Publications by authors named "Eman El-Sayed Khayal"

2 Publications

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Combined lead and zinc oxide-nanoparticles induced thyroid toxicity through 8-OHdG oxidative stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and Nrf2 activation in rats.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

A human is exposed to a chemical mixture rather than a single chemical, particularly with the wide spread of nanomaterials. Therefore, the present study evaluated the combined exposure of lead acetate (Pb) and zinc oxide-nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) compared to each metal alone on the thyroid gland of adult rats. A total of 30 adult male albino rats were divided into four groups, group I (control), group II received Pb (10 mg/kg), group III received ZnO-NPs (85 mg/kg) and group IV co-administrated the two metals in the same previous doses. The materials were gavaged for 8 weeks. The toxicity was assessed through several biochemical parameters. Our results revealed significant body weight reduction relative to increased thyroid weights, decreased both of serum-free triiodothyronine (FT3), tetra-iodothyronine (FT4), increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), increased serum and thyroid levels of Pb and zinc, significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), reduction in interleukin 4 (IL4), upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2 genes. Additionally, there was significant overexpression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine(8-OHdG), the elevation of tissues malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction of tissues total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and disruptive thyroid structural alterations in all metals groups with marked changes in the combined metals group. In conclusion, the combined exposure of Pb and ZnO-NPs induced pronounced toxic thyroid injury, pointing to additive effects in rats than the individual metal effects through different significant changes of disruptive thyroid structural alterations related to the loading of thyroid tissues with Pb and zinc metals producing oxidative stress that mediated inflammation and apoptosis.
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September 2021

Maternal Δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase 1-2 genotype enhances fetal lead exposure and increases the susceptibility to the development of cerebral palsy.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 24;27(36):44709-44723. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Public Health & Community Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Limited epidemiologic studies questioned the association between pre- and postnatal lead exposure and the development of cerebral palsy (CP). Moreover, the genotypes of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) in CP patients and their mothers and their association to the blood lead levels (BLLs) were not previously studied. This study aimed to evaluate the association between δ-ALAD gene polymorphism and BLL in cases of CP and their mothers. A case control study was carried out on 23 CP cases and equal number of healthy matched controls. The mothers of the included children were asked to answer a questionnaire involving the baseline clinical and demographic characteristics. Also, questionnaires were done to detect the sources of environmental lead exposure and screen lead exposure during the pregnancy period. BLL, δ-ALAD enzyme activity, and genetic analysis for ALAD G177C were done for each child and his mother. There was significant (p < 0.001) elevation of BLL in CP cases and their mothers that was positively correlated (r = 0.436, p < 0.05). There were progressive decreases in δ-ALAD activity with increasing BLL in both children and mothers (p < 0.05). There were non-significant (p > 0.05) differences between CP and the control group regarding frequency of ALAD G177C genotypes, while there was a significant (p = 0.04) increase in the frequency of ALAD 1-2 (GC) genotype in the mothers of the CP group associated with high BLL and significant decrease in δ-ALAD activity (p < 0.001). The study can indicate the significance of δ-ALAD gene polymorphism in the prenatal exposure to lead and the affection of the developing brain, pointing to the importance of controlling lead in pregnant women especially those with ALAD 1-2 genotype.
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December 2020