Publications by authors named "Eman M Khedr"

67 Publications

Tinnitus and tinnitus disorder: Theoretical and operational definitions (an international multidisciplinary proposal).

Prog Brain Res 2021 1;260:1-25. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Bezirksklinikum, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

As for hypertension, chronic pain, epilepsy and other disorders with particular symptoms, a commonly accepted and unambiguous definition provides a common ground for researchers and clinicians to study and treat the problem. The WHO's ICD11 definition only mentions tinnitus as a nonspecific symptom of a hearing disorder, but not as a clinical entity in its own right, and the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-V doesn't mention tinnitus at all. Here we propose that the tinnitus without and with associated suffering should be differentiated by distinct terms: "Tinnitus" for the former and "Tinnitus Disorder" for the latter. The proposed definition then becomes "Tinnitus is the conscious awareness of a tonal or composite noise for which there is no identifiable corresponding external acoustic source, which becomes Tinnitus Disorder "when associated with emotional distress, cognitive dysfunction, and/or autonomic arousal, leading to behavioural changes and functional disability.". In other words "Tinnitus" describes the auditory or sensory component, whereas "Tinnitus Disorder" reflects the auditory component and the associated suffering. Whereas acute tinnitus may be a symptom secondary to a trauma or disease, chronic tinnitus may be considered a primary disorder in its own right. If adopted, this will advance the recognition of tinnitus disorder as a primary health condition in its own right. The capacity to measure the incidence, prevalence, and impact will help in identification of human, financial, and educational needs required to address acute tinnitus as a symptom but chronic tinnitus as a disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.12.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Surveillance Study of Acute Neurological Manifestations among 439 Egyptian Patients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Feb 25:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Assiut University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt.

Background: COVID-19 can be accompanied by acute neurological complications of both central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). In this study, we estimate the frequency of such complications among hospital inpatients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan university hospitals.

Materials And Methods: We screened all patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted from 1 June to 10 August 2020 to the university hospitals of Assiut and Aswan in Upper Egypt. Clinical and laboratory tests, CT/MRI of the chest and brain, and neurophysiology study were performed for each patient if indicated.

Results: 439 patients had confirmed/probable COVID-19; neurological manifestations occurred in 222. Of these, 117 had acute neurological disease and the remainder had nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and depression. The CNS was affected in 75 patients: 55 had stroke and the others had convulsions (5), encephalitis (6), hypoxic encephalopathy (4), cord myelopathy (2), relapse of multiple sclerosis (2), and meningoencephalitis (1). The PNS was affected in 42 patients: the majority had anosmia and ageusia (31) and the others had Guillain-Barré syndrome (4), peripheral neuropathy (3), myasthenia gravis (MG, 2), or myositis (2). Fever, respiratory symptoms, and headache were the most common general symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities in patients with CNS affection.

Conclusion: In COVID-19, both the CNS and PNS are affected. Stroke was the most common complication for CNS, and anosmia and/or ageusia were common for PNS diseases. However, there were 6 cases of encephalitis, 2 cases of spinal cord myelopathy, 2 cases of MG, and 2 cases of myositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513647DOI Listing
February 2021

A double-blind randomized clinical trial of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC on nicotine dependence, anxiety and depression.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 15;11(1):1640. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) is a widely applied treatment protocol for chronic smoking and major depressive disorder. However, no previous study has measured the effects of rTMS on both nicotine consumption and anxiety/depression in the same volunteers despite the relationship between them. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of 10 daily sessions of HF-rTMS over the L-DLPFC in chronic cigarette smokers' addiction and investigate the possible beneficial effects of this treatment procedure on symptoms of depression and anxiety in the same subjects. The study included 40 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers. Onset/duration of smoking, number of cigarettes/day, Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Tobacco Craving Questionnaire-Short Form (TCQ-SF), Hamilton depression and anxiety scales (HAM-D and HAM-A) were recorded. Participants were randomly assigned to the active or the sham treatment group. Those in the active group received 10 trains of 20 Hz stimulation, at 80% of the resting motor threshold (rMT) for 10 consecutive working days over L-DLPFC. Participants were reassessed immediately after treatment, and then 3 months later using all rating scales. There were no differences between active and sham groups at baseline. The cigarette consumption/day, and scores on FTND, and TCQ decreased significantly in both groups (p = 0.0001 for each) immediately after treatment. However, improvement persisted to 3 months in the active group but not in the sham group. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in HAM-D and HAM-A scores immediately after treatment in the active but not the sham group. Subjects with a longer history of smoking had a lower percent improvement in FTND (p = 0.005). Our findings revealed that HF-rTMS over L-DLPCF for 10 days reduced cigarette consumption, craving, dependence, and improved associated symptoms of anxiety and depression.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03264755 registered at 29/08/2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80927-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810712PMC
January 2021

Case Report: Acute Spinal Cord Myelopathy in Patients With COVID-19.

Front Neurol 2020 22;11:610648. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Radiology, Assiut University Hospitals, Assiut, Egypt.

COVID-19 is typically associated with fever and severe respiratory symptoms including dry cough and dyspnea. However, COVID-19 may also affect both central and peripheral nervous systems. To date, the incidence rate of spinal cord involvement in COVID-19 is not known and the pathogenesis is still not fully understood. We report here two female patients admitted to Assiut University Hospitals/Egypt during the period from first of July to August 10, 2020. Both presented with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) nasopharyngeal swab, elevated serum d-dimer and ferritin levels, and bilateral ground glass appearance in a CT chest scan. The first was a 60-year-old female with acute onset of flaccid paraplegia 10 days after flu-like symptoms, in whom MRI revealed transverse myelitis. The second was a 21-year-old female with symptoms of acute quadriplegia, fever, headache, and anosmia in whom an MRI scan revealed long cervico-thoracic myelopathy. Anterior spinal artery occlusion and possibly transverse myelitis were considered as differential diagnosis of long segment myelopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.610648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784375PMC
December 2020

Cognitive Impairment, P300, and Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Different Forms of Dementia.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;78(2):837-845

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

Background: There are currently few biomarkers to assist in early diagnosis of dementias.

Objective: To distinguish between different dementias: Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) using simple neurophysiologic (P300) and laboratory markers (transforming growth factor β1 "TGF-β1").

Methods: The study included 15 patients for each type of dementia and 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Dementia patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition-revised (DSM-IV-R). Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), Memory Assessment Scale (MAS), P300, and TGF-β1 were examined for each participant.

Results: There were no significant differences between groups as regard to age, sex, and education, social, and economic levels. Significant differences between groups were observed in registration and naming variables of the 3MS. Compared with the control group, P300 latency was prolonged in all groups, although to a greater extent in AD and PDD than in VaD. A serum level of TGF-β1 was significantly elevated in all groups but was significantly higher in AD and VaD than in PDD. 3MS tended to correlate with P300 more than TGF-β1, and to be stronger in AD than the other groups.

Conclusion: Measurements of P300 latency and serum levels of TGF-β1 can help distinguish AD, PDD, and VaD. P300 was more prolonged in AD and PDD than VaD whereas TGF-β1 was significantly higher in AD and VaD than PDD. Thus P300 and TGF-β1 may be useful biomarkers for detection and evaluation of the extent of cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200885DOI Listing
January 2020

Predictors of Poor Outcome Despite Successful Mechanical Thrombectomy of Anterior Circulation Large Vessel Occlusions Within 6 h of Symptom Onset.

Front Neurol 2020 4;11:907. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Successful reperfusion is a significant predictor of a good clinical outcome after mechanical thrombectomy (MT). However, some patients have a poor clinical outcome even with successful reperfusion. We aimed to study factors that predict a poor clinical outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale ≥ 3) in patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO) treated by successful MT within 6 h of symptom onset. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained MT database of all patients who underwent MT within 6 h of symptom onset for an anterior circulation LVO at our institution from May 2016 to June 2018. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of poor outcome. A total of 56 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this study. A poor outcome occurred in 31 (55.4%) patients. On univariate analysis, compared to patients with good clinical outcome, patients with poor outcome had higher mean baseline NIHSS scores (23.3 vs. 13.8, < 0.001), were more likely to have internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions (38.7 vs. 8%, = 0.008), and had a higher incidence of distal clot migration (DCM) (48.4 vs. 8%, = 0.028). Age, gender, other baseline clinical characteristics, MT technique, and incidence of hemorrhagic transformation did not differ between the two cohorts. On multivariable regression analysis, baseline NIHSS score [OR; 1.3, 95%CI [1.11-1.52], = 0.001], site of occlusion (ICA) [OR; 8.9, 95%CI [1.3-60.9], = 0.026], and DCM [OR; 5.77, 95%CI [1.09-30.69], = 0.04] were independent predictors of poor outcome at 90-days. Baseline NIHSS score, ICA occlusion, and DCM are independent predictors of a poor outcome after MT for anterior circulation LVO performed within 6 h of symptoms onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498572PMC
September 2020

Effect of psychotropic drugs on cortical excitability of patients with major depressive disorders: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Psychiatry Res 2020 09 10;291:113287. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Neuropsychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, sertraline, and the atypical antipsychotic drugs quetiapine and olanzapine, on cortical excitability in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study included 45 medication-free MDD patients diagnosed according to DSM V. They were divided randomly into three groups who received a single oral dose of one of the three drugs sertraline (50 mg), quetiapine (100 mg) and olanzapine (10 mg). Psychological evaluation was conducted using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Beck Depression Inventory Scale (BDI). Resting and active motor thresholds (rMT and aMT) together with contralateral and ipsilateral cortical silent periods (cSP, and iSP) were measured for each participant before and at the time of maximum concentration of drug intake. There was significant increase in excitability of motor cortex after sertraline without changes in GABA neurotransmission. Quetiapine and olanzapine potentiated inhibitory GABA neurotransmission (prolongation of cSP); olanzapine additionally prolonged the iSP. Thus TMS can differentiate between the impact of different psychotropic drugs on excitatory and inhibitory transmission in motor cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113287DOI Listing
September 2020

Electrophysiological differences in cortical excitability in different forms of dementia: A transcranial magnetic stimulation and laboratory biomarkers study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2020 Jul 23;50(3):185-193. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Medical physiology department, faculty of medicine, Assiut university, Assiut, Egypt.

Background: The aim of the present study was to identify neurophysiologic markers to differentiate between Alzheimer dementia (AD), Vascular dementia (VaD), and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and to examine their relationship to levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1).

Methods: The study included 15 patients with each type of dementia (AD, VaD, PDD) and 25 control subjects. Dementia patients were diagnosed according to the DiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders4thedition-revised(DSM-IV-R). Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE), motor cortex excitability including resting and active motor thresholds (rMT, aMT), input-output (I/O) curve, contralateral and ipsilateral silent periods (cSP, iSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) at 1,2 and 4ms, and serum levels of TGFβ1 were examined.

Results: There were no significant differences between groups with regards to age, sex, education or socioeconomic level. There was significant neuronal hyperexcitability in the form of reduced rMT and aMT and a shallower I/O curve in all three groups of dementia compared with the control group. The durations of cSP and iSP were longer in AD and PDD groups compared with the control group, whereas there were no significant differences in VaD. SICI was less effective in the three dementia groups than in the control group at intervals of 4ms. Serum levels of TGFβ1 were significantly elevated in all dementia groups in comparison with the control group. There was a significant negative correlation between serum level of TGFβ1 and cSP, iSP, and SICI across all patients and a significant negative correlation between serum level of TGFβ1 and iSP duration in AD.

Conclusion: Although motor thresholds were reduced in all patients, measures of SICI, cSP and iSP could distinguish between dementia groups. Serum level of TGFβ1 negatively correlated with iSP specifically in the AD group. This suggests that levels of TGFβ1 may relate to GABAergic dysfunction in dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2020.05.001DOI Listing
July 2020

Risk Factors for Distal Clot Migration during Mechanical Thrombectomy of Anterior Circulation Large Vessel Occlusion.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 30;49(2):185-191. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA,

Introduction: Distal clot migration (DCM) is a known complication of mechanical thrombectomy (MT), but neither risk factors for DCM nor ways of how it might affect clinical outcomes have been extensively studied to date.

Methods: To identify risk factors for and outcomes in the setting of DCM, the records of all patients with acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO) treated with MT at a single center between May 2016 and June 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate predictors of DCM and good functional outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale; mRS 0-2).

Results: A total of 65 patients were included, DCM was identified in 22 patients (33.8%). Patients with DCM had significantly higher pre-procedural intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) administration (81.8 vs. 53.5%, p = 0.03), stentrievers thrombectomy (95.5 vs. 62.8%, p = 0.006), and longer median puncture to recanalization time (44 [34-97] vs. 30 [20-56] min, p = 0.028) as compared to group with non-DCM. Also, they had lower rates of Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b/3 recanalization (p = 0.002), higher median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at discharge (p = 0.01), and lower rates of 90-day mRS (0-2; 18.2 vs. 48.8%; p = 0.016). On subgroup analysis, patients with middle cerebral artery occlusions who underwent MT with stentrievers <40 mm in length had a higher risk of DCM (p = 0.026). On multivariable analysis, IV-tPA administration (OR; 5.019, 95% CI [1.319-19.102], p = 0.018) and stentrievers thrombectomy (OR; 10.031, 95% CI [1.090-92.344]; p = 0.04) remained significant predictors of DCM. Baseline NIHSS score (OR; 0.872, 95% CI [0.788-0.965], p = 0.008) and DCM (OR; 0.250, 95% CI [0.075-0.866], p = 0.03) were independent predictors of 90-day mRS 0-2.

Conclusion: In patients undergoing MT for anterior circulation LVO, DCM is associated with lower rates of TICI 2b/3 recanalization and worse functional outcomes at 90 days. IV-tPA administration and MT with short stentrievers are independent predictors of DCM development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507341DOI Listing
September 2020

Global cortical hypoexcitability of the dominant hemisphere in major depressive disorder: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2020 Jul 10;50(3):175-183. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Neuropsychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospital, 71511 Assiut, Egypt.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that major depressive disorders (MDD) are associated with an imbalance of excitation-inhibition within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), generated by a deficit of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto glutamatergic principal neurons. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols can be used to measure neuronal excitability and GABAergic inhibition and thus provide additional evidence to evaluate this theory.

Objective: In the present study, TMS protocols were used to compare GABAergic function and cortical excitability of dominant hemisphere in unmedicated patients with MDD versus a control group of healthy individuals.

Methods: The study included 43 MDD patients according to DSM-V and 20 age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers. Psychological evaluation was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Resting and active motor thresholds (rMT and aMT) together with contralateral and ipsilateral cortical silent periods (cSP, and iSP) were measured for each participant.

Results: rMT and aMT were higher in MDD patients compared with the control group, while cSP and iSP were significantly shorter in duration. There were significant positive correlations between the BDI score and rMT, aMT (P=0.001 and 0.002 respectively), and a negative correlation with cSP duration (P=0.001).

Conclusion: Global hypoexcitability of both pyramidal cortical neurons (elevated MTs) and GABAergic controls (shortened SPs) was evidenced within the left/dominant motor cortex in MDD. These results are consistent with previous reports of abnormal glutamate and GABA function in frontal cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2020.02.005DOI Listing
July 2020

Evaluation of cognitive function in systemic sclerosis patients: a pilot study.

Clin Rheumatol 2020 May 4;39(5):1551-1559. Epub 2020 Jan 4.

Division of Rheumatology, University of California in Los Angeles (Emeritus), Los Angeles, USA.

Objective: To investigate cognitive dysfunction in adult patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) who had no known clinical neurological manifestations and to relate it with other disease severity parameters.

Methods: In the present study, 20 SSc consecutive female patients, who met the 2013 American College of Rheumatology SSc criteria, were compared with 20 healthy age-, gender-, and educational status-matched volunteer hospital workers. Mean age and duration of illness were 41.8 ± 12.52 and 6.9 ± 5.4 years respectively. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS-III), and P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to evaluate cognitive function in SS subjectively and objectively respectively.

Results: Sixty-five percent (13 out of 20) of SSc patients had MMSE score < 25, and cognitive impairment. Despite the lack of clinically apparent neurological manifestations, SSc patients had significantly low MMSE score, high Deterioration Index (DI), and prolonged P300 latency compared with that of the control group (P = 0.0001; 0.010 and 0.008 respectively). A significant positive association was found between (DI) and the Medsger severity vascular score (r = 0.518; P = 0.012).There were few differences between limited and diffuse SSc.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, few studies highlighted that subclinical cognitive impairment can occur in the course of SSc disease. Early diagnosis of cognitive impairment should be investigated either subjectively (using psychometrics tests as MMSE or WAIS-III) or objectively using P300 evoked related potentials. Medsger severity vascular score seems to be closely related to cognitive impairment.Key points• Cognitive impairment can be associated with Medsger Vascular severity score and the duration of illness.• Further larger studies will be needed to estimate the effect of disease activity on cognitive function, to further delineate the differences between limited and diffuse SSc in this area, and to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms causing cognitive impairment in patients with SSc.• To investigate impaired cognitive function in patients with SSc, even in the absence of clinically apparent neurological and vascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04884-9DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of chronic nicotine consumption on motor cortical excitability: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2020 Feb 10;50(1):33-39. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assuit, Egypt.

Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows exploration of the mode of action of neuroactive substances in the human brain, and allows evaluation of neuronal networks, which might be involved in the action of nicotine. The aim of the present study was to explore motor cortex excitability in chronic smokers and non-smokers using TMS.

Methods: The study included 50 healthy subjects, of whom 25 were chronic smokers and 25 were age- and sex-matched non-smokers. Number of cigarettes per day and duration of smoking in years were documented. Serum level of cotinine was measured. Resting and active motor threshold (RMT, AMT) and input-output curves (I/O) were performed to assess corticospinal excitability. The duration of the contralateral silent period (cSP) at different ranges of stimulation intensities and ipsilateral silent period (iSP) were used as measures of inhibition.

Results: There were no significant differences either in RMT or AMT between groups. I/O curve showed a significant intensity×group interaction (P=0.008). This was attributable to significantly higher amplitudes of MEP among smokers than non-smokers especially at 130, 140 and 150% of RMT (P=0.0001 and P=0.03 and 0.02 respectively). The mean duration of the cSP at different intensities and iSP duration were similar in both groups. Nicotine level and smoking index were correlated respectively with rMT and iSP (P=0.03 and 0.01).

Conclusion: The present results confirm previous findings by Grundey et al. (2013) that chronic nicotine consumption is characterized by hyperexcitability of corticospinal output. We speculate that it is a secondary adaptation to long-term nicotine use with high inter-individual variance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2019.11.003DOI Listing
February 2020

The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease with dementia: Pilot study.

Restor Neurol Neurosci 2020 ;38(1):55-66

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.

Background: The exact mechanism of cognitive impairment in PD is not known. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a possible treatment for cognitive impairment and to treat the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) where its effects seem additive to those of dopaminergic medications.

Objective: In this pilot study we investigated whether repeated sessions of rTMS have an effect on measures of cognitive impairment in patients with PD dementia.

Methods: 33 patients with PD dementia were randomly assigned sham or real rTMS (2000 pulses; 20 Hz; 90% RMT; 10 trains of 10 s with 25 s between each train) over the hand area of each motor cortex (5 min between hemispheres) for 10 days (5 days/week) followed by 5 booster sessions every month for 3 months. Assessments included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR); Memory and Executive Screening (MES) and Instrumental activity of Daily Living (IADL). Event related potentials (P300) and cortical excitability were measured before treatment and after the last session.

Results: There were no significant differences in the effects of rTMS between groups. Although rTMS improved motor function in the active group it had only a minor effect on two of the dementia rating scores (the MMSE and MoCA) but not the others (CDR and MES). There was also a reduction in the latency of the P300 in the active group.

Conclusions: rTMS over M1 is useful for motor function and may have a small positive effect on cognition. However, better approaches for the latter are necessary, may be require multisite rTMS to target both motor and frontal cortical region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/RNN-190956DOI Listing
February 2021

TMS excitability study in essential tremor: Absence of gabaergic changes assessed by silent period recordings.

Neurophysiol Clin 2019 Sep 2;49(4):309-315. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt.

Background: Essential tremor (ET) is thought to emerge from activity in a distributed cerebello-thalamo-cortical network. It has been proposed that the network goes into oscillation because of abnormal GABAergic inhibitory transmission.

Objective: To test this idea by investigating GABAergic circuitry in motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Methods: Motor cortex excitability was examined using TMS in 21 patients with essential tremor and in 20 control subjects. Resting and active motor threshold (RMT, AMT) and input-output curves examined corticospinal excitability. Contralateral silent period (cSP) at a different range of stimulation intensities, and the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) using a stimulus intensity of 150% RMT were used as measures of GABAergic function.

Results: RMT and AMT were significantly lower in patients than controls and patients had a steeper I/O curve. However, there were no significant differences in either cSP at different intensities or in iSP.

Conclusion: We found no evidence in favour of the GABA hypothesis in ET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2019.05.065DOI Listing
September 2019

The Effect of High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Advancing Parkinson's Disease With Dysphagia: Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2019 06 10;33(6):442-452. Epub 2019 May 10.

2 UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

We investigate if rTMS has a therapeutic role in the treatment of dysphagia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). . Thirty-three patients with PD and dysphagia were randomly classified with ratio 1:2 to receive sham or real rTMS (2000 pulses; 20 Hz; 90% resting motor threshold; 10 trains of 10 seconds with 25 seconds between each train) over the hand area of each motor cortex (5 minutes between hemispheres) for 10 days (5 days per week) followed by 5 booster sessions every month for 3 months. Assessments included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and Arabic-Dysphagia Handicap Index (A-DHI) before, after the last session, and 3 months later. Video-fluoroscopy measures of pharyngeal transit time (PTT) and time to maximal hyoid elevation (H1-H2) were taken before and after the treatment sessions. . There were no significant differences between groups. There was a significant improvement on all rating scales (analysis of variance) after real rTMS with a significant time × group interaction. In particular, there was a significant and long-lasting (3 months) effect of time on all subitems of the A-DHI (functional, = .0001; physical, = .0001; emotional, = .02) but not in the sham group. This was associated with significant improvement in H1-H2 ( = .03) and PTT ( = .01) during solid swallows in the real rTMS but not the sham group. . Real rTMS improves dysphagia in PD as documented by A-DHI scores and by video-fluoroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968319847968DOI Listing
June 2019

Therapeutic Role of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Alzheimer Disease Patients: Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2019 05 3;33(5):384-394. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

1 Assiut University Hospital, Egypt.

Objective: To explore the neuropsychological effects and levels of tau protein (TAU), amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42), and lipid peroxidase after 10 sessions of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD).

Patients And Methods: A total of 46 consecutive patients with probable AD participated in this study. They were classified randomly into 2 equal groups: active versus sham. Each patient received 10 sessions of anodal tDCS over the left and right temporoparietal region for 20 minutes for each side with the cathode on the left arm. Patients were assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE), clock drawing test, Montreal Cognitive Scale (MoCA), and the Cornell Scale for depression. Serum TAU, Aβ 1-42, and lipid peroxidase were measured before and after the 10th session.

Results: There was a significant improvement in the total score of each cognitive rating scale (MMMSE, clock drawing test, and MoCA) in the real group, whereas no such change was observed in the sham group. The Cornell depression score improved significantly in both groups. There was a significant increase in serum Aβ 1-42 ( P = .02) in the real but not in the sham group, with a significant Treatment condition × Time interaction ( P = .009). There was no significant effect on tau or lipid peroxidase in either group but a significant positive correlation between changes of Aβ1-42 and MMMSE ( P = .005) and MoCA ( P = .02).

Conclusion: The observed cognitive improvements were complemented by parallel changes in serum levels of Aβ 1-42.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968319840285DOI Listing
May 2019

The Effect of 20 Hz versus 1 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Motor Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Which Is More Beneficial?

J Parkinsons Dis 2019 ;9(2):379-387

Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK.

Background: There is evidence that both high and low frequency rTMS may have therapeutic effects on motor performance of Parkinson's disease.

Objective: The aim of the study was to conduct the first direct comparison of the two approaches.

Methods: 52 PD patients were randomly classified into two groups. The first group received 20 Hz and the 2nd group received 1 Hz rTMS with a total of 2000 pulses over M1of each hemisphere for ten days. Effects were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS), Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL), and a self-assessment score (SA) before, after the last session, and one month later. Cortical excitability was measured before and after the end of sessions.

Results: There was a significant improvement on all rating scales after either 1 Hz or 20 Hz rTMS, but the effect persisted for longer after 20 Hz (treatment X time interaction for UPDRS and IADL (P = 0.075 and 0.04, respectively). Neither treatment affected motor thresholds, but 20 Hz rTMS increased MEP amplitude and the duration of transcallosal inhibition. In an exploratory analysis, each group was subdivided into akinetic-rigid and tremor dominant subgroups and the effects of 1 Hz and 20 Hz treatment recalculated. There was weak evidence that patients with an akinetic-rigid presentation may respond better than those with predominant tremor.

Conclusion: Both 20 Hz and 1 Hz rTMS improve motor function in PD, but 20 Hz rTMS is more effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-181540DOI Listing
April 2020

K-variant BCHE and pesticide exposure: Gene-environment interactions in a case-control study of Parkinson's disease in Egypt.

Sci Rep 2018 11 8;8(1):16525. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Munich, Germany.

Pesticide exposure is associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated in Egypt whether common variants in genes involved in pesticide detoxification or transport might modify the risk of PD evoked by pesticide exposure. We recruited 416 PD patients and 445 controls. Information on environmental factors was collected by questionnaire-based structured interviews. Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 pesticide-related genes were genotyped. We analyzed the influence of environmental factors and SNPs as well as the interaction of pesticide exposure and SNPs on the risk of PD. The risk of PD was reduced by coffee consumption [OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.90, P = 0.013] and increased by pesticide exposure [OR = 7.09, 95% CI: 1.12-44.01, P = 0.036]. The SNP rs1126680 in the butyrylcholinesterase gene BCHE reduced the risk of PD irrespective of pesticide exposure [OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.20-0.70, P = 0.002]. The SNP rs1803274, defining K-variant BCHE, interacted significantly with pesticide exposure (P = 0.007) and increased the risk of PD only in pesticide-exposed individuals [OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.50-4.19, P = 0.0005]. The K-variant BCHE reduces serum activity of butyrylcholinesterase, a known bioscavenger for pesticides. Individuals with K-variant BCHE appear to have an increased risk for PD when exposed to pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35003-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224461PMC
November 2018

Prevalence of cervical and lumbosacral compressive radiculopathies in Qena governorate/Egypt: Population-based survey.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 12 24;175:112-120. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to estimate the crude prevalence rate (CPR) of compressive radiculopathies in Qena governorate/Egypt.

Patients And Methods: 10 areas in Qena governorate were selected by random sampling, involving 9303 inhabitants with 57.3% urban residents and 42.7% rural residence. Patients were diagnosed using a screening questionnaire for the diagnosis of cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies. All positive cases were referred to Qena University Hospital where they underwent full neurological examination, neuro-imaging, and neurophysiological investigations.

Results: Out of 9303 inhabitants included in the study (1057 families), 49 cases were recruited positive on initial survey and 32 cases were confirmed after clinical examination, neuroimaging and neurophysiological examinations, giving a CPR of 10.1/1000 in those aged over 30 years. Compressive radiculopathy was more common in males than females (13 versus 6/1000) and in rural than urban populations (15 versus 7/1000). No cases were recruited below 30 years old. The highest age specific prevalence was at ≥60 years with a CPR of 26/1000. 11 cases had cervical radiculopathy while 21 cases had lumbosacral radiculopathy (CPR of 3.7 and 6.6/1000 respectively). The highest age specific CPR for males was earlier than females at 50-59 versus ≥60 years.

Conclusion: The overall CPR of compressive radiculopathy in the general population in Qena governorate/Egypt is similar for cervical radiculopathy but higher for lumbosacral radiculopathy than a previous Egyptian study but mid-way compared to other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.10.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Changes in recruitment of motor cortex excitation and inhibition in patients with drug-induced tardive syndromes.

Neurophysiol Clin 2019 Feb 23;49(1):33-40. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and movement Disorders, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK.

Objectives: It has recently been suggested that drug-induced tardive syndromes (TS) might be due to maladaptive plasticity, which increases motor excitability in cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed the first measurements of cortical excitability in TS.

Methods: Motor cortex excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 22 TS patients and compared with that in 20 age and sex-matched healthy individuals. Resting and active motor threshold (RMT, AMT) and input-output curves (I/O curves) assessed corticospinal excitability. The duration of the contralateral silent period (cSP) at a range of stimulation intensities and ipsilateral silent period (iSP) were used as measures of inhibition.

Results: There were no significant differences in RMT and AMT between patients and controls, although the input-output curves were significantly steeper in patients. The cSP (at different stimulus intensities) and iSP were both longer in the patients compared to the control group. However, most of this difference could be accounted for by increased recruitment of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in patients.

Conclusion: TS is characterized by hyperexcitability of corticospinal output that might contribute to the lack of selectivity in muscle recruitment and contribute to excess involuntary movement. The findings are opposite to those in naturally-occurring hyperkinesia such as Sydenham's and Huntington's chorea, suggesting a fundamental difference in the pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2018.10.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of tardive syndromes: double randomized clinical trial.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019 02 13;126(2):183-191. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK.

Tardive syndromes (TDS) typically manifest 3 months or later after exposure to antipsychotic drugs, and unfortunately have no satisfactory medical treatment. We explored the possibility of using therapeutic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twenty-six patients were allocated to receive real or sham rTMS over the hand/arm area of motor cortex (M1). Each received a daily total of 2000 rTMS pulses (20 Hz at 100% rMT: 1000 stimuli per hemisphere) for 10 consecutive days. Outcome was assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and TMS measures of M1 excitability. Three patients in the sham group failed to complete the study. At baseline, there was no significant difference between the groups in age, sex distribution, duration of illness, AIMS score and drug treatment. rTMS improved symptoms in both groups. However, there was a greater reduction in the AIMS score of the real rTMS group compared with the sham group (real, 8.3 ± 1.7 points; sham 1.2 ± 3.3; repeated measure analysis ANOVA Time X Group interaction P = 0.001). The same trends were observed in the clinical subscales. Following treatment, MEP amplitudes at higher intensities (140, and 150%) increased more in the real treatment group than in the sham group. This is the first clinical trial study of bilateral hemispheric rTMS in patients with TDS and suggests that 20 Hz rTMS might be a feasible treatment option in patients unresponsive to "first-line" treatment.Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03145311.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-018-1941-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Association With Sleep Quality, Mood Status, and Disease Activity.

Reumatol Clin 2020 Sep - Oct;16(5 Pt 1):339-344. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Assiut University Hospitals, Assiut, Egypt.

Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by polyarthritis and systemic manifestations. RA-fatigue is a significant problem and adds on disease burden. Sleep disturbance, depression, and disease activity are suggested contributing factors to RA-fatigue; however, their combined role did not examine before among Egyptian RA patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the presence of fatigue, sleep and mood disturbances in RA patients. Also, to evaluate the possible association of poor sleep, depression, and disease activity with RA-fatigue.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 115 RA patients diagnosed according to the 2010 ACR-EULAR criteria and 46 age and sex matched controls. Fatigue using the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue-Global Fatigue Index, sleep using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and mood status using Beck Depression Inventory were assessed for all participants. RA disease activity was evaluated using disease activity score-28 joints.

Results: RA patients had higher mean fatigue, sleep disturbance, and depression scores (27.2±8.9, 6.4±3.6, and 12.8±7.3; respectively) than controls (22.7±7, 4.8±3, 7.8±5.9; respectively) (P<.05). Poor sleep, depression and higher disease activity were significantly correlated with fatigue (r=0.4, r=0.65, r=0.55; respectively) (P<.001). The three variables may explain up to 49.1% of the variation in fatigue on multiple regression analysis.

Conclusion: Fatigue, poor sleep, and depression are more common in Egyptian patients with RA. A remarkably higher fatigue was associated with poor sleep, depression, and high disease activity, thus monitoring these silent comorbidities in clinical practice is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reuma.2018.07.010DOI Listing
August 2018

Prognostic role of neurophysiological testing 3-7 days after onset of acute unilateral Bell's palsy.

Neurophysiol Clin 2018 Apr 26;48(2):111-117. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Egypt.

Objective: Recovery from acute Bell's palsy (BP) is variable and there are few predictors of response. We evaluated the usefulness of a range of neurophysiological parameters to predict outcome in BP.

Methods: Fifty-nine patients (age: 33.7±15.4 years) with acute unilateral BP were recruited within 3-7 days of onset. They were evaluated with electroneurography, facial nerve excitability, and the blink reflex. House-Brackmann (HB) clinical scores were obtained at the same time and three months later. All patients received prednisolone treatment and regular rehabilitation.

Results: At three months, 41 patients (69.5%) had good recovery, while 18 patients (30.5%) had poor recovery according to the HB scale. The facial nerve excitability threshold and threshold difference between sides were significantly lower in patients with good recovery than those with poor recovery (P values=0.022 and 0.006 respectively). Facial nerve degeneration rate (1 - affected/unaffected amplitude of CMAP of muscle ×100%) recorded in frontalis (P=0.002) and orbicularis oris (P=0.038) were also smaller in good recovery than poor recovery patients. There were no differences in latency and amplitude of CMAPs recorded from frontalis or orbicularis oris muscle, nor in latencies of the components of the blink reflex. ROC analysis showed that patients who had a threshold side difference <13mA (35 cases), had a higher chance of good recovery (85.7% versus 14.3% poor recovery). Patients who had a degeneration rate<50% (38 cases) also had a higher chance of good recovery (78.9%) versus 21.1% who had poor recovery, while patients with a degeneration rate>50% (21 cases) had a 47.8% chance of good recovery versus 52.2% poor recovery (P=0.004). Logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant predictive indicator of BP recovery was the facial nerve degeneration rate of frontalis muscle (P=0.011).

Conclusion: Facial nerve degeneration rate of frontalis muscle provides the most sensitive prognostic indicator of recovery from acute BP and may provide useful management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2018.02.002DOI Listing
April 2018

Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on pain, mood and serum endorphin level in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A double blinded, randomized clinical trial.

Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):893-901. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

Background: Recent studies have shown that novel neuro-modulating techniques can have pain-relieving effects in the treatment of chronic pain. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving fibromyalgia pain and its relation with beta-endorphin changes.

Material And Methods: Forty eligible patients with primary fibromyalgia were randomized to receive real anodal tDCS or sham tDCS of the left motor cortex (M1) daily for 10 days. Each patient was evaluated using widespread pain index (WPI), symptom severity of fibromyalgia (SS), visual analogue scale (VAS), and determination of pain threshold as a primary outcome. Hamilton depression and anxiety scales (HAM-D and HAM-A) and estimation of serum beta-endorphin level pre and post-sessions were used as secondary outcome. All rating scales were conducted at the baseline, after the 5th, 10th session, 15 days and 1 month after the end of the sessions.

Results: Eighteen patients from each group completed the follow-up schedule with no significant difference between them regarding the duration of illness or the baseline scales. A significant TIME × GROUP interaction for each rating scale (WPI, SS, VAS, pain threshold, HAM-A, HAM-D) indicated that the effect of treatment differed in the two groups with higher improvement in the experimental scores of the patients in the real tDCS group (P = 0.001 for WPI, SS, VAS, pain threshold, and 0.002, 0.03 for HAM-A, HAM-D respectively). Negative correlations between changes in serum beta-endorphin level and the changes in different rating scales were found (P = 0.003, 0.003, 0.05, 0.002, 0002 for WPI, SS, VAS, HAM-A, and HAM-D respectively).

Conclusion: Ten sessions of real tDCS over M1 can induce pain relief and mood improvement in patients with fibromyalgia, which were found to be related to changes in serum endorphin levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02704611.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2017.06.006DOI Listing
April 2018

Determining an effective rTMS protocol for treating chronic tinnitus: focus on inhibiting the left temporoparietal cortex.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 05 14;274(5):2359-2360. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Clinical Neuromodulation Laboratory, Santa Casa School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-017-4457-3DOI Listing
May 2017

Cortical excitability in tramadol dependent patients: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2016 Dec 17;169:110-116. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Background: Addiction to tramadol, a widely used analgesic, is becoming increasingly common. Tramadol can also induce seizures even after a single clinical dose. We tested whether the epileptogenicity of tramadol was associated with any changes in cortical excitability and inhibitory transmission using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Methods: The study included 16 tramadol dependent patients and 15 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Clinical evaluation was conducted using an addiction severity index. TMS assessment of excitability was conducted on the motor cortex since the response to each TMS pulse at that site is easily measured in terms of the amplitude of the twitches it evokes in contralateral muscles. Measures included resting and active motor threshold (RMT and AMT respectively), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, cortical silent period (CSP) duration, transcallosal inhibition (TCI), and short interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation (SICI and ICF respectively). Urinary level of tramadol was measured immediately before assessing cortical excitability in each patient.

Results: RMT and AMT were significantly lower, the duration of the CSP was shorter and SICI was reduced in patients compared with the control group. These findings are suggestive of increased neural excitability and reduced GABAergic inhibition following exposure to tramadol. Also there were negative correlations between the severity of tramadol dependence and a number of cortical excitability parameters (AMT, RMT, and CSP with P=0.002, 0.005, and 0.04 respectively).

Conclusions: The results provide evidence for hyperexcitability of the motor cortex coupled with inhibitory deficits in tramadol dependent patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.09.027DOI Listing
December 2016

Prevalence of neuromuscular disorders in Qena governorate/Egypt: population-based survey.

Neurol Res 2016 Dec 17;38(12):1056-1063. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

d Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine , Assiut University , Assiut , Egypt.

Background: Few epidemiological studies of the prevalence of neuromuscular disorders have been undertaken. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of the most common types of neuromuscular disorders in Qena governorate/Egypt.

Methods: A random sample was taken from 11 districts, involving 9303 inhabitants with 57.3% urban residents and 42.7% rural residence. Patients were diagnosed using a screening questionnaire for the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. All positive cases were referred to Qena University hospital where they underwent full clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory investigations.

Results: Out of 9303 participants 448 cases were identified positive during survey. Four hundred and twenty-six cases proved to have neuromuscular disorders giving a crude prevalence rate (CPR) of 4.57%; 408 cases had definite neuropathy and 18 cases had muscular disorders equivalent to CPR of 4.39% and 193/10 respectively. There was a higher prevalence in the rural than urban population. The CPR of focal compression neuropathies was 1.8%, with the majority of cases having carpal tunnel syndrome (CPR = 1.67%). CPR of diabetic neuropathy was 1.67%. The CPR of compressive radiculopathy was 0.34%. Traumatic nerve injury had a CPR 0.06%. The lifetime prevalence of Bell's palsy was 0.16%. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy had a CPR 0.08%. The CPR of idiopathic neuropathy was 0.09% and Infective Leprotic neuropathy was 0.04%. Five patients were diagnosed as having muscular dystrophy and another 5 patients had myotonia with CPR of 54/10 for each. Two cases of myasthenia gravis and another two cases with systemic myopathy were recorded giving a CPR of 21/10.

Conclusion: The overall CPR of neuromuscular disorders in the general population in Qena governorate/Egypt was higher than reported in other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2016.1243640DOI Listing
December 2016

Prevalence of Bell's palsy in Qena Governorate, Egypt.

Neurol Res 2016 Aug 29;38(8):663-8. Epub 2016 May 29.

c Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry , South Valley University , Qena , Egypt.

Background And Purpose: There have been few studies to estimate the prevalence of Bell's palsy (BP) in Arab countries. A community-based study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, incidence rates, precipitating factors, and outcome of BP in Qena Governorate, Egypt.

Subjects And Methods: A door-to-door survey was carried out, with random sampling of 10 districts, involving 9303 inhabitants, 51.1% males and 48.9% females. Seventeen subjects were positive in screening questionnaire and referred to Qena University hospital and were subjected to a full clinical examination, House Brackmann's Facial grading system.

Results: In a total population of 9303 individuals, 15 cases were confirmed as having BP giving a prevalence rate (PR) 161/10(5) for all ages 95%CI (80-243). It was slightly but not significantly higher among women and the rural community. The incidence rate of BP was 107/10(5). The highest age-specific rate was 40-49 years age. The most frequent precipitating factors for an episode of BP were exposure to air draft in 40%, physical stress (13.3%), and upper respiratory tract infection (13.3%). Moreover, 46.7% had predisposing risk factors, DM and hypertension in 33.3%. Sixty percent of cases had complication and poor outcome.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence and incidence rates of BP in Qena governorate were high. This could be related to the variation in day and night temperature in our community and the susceptibility to air draft exposure during the night. The high frequency of poor outcome among studied cases suggests that better local guidelines should be implemented to recognize and treat BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2016.1190121DOI Listing
August 2016

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders: Double blind randomized clinical trial.

Psychiatry Res 2016 Apr 21;238:264-269. Epub 2016 Feb 21.

Neuropsychiatry Department, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt. Electronic address:

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become widely used as a therapeutic tool in psychiatric research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different frequencies of rTMS over right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in OCD. Forty five patients with OCD participated in the study. Patients were evaluated using: Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S). They were randomly classified into three groups: 1st group received 1Hz rTMS; 2nd group received 10Hz rTMS; and 3rd group received sham stimulation all at 100% of the resting motor threshold for 10 sessions. They were followed up after the last treatment session and 3 months later. There was a significant "time"×"group" interaction for 1Hz versus Sham but not for 10Hz versus Sham. 1Hz versus 10Hz groups showed a significant interaction for Y-BOCS and HAM-A (P=0.001 and 0.0001 respectively). 1Hz rTMS has a greater clinical benefit than 10Hz or Sham. There was also a significantly larger percentage change in GCI-S in the 1Hz group versus either 10Hz or sham. We conclude that 1Hz-rTMS, targeting right DLPFC is a promising tool for treatment of OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.031DOI Listing
April 2016

Motor cortical excitability in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2016 Apr 24;46(2):135-43. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Department of neuropsychiatry, faculty of medicine, Assiut university hospital, 71511 Assiut, Egypt.

Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive method of stimulating the brain that is increasingly being used in neuropsychiatric research. Previous work has suggested that the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may involve dysfunction of excitatory and/or inhibitory brain function. This study aimed to extend those findings.

Methods: The study included 45 OCD patients and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical evaluation was conducted using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Clinical Global Impression rating scale (CGI). Physiological measures were resting and active motor thresholds (RMT and AMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, cortical silent period (CSP) and transcallosal inhibition (TCI) durations, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation.

Results: RMT and AMT were significantly lower in patients than in the control group. The mean duration of the CSP and TCI were also significantly shorter. Obsessive trait was associated with significant reduction of TCI duration compared to compulsive trait. There was significant reduction in SICI in OCD patients compared to controls. There were no significant correlations between the Y-BOCS, HAM-A and CGI scores and the cortical excitability parameters.

Conclusion: These results provide further evidence for inhibitory deficits or increased facilitation in cortical circuits of patients with OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2016.02.003DOI Listing
April 2016