of CuO NPs, the toxicity became more obvious, where the liver of G4 revealed severe necrosis of hepatocytes with completely disorganizations of the hepatic rays, loss of the hepatic architectures, severe steatosis, severe hemosiderosis, sinusoidal dilatations with congestions, as well as severe fibrous tissue proliferation with anti-inflammatory cell infiltrations specially around portal triad with hyperplasia of bile duct. Meanwhile in kidney, G4 clarified severe necrosis and atrophy of the renal corpuscles with severe damage of Bowman's capsule leading to completely disorganization and loss of normal renal cortex architectures, severe congestion of the glomerulus, severe necrosis of the renal tubules with damage and sloughing for its lining epithelium, and severe hemorrhage between renal tubules. In addition, severe and diffuse caspase 3 immunoreactivity were observed within the hepatic and renal tissues of G4. The present investigation was concluded that the CuO NPs have a potential toxicological effect on the hepatic and renal tissues that may affect their functions.-->.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21521-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Exosomes Derived from BM-MSCs Mitigate the Development of Chronic Kidney Damage Post-Menopause via Interfering with Fibrosis and Apoptosis.

Biomolecules 2022 05 2;12(5). Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh 33516, Egypt.

The rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing globally, and it is caused by continuous damage to kidney tissue. With time the renal damage becomes irreversible, leading to CKD development. In females, post-menopause lack of estrogen supply has been described as a risk factor for CKD development, and studies targeting post-menopause CKD are scarce. In the present study, we used exosomes isolated from bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) to test their therapeutic potential against the development of CKD. At first, the menopause model was achieved by surgical bilateral ovariectomy in female albino rats. After that, 100 µg of exosomes was given to ovariectomized rats, and the study continued for 2 months. Changes in urine volume, urine protein content, kidney function biochemical parameters (creatinine and BUN), kidney antioxidant parameters (SOD, GPx and CAT), histological changes, immunohistochemical levels of caspase 3, and the gene expression of NGAL (related to kidney damage), TGFβ1 and αSMA (related to fibrosis and EMT), and caspase 3 (related to apoptosis) were studied. After the ovariectomy, the occurrence of CKD was confirmed in the rats by the drastic reduction of serum estrogen and progesterone levels, reduced urine output, increased urinary protein excretion, elevated serum creatinine and BUN, reduced GPx SOD, and CAT in kidney tissue, degenerative and fibrotic lesions in the histopathological examination, higher immunohistochemical expression of caspase 3 and increased expression of all studied genes. After exosomes administration, the entire chronic inflammatory picture in the kidney was corrected, and a near-normal kidney structure and function were attained. This study shows for the first time that BM-MSCs exosomes are potent for reducing apoptosis and fibrosis levels and, thus, can reduce the chronic damage of the kidneys in females that are in their menopause period. Therefore, MSCs-derived exosomes should be considered a valuable therapy for preserving postmenopausal kidney structure and function and, subsequently, could improve the quality of females' life during menopause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom12050663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9138582PMC
May 2022

Novel In Vivo Assessment of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles against Infection.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2022 Mar 15;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

serovar Typhimurium () is known for its intracellular survival, evading the robust inflammation and adaptive immune response of the host. The emergence of decreased ciprofloxacin (CIP) susceptibility (DCS) requires a prolonged antibiotic course with increased dosage, leading to threatening, adverse effects. Moreover, antibiotic-resistant bacteria can persist in biofilms, causing serious diseases. Hence, we validated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of ciprofloxacin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CIP-MSN) using a rat model of salmonella infection to compare the oral efficacy of 5 mg/kg body weight CIP-MSN and a traditional treatment regimen with 10 mg/kg CIP postinfection. Our results revealed that mesoporous silica particles can regulate the release rate of CIP with an MIC of 0.03125 mg/L against DCS with a greater than 50% reduction of biofilm formation without significantly affecting the viable cells residing within the biofilm, and a sub-inhibitory concentration of CIP-MSN significantly reduced A and A gene expressions. Furthermore, oral supplementation of CIP-MSN had an insignificant effect on all blood parameter values as well as on liver and kidney function parameters. MPO and NO activities that are key mediators of oxidative stress were abolished by CIP-MSN supplementation. Additionally, CIP-MSN supplementation has a promising role in attenuating the elevated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in serum from -infected rats with a reduction in pro-apoptotic gene expression, resulting in reduced -induced hepatic apoptosis. This counteracted the negative effects of the challenge, as seen in a corrected histopathological picture of both the intestine and liver, along with increased bacterial clearance. We concluded that, compared with a normal ciprofloxacin treatment regime, MSN particles loaded with a half-dose of ciprofloxacin exhibited controlled release of the antibiotic, which can prolong the antibacterial effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph15030357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8953957PMC
March 2022

Probiotics-loaded nanoparticles attenuated colon inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in colitis.

Sci Rep 2022 03 24;12(1):5116. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 1 Alzeraa Street, Zagazig, 44511, Sharkia, Egypt.

Promising therapy is needed for treating inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) to overcome current treatment that inefficient and associated with unnecessary health risks. Recently, the concept of incorporating natural products into nanocarriers has been intended as a promising therapy for treating IBD via modulating their stability and bioavailability. Thus, we aimed to explore the potential alleviating effects of dietary nano-supplement combined with bacillus strains (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; BANPs) in colitis model. Rats were orally gavaged by 5% DSS and the efficacy and mechanistic actions of BANPs were evaluated by assessing the severity of clinical signs and inflammatory and apoptosis response, histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination in colonic tissues. The severity of clinical signs was successfully alleviated and fecal Lcn-2 levels, an important colitic marker, were decreased in BANPs then free BA treated groups. In contrast, inflammatory markers overexpression IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα, COX-2, and iNOS in the colitic group were reduced more prominently in BANPs treated group, unlike free BA. The amelioration of BANPs to colon injury was also correlated with oxidative stress suppression along with restoring total antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, BANPs treatment modulated apoptotic markers as proved by downregulation of cytochrome c, and caspase-3 and upregulation of Bcl-2 and Bax than free BA. The severity of the histopathological alterations in the colon was greatly reduced in BANPs than free BA groups. Remarkably, over-expression of ki67 and IL-6 in colonic tissues were suppressed in BANPs group. These findings together highlighted the beneficial efficacy of BANPs in IBD treatment which are evidenced by colonic inflammation alleviation. Taken together, these results recommend that BANPs is a promising agent that encourages its possible therapeutic role in colitis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-08915-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8948303PMC
March 2022

Mesenchymal stem-cells' exosomes are renoprotective in postmenopausal chronic kidney injury via reducing inflammation and degeneration.

Free Radic Biol Med 2022 03 24;182:150-159. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519, Zagazig, Egypt; Biomedical Sciences Program, University of Science and Technology, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12578, Egypt. Electronic address:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global disease its rates are increasing worldwide. CKD is caused by injuries to kidney tissue that exceeds the rate of regeneration, which with time lead to irreversible renal damage and CKD become evident. In females, diminished estrogen supply in the postmenopausal period is associated with greater risk for developing CKD. In this study we isolated exosomes from bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and tested their therapeutic effects on post-menopause CKD (PM-CKD) and compared their effects with BM-MSCs. The menopause model was achieved by bilateral ovariectomy in 8-months-old female albino rats, then no treatment, 2 million BM-MSCs or 100 μg of exosomes (Exo) was given intravenously in tail vein to ovariectomized rats and the study continued for 8 weeks post-ovariectomy. Changes in weight, urine volume, urine protein content, kidney function biochemical parameters (creatinine and BUN), Kidney oxidative stress (MDA), kidney antioxidant parameters (SOD, GPx and CAT), histopathological changes, immunohistochemical expression of KIM-1 and, finally, genes related to renal damage (peroxiredoxin-3, KIM-1 and ICAM-1) and inflammation (TNF-α, Cox2 and IL-6) were recorded for all study groups. Post-ovariectomy there was an increased body weight, drastic reduction of estrogen and progesterone levels, reduced urine output, increased urinary protein excretion, elevated serum creatinine and BUN, increased MDA and reduced GPx SOD, and CAT in kidney tissue, chronic inflammation, degenerative and fibrotic lesions in histopathological examination, high expression of KIM-1 immunohistochemically and changes in gene expression analyses all pointing to the development of CKD in the study rats. In the PM-CKD groups receiving BM-MSCs or Exo, the whole chronic inflammatory picture was completely reversed towards a much normal kidney structure and function. The improvements were more observable with Exo compared to BM-MSCs. Overall, our results show for the first time that exosomes isolated from BM-MSCs are more potent in reducing chronic inflammatory changes in the kidney of postmenopausal females compared to the cell-based approach using BM-MSCs. Therefore, MSCs-derived exosomes are a promising therapeutic approach for preserving postmenopausal kidney structure and function and, subsequently, should improve the quality of life of postmenopausal females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2022.02.024DOI Listing
March 2022

TGF-β1, NAG-1, and antioxidant enzymes expression alterations in Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a rat model: Comparative modulating role of Melatonin, Vit. E and Ozone.

Gene 2022 Apr 7;820:146293. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Cisplatin (CP) is an anticancer medication that is commonly used to treat solid tumors. Its use is, however, dose-restricted due to nephrotoxicity. We planned to compare the nephroprotective effects of three major compounds, including melatonin (MN), Ozone, or vitamin E, against the CP-induced renal damage in rats. CP was given once intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg,) eliciting acute kidney injury as assured by several adverse histological changes; glomerulopathy, tubulopathy, and vasculopathy, an inflammatory response including elevated TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Furthermore, biochemical alterations including, elevated plasma levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine, phosphorous, decreased plasma calcium levels, and gene expression abnormalities; upregulation of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) and Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), downregulation of CAT and SOD. Concurrent supplementation with either MN (10 mg/kg per os) or Ozone (1.1 mg/kg ip) and Vit E given by oral gavage (1 g/kg) for five consecutive days prior to CP injection and five days afterward displayed variable significant nephroprotective effects by mitigating the pro-inflammatory secretion, augmenting antioxidant competence, and modulating the gene expression in the renal tissue. The obtained biochemical, histological, and gene expression data suggested that MN had foremost rescue effects followed by Ozone then Vit E. MN's ameliorative effect was augmented in many indices including TNF-α, IL-6 , IL1-β, uric acid, creatinine, sNGAL and GGT, more than observed in Ozone, and Vit E therapy. A combination of these medications is expected to be more useful in relieving the damaging renal effects of CP given to cancer patients, pending further toxicological and pharmacological research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146293DOI Listing
April 2022

Synergistically enhanced apoptotic and oxidative DNA damaging pathways in the rat brain with lead and/or aluminum metals toxicity: Expression pattern of genes OGG1 and P53.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Dec 21;68:126860. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Background: Lead (Pb) and aluminum (Al) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and are known to induce neurodegenerative disorders. They enhance neuronal changes and may involve glial alterations and other consequences. We intend to evaluate the mechanism through which the long-term exposure to Pb acetate alone or in combination with aluminum-chloride induced neurological impacts in rats.

Methods: For this aim, a total number of forty male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned into four groups. Control (DW), Pb acetate (12.5 mg/kg BW), Al chloride (64 mg/kg BW), and the combination group were experimentally exposed for 60 days. Biochemical evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers, transcriptional-mediated changes in the expression pattern of OGG1 and P53 genes by qRT-PCR were applied. Histopathological modifications in the brain tissue with immunohistochemical reactivity of GFAP were also detected.

Results: Our findings revealed that lipid peroxidation was markedly enhanced but inhibited antioxidant enzyme activity in brain tissue in all exposed groups regarding the control. Pb-acetate elevated the biochemical concentration of dopamine and serotonin while AlCl declined their levels in the brain homogenate of rats. Furthermore, the exposure to one or both metals elevated the comet assay indices and serum level of 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine, up-regulated the expression of P53, OGG1 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. Histologically, they caused several brain tissue alterations.

Conclusion: The exposure to Pb and/or Al could be key candidates for neurodegenerative changes in the brain of rats via oxidative, apoptotic, and DNA damaging pathways. Besides, according to our findings, exposure to both Pb acetate and Aluminium chloride have synergistic damaging effects on the central nervous system of rats. Also, they have opposing effects on the secretion of monoamine neurotransmitters DA and 5 H T.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126860DOI Listing
December 2021

Expression and function of Ebf1 gene during chondrogenesis in chick embryo limb buds.

Gene 2021 Nov 9;803:145895. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

The expression profile of early B-cell factor (Ebf) genes and loss of function experiments denote a crucial role for these genes during the late stage of skeletogenesis. However, little is known regarding the expression and function of these genes during the early stage of skeletogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to detail the spatiotemporal expression pattern of cEbf1, in comparison to cEbf2 and cEbf3, in chick limb buds and investigate its function during chondrogenesis. cEbf1-3 were co-expressed in the distal mesenchyme from a very early stage and later in the outer perichondrium and the surrounding noncartilaginous mesenchymal cells. Ebf1 loss of function through injection of RCASBP virus-carrying Ebf1 dominant-negative form (ΔEbf1) into the wing buds resulted in shortened skeletal elements with a clear defect in the chondrocyte differentiation program. In RCASBP-ΔEbf1 injected wing, the chondrogenesis was initiated normally but hindered at the maturation stage. Subsequently, the chondrocytes failed to become mature or hypertrophic and the long bone diaphysis was not properly developed. The final phenotype included shorter, thicker, and fused long bones. These phenotypic changes were associated with downregulation of the early [Sox9 and collagen type II (Col2a1)] and the late [alkaline phosphatase (AP)] chondrocytes differentiation markers in the limb buds. These results conclude that cEbf1 could be involved in a molecular cascade that promotes the terminal stages of chondrogenesis in the long bone anlagen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145895DOI Listing
November 2021

Chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles alleviate cardio-hepatic damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus model via regulation of caspase, Bax/Bcl-2, and Fas/FasL-pathway.

Gene 2021 Feb 10;768:145288. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

The present study was carried out to explore a novel strategy with the hypothesis that the combined treatment with standard antidiabetic drug metformin (MET) and chitosan stabilized nanoparticles (CTS-Se-NPs) may have a potential role on insulin level, hepatic damage and apoptosis, and cardiac injury markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rat model. T2DM was induced by a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and a single injection of a low dose streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg) in Sprague Dawley rats. A total number of one hundred rats were divided into five groups; the first served as a control (non-diabetic) group and the other four groups served as diabetic rats. The treatments were even mono or combined therapy by CTS-Se-NPs and/or MET for 8 weeks. A group was given only MET (500 mg/kg bw/day), another was administered only CTS-Se-NPs at a dose of 2 mg se/kg/day, while the last group was given both of them (co-treated group). Biochemical, molecular and histopathological analyses were conducted to figure out the efficiency of the treatment by the monotherapeutic mode or combination therapy on the insulin level, oxidants/antioxidants status, inflammatory mediators, hepatic and cardiac injury biomarkers and apoptotic/anti-apoptotic gene expressions. Our results indicated that HFD/STZ-induced toxic effects on the serum, hepatic and cardiac tissues including a remarkable elevation of the oxidative and inflammatory mediators, and up-regulation of the apoptotic genes (Bax, Caspase-3, Fas, Fas-L) expression. Histologically, the heart tissue revealed various degenerative, vascular and inflammatory alterations characteristic to murine cardiomyopathy. Besides, livers from HFD-STZ-treated rats showed numerous cytotoxic, circulatory and inflammatory alterations. Combined therapy with MET and CTS-Se-NPs resulted in a better remarkable anti-diabetic effect demonstrated by substantial decreases in fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and elevated with up-regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (BCL-2) and down-regulation of apoptotic genes after 8 weeks of treatment than that revealed in the monotherapeutic strategy. In addition, it ameliorated the damage of cardiac and hepatic tissues and reduced lipid accumulation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and restored the antioxidant capacity. It could be concluded that, the combined strategy applied in the current study have a potential role to limit the diabetic complications and restore insulin resistance to a higher extent than monotherapeutic strategy and could be considered a promising therapeutic alternative in T2DM rat model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145288DOI Listing
February 2021

The role of chick Ebf genes in the mediolateral patterning of the somites.

Genesis 2019 11 13;57(11-12):e23339. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.

This study was conducted to check whether the three chick Early B-cell Factor (Ebf) genes, particularly cEbf1, would be targets for Shh and Bmp signals during somites mediolateral (ML) patterning. Tissue manipulations and gain and loss of function experiments for Shh and Bmp4 were performed and the results revealed that cEbf1 expression was initiated in the cranial presomitic mesoderm by low dose of Bmp4 from the lateral mesoderm and maintained in the ventromedial part of the epithelial somite and the medial sclerotome by Shh from the notochord; while cEbf2/3 expression was induced and maintained by Bmp4 and inhibited by high dose of Shh. To determine whether Ebf1 plays a role in somite patterning, transfection of a dominant-negative construct was carried out; this showed suppression of cPax1 expression in the medial sclerotome and upregulation and medial expansion of cEbf3 and cPax3 expression in sclerotome and dermomyotome, respectively, suggesting that Ebf1 is important for ML patterning. Thus, it is possible that low doses of Bmp4 set up Ebf1 expression which, together with Shh from the notochord, leads to establishment of the medial sclerotome and suppression of lateral identities. These data also conclude that Bmp4 is required in both the medial and lateral domain of the somitic mesoderm to keep the ML identity of the sclerotome through maintenance of cEbf gene expression. These striking findings are novel and give a new insight on the role of Bmp4 on mediolateral patterning of somites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvg.23339DOI Listing
November 2019

Panax ginseng is superior to vitamin E as a hepatoprotector against cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Oct 7;46:95-102. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519, Zagazig, Egypt.

Background And Aims: Cyclophosphamide (CPh) is a frequently used drug, in human and animals for its immunosuppressive and anticancer potential. However, it is metabolized by the liver yielding damaging toxicants (to the liver itself and other non-target vital organs) via oxidative stress, apoptosis induction and finally necrosis. Since there is no escaping of using such harmful medications, we focused on alleviating its side-effects. Panax ginseng Meyer is a potent candidate, and we still lack adequate information on its hepatoprotective role against cyclophosphamide-induced liver-damage.

Methods: Here, we used P. ginseng (Korean Red Ginseng) compared to vitamin-E (natural antioxidant) in combating CPh-induced liver damage. Forty-eight albino rats were divided into 6 groups, Control, Ginseng, Vitamin E, Cyclophosphamide (CPh), CPh + Ginseng or CPh + Vitamin-E. Blood samples were taken for biochemical analyses and liver samples were collected for histopathology, oxidative stress evaluation, and gene expression analyses.

Results: In CPh group, typical CPh-liver damage was evident (higher levels of AST, ALT, ALP; lower albumin and total proteins levels; lower liver tissue concentrations of SOD, GPX and CAT and higher MDA; injured liver histopathological picture; and finally increased TNF-α, IL-1β and Caspase3 and decreased BCL-2 genes expression). All these were abolished with either P. ginseng or vitamin-E administration. However, P. ginseng was overall superior to vitamin-E, especially in restoring blood biochemical findings and damaged histopathological picture.

Conclusions: Therefore, P. ginseng is a potent hepatoprotector (vitamin-E to a lesser extent) and should be considered where liver damage is expected secondary to damaging medications; as cyclophosphamide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.08.005DOI Listing
October 2019

Melatonin maximizes the therapeutic potential of non-preconditioned MSCs in a DEN-induced rat model of HCC.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jun 27;114:108732. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt.

Pretreatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with melatonin (Mel) improves their potential therapeutic effect on chronic diseases and cancers. However, this preconditioning strategy may direct the effect of Mel toward MSCs alone and deprive cancer cells of the oncostatic effect of Mel. Herein, we hypothesized that Mel given before transplantation of non-preconditioned MSCs may maximize the therapeutic outcome via the oncostatic effect of Mel by preparing a suitable tumor microenvironment for MSCs. Female rats (n = 60) were equally divided into 6 groups; normal control, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), DEN + Mel, DEN + MSCs, DEN + MSCs preconditioned with Mel, and DEN + MSCs + Mel. The obtained data revealed that administration of Mel before MSCs treatment without preconditioning yielded a better ameliorative effect against DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as evidenced by: 1) reduced serum levels of alpha fetoprotein and gamma-glutamyl transferase; 2) decreased number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental positive foci; 3) induced apoptosis (as indicated by increased cleaved caspase-3 activity, upregulated expression of proapoptotic genes Bax and caspase 3 and downregulated expression of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl2, survivin); 4) decreased malondialdehyde level and increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes; and 5) reduced inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis as indicated by downregulated expression of interleukin 1 beta, nuclear factor kappa B, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 genes and upregulated expression of metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 gene. Thus, administration of Mel before MSCs (without preconditioning) fostered the survival and therapeutic potential of MSCs in HCC, possibly through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress. This new strategy showed better therapeutic outcomes and may improve MSC-based therapies for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108732DOI Listing
June 2019

Potential Effect of Exosomes Derived from Cancer Stem Cells and MSCs on Progression of DEN-Induced HCC in Rats.

Stem Cells Int 2018 27;2018:8058979. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Biology, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Cross talk, mediated by exosomes, between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumor microenvironment has been given less attention so far. In addition, no publications are available in the literature that address the impact of exosomes derived from CSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on progression of long-term hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Herein, we hypothesized that transfer of exosomes among the cells in the HCC microenvironment could either induce or inhibit tumor growth and metastasis depending on their source. To check this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of exosomes coming from two different stem cell populations, hepatic CSCs and bone marrow (BM) MSCs, on progression of long-term DEN-induced HCC in rats and the involved underlying mechanisms. CSCs-exosomes induced a significant increase in liver relative weight and serum levels of cancer markers (AFP and GGT) and liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP), intensive immunostaining for the HCC marker GST-P, and an increased number and area of tumor nodules as compared to HCC rats injected by PBS. CSCs-exosomes also decreased apoptosis (marked by downregulation of and and upregulation of , and increased immunostaining of PCNA), increased angiogenetic activity (revealed by upregulation of ), enhanced metastasis and invasiveness (indicated by upregulation of P13K and ERK proteins and their downstream target and downregulation of ), and induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (marked by increased serum and hepatic level of TGF1 mRNA and protein). Notably, CSCs-exosomes also elevated HCC exosomal microRNA (miR) 21, exosomal long noncoding (lnc) RNA Tuc339, lncHEIH, and the HCC lncHOTAIR and decreased liver miR122 and HCC miRs (miR148a, miR16, and miR125b). All these cellular, functional, and molecular changes were reversed following injection of BM-MSCs-exosomes. However, both CSCs- and MSCs-exosomes failed to change the elevated oxidative stress or the inhibited antioxidant activities induced by HCC. Collectively, our results revealed a tumor stimulatory effect (induction of tumor growth, progression, and metastasis) for exosomes derived from CSCs and an inhibitory effect for exosomes derived from MSCs. These results provide valuable insight on the effect of CSCs- and MSCs-exosomes on HCC growth and progression , which may be helpful to understand the mechanism of HCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8058979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6129855PMC
August 2018

Incensole acetate prevents beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in human olfactory bulb neural stem cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Sep 15;105:813-823. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a potent neurotoxic protein associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) which causes oxidative damage to neurons. Incensole acetate (IA) is a major constituent of Boswellia carterii resin, which has anti-inflammatory and protective properties against damage of a large verity of neural subtypes. However, this neuroprotective effect was not studied on human olfactory bulb neural stem cells (hOBNSCs). Herein, we evaluated this effect and studied the underlying mechanisms. Exposure to Aβ (5 and 10 μM for 24 h) inhibited proliferation (revealed by downregulation of Nestin and Sox2 gene expression), and induced differentiation (marked by increased expression of the immature neuronal marker Map2 and the astrocyte marker Gfap) of hOBNSCs. However, pre-treatment with IA (100 μM for 4 h) stimulated proliferation and differentiation of neuronal, rather than astrocyte, markers. Moreover, IA pretreatment significantly decreased the Aβ-induced viability loss, apoptotic rate (revealed by decreased caspase 3 activity and protein expression, downregulated expression of Bax, caspase 8, cyto c, caspase3, and upregulated expression of Bcl2 mRNAs and proteins, in addition to elevated mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered intracellular Ca). IA reduced Aβ-mediated ROS production (revealed by decreased intracellular ROS and MDA level, and increased SOD, CAT, and GPX contents), and inhibited Aβ-induced inflammation (marked by down-regulated expression of IL1b, TNFa, NfKb, and Cox2 genes). IA also significantly upregulated mRNA and protein expression of Erk1/2 and Nrf2. Notably, IA increased the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and this effect was reversed by HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) leading to reduction of the neuroprotective effect of IA against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. These findings clearly show the ability of IA to initiate proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors in hOBNSCs and induce HO-1 expression, thereby protecting the hOBNSCs cells from Aβ-induced oxidative cell death. Thus, IA may be applicable as a potential preventive agent for AD by its effect on hOBNSCs and could also be used as an adjuvant to hOBNSCs in cellular therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.014DOI Listing
September 2018

High doses of S-methylcysteine cause hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis accompanied by engulfment of mitochondaria by nucleus.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Oct 4;94:589-597. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

Despite its important role as a medicinal plant, some studies reported a toxic effect for garlic (Allium sativum) when given in higher doses. Herein, we investigated the possible cardiotoxic effects of high doses of S-methylcysteine (SMC), a water soluble organosulfur compound present in garlic. Rats were orally administered SMC at a low dose (50mg), high dose (150mg) and very high dose (300mg)/kg body weight, or saline (control) for 10days. High and very high doses of SMC resulted in a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers [aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT)], as well as oxidative stress marker nitric oxide (NO) concentration in heart and a significant decrease in cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, ultrastructure findings in myocardium of rats treated by high and very high doses showed inter-bundle vacuolation, loss of myofibrils, and centripetal movement of mitochondria towards nucleus. The mitochondria were partially surrounded by nuclear membrane at high dose SMC, and completely engulfed by nucleus at very high dose. This centripetal movement of mitochondria accompanied by cardiomyocytes hypoxia-induced apoptosis as evident by increasing TUNEL positive cells as well as upregulation of apoptotic genes (caspase3 and Bax), hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α), dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1) and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic marker, Bcl2. We conclude that high and very high doses of SMC cause hypoxia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis accompanied by engulfment of mitochondria by nucleus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.100DOI Listing
October 2017
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