Publications by authors named "Elyse M Cornett"

110 Publications

Structural Heart Issues in Dextrocardia: Situs Type Matters.

Ochsner J 2021 ;21(1):111-114

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA.

Patients who are diagnosed with dextrocardia, a rare congenital heart condition in which the heart points toward the right side of the chest, need their specific situs classification (eg, solitus, inversus, ambiguus) ascertained to optimize their care and outcomes. In this report, we discuss the perioperative anesthetic management of a patient presenting with dextrocardia. A 44-year-old African American female with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted for shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. The patient had been diagnosed with dextrocardia in 2003 at an outside hospital and was asymptomatic prior to this presentation. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral perihilar vascular congestion with bibasilar atelectasis and suspected small bilateral pleural effusions consistent with new-onset congestive heart failure. Preoperative 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography revealed an ostium secundum-type atrial septal defect (ASD) with mild left-to-right atrial shunting. The patient's ASD was repaired using a pericardial patch. The anesthetic management of patients presenting with dextrocardia is complex. Preoperative cardiac transthoracic echocardiography can identify cardiac lesions or aberrant anatomy associated with dextrocardia. Proper placement of electrocardiogram electrodes is necessary to avoid false-positive results for perioperative ischemia. Central line access must be adjusted to anatomic variations. Clinicians should have high suspicion for associated pulmonary hypertension and should limit sedatives preoperatively to minimize the cardiovascular effects of hypoxia and/or hypercarbia on the pulmonary vasculature. Finally, high clinical suspicion for respiratory complications should be maintained, as dextrocardia has been associated with respiratory complications secondary to primary ciliary dyskinesia in approximately 25% of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31486/toj.19.0119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993426PMC
January 2021

VALTOCO (Diazepam Nasal Spray) for the Acute Treatment of Intermittent Stereotypic Episodes of Frequent Seizure Activity.

Neurol Int 2021 Feb 18;13(1):64-78. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Valtoco is a new FDA-approved nasal spray version of diazepam indicated for the treatment of acute, intermittent, and stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity in epilepsy patients six years of age and older. Although IV and rectal diazepam are already used to treat seizure clusters, Valtoco has less variability in plasma concentration compared to rectal diazepam. Furthermore, the intranasal administration of Valtoco is more convenient and less invasive than rectal or IV diazepam, making it ideal for self-administration outside of a hospital setting. Multiple clinical trials have taken place comparing Valtoco to the oral, rectal, and IV forms of diazepam. Aside from mild nasal irritation and lacrimation, Valtoco was found to have no increased safety risk in comparison to traditional forms of diazepam. This review of Valtoco will include a history of diazepam prescribing and withdrawal treatment, Valtoco drug information, its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and a comprehensive review of clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13010007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931041PMC
February 2021

A Comprehensive Review of Slipping Rib Syndrome: Treatment and Management.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Oct;50(4 Suppl 1):189-196

Gress, BS, Charipova, BS, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Kassem, MD, Schwartz, DO, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Miami Beach, FL. Berger, MD, PhD, Hasoon, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Urits, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Cornett, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Kaye, MD, PhD, Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Valley Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ; University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology, Phoenix, AZ; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE.

Purpose Of Review: This is a comprehensive review and update on advances in the understanding and treatment of slipping rib syndrome. It covers the physiology and pathophysiology at the basis of the syndrome, epidemiology and clinical presentation as well as diagnosis. It goes on to review the available literature to provide description and comparison of the available methods for alleviation.

Recent Findings: Slipping rib syndrome stems from irritation of intercostal nerves. It is caused by slipping of the costal cartilage and the resulting displacement of a false rib and pinning underneath the adjacent superior rib and nerve irritation. It is rare and spans genders and ages; most evidence about epidemiology is conflicting and mostly anecdotal. Risk factors include trauma and high intensity athletic activity. Presentation is of a sudden onset of pain with jerking motion; the pain can be localized, radiating or diffuse visceral. It is often alleviated by positions that offload the impinged nerve. Diagnosis is clinical, and can be aided by Hooking maneuver and dynamic ultrasound. Definitive diagnosis is with pain relief on nerve block, visualization of altered anatomy during surgery and relief after surgical correction. Initial treatment includes rest, ice and NSAIDs, as well as screening for co-morbid conditions, as well as local symptomatic relief. Injection therapy with local anesthetics and steroids can provide a diagnosis as well as symptomatic relief. Surgical correction remains the definitive treatment.

Summary: Slipping rib syndrome is a rare cause of chest pain that could be perceived as local or diffuse pain. Diagnosis is initially clinical and can be confirmed with nerve blocks and surgical visualization. Initial treatment is symptomatic and anti-inflammatory, and definitive treatment remains surgical. More recently, advanced surgical options have paved way for cure for previously hard to treat patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901126PMC
October 2020

Lasmiditan for the Treatment of Migraines With or Without Aura in Adults.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Oct;50(4 Suppl 1):163-188

Berger, MD, PhD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Winnick, MA, Soroka University Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. Popovsky, MS, Kaneb, BA, Berardino, BS, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington DC. Kaye, Pharm D, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Stockton, CA. Cornett, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Kaye, MD, PhD, Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Valley Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ; University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology, Phoenix, AZ; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE. Urits, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Migraines are a common form of primary headache, affecting women more than men (17.4% and 5.7% of US population, respectively, a total of 12%) that carry significant morbidity and disability, as well as a hefty healthcare price tag. They are most prevalent in women of reproductive ages and are estimated to be the 6th disease in order of causing global burden. They are estimated to cause 45.1 million years lived with disability, or 2.9% of global years lost to disability. Migraine treatment divides into acute, abortive treatment for relief of an ongoing migraine attack, and prophylactic therapy to reduce the occurrence of migraines, specifically for patients suffering from chronic and frequent episodic migraines. Traditional abortive treatment usually begins with NSAID and non-specific analgesics that are effective in curbing mild to moderate attacks. 5HT-agonists, such as triptans, are often used for second-line and for severe attacks. Triptans are generally better tolerated in the longterm than NSAIDs and other analgesics, though they carry a significant side-effect profile and are contraindicated in large parts of the population. Prophylactic therapy is usually reserved for patients with frequent recurrence owing to medication side effects and overall poor adherence to the medication schedule. Importantly, medication overuse may actually lead to the development of chronic migraines from previously episodic attacks. Recent research has shed more light on the pathophysiology of migraine and the role of CGRP in the trigeminovascular system. Recent pharmacological advances were made in developing more specific drugs based on this knowledge, including CGRP neutralizing antibodies, receptor antagonists, and the development of ditans. These novel drugs are highly specific to peripheral and central 5-HT receptors and effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Binding these receptors reduces the production of CGRP and Glutamate, two important ligands in the nociceptive stimulus involved with the generation and propagation of migraines. Several large clinical studies showed Lasmiditan to be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Importantly, due to its receptor specificity, it lacks the vasoconstriction that is associated with triptans and is thus safer is larger parts of the population, specifically in patients with cardiac and vascular disease. Though more research is required, specifically with aftermarket surveillance to elucidate rare potential side effects, Lasmiditan is a targeted anti-migraine drug that is both safe and effective, and carries an overall superior therapeutic profile to its predecessors. It joins the array of medications that target CGRP signaling, such as gepants and CGRP-antibodies, to establish a new line of care for this common disabling condition.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901123PMC
October 2020

Oral Muscle Relaxants for the Treatment of Chronic Pain Associated with Cerebral Palsy.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Oct;50(4 Suppl 1):142-162

Peck, MD, Noor, BS, Kassem, MD, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Miami Beach, FL. Urits, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Crane, BS, McNally, BS, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Patel, BS, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. Cornett, MD, Louisiana State University Health Sciences, Department of Anesthesiology, New Orleans, LA. Kaye, Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Valley Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ; University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology, Phoenix, AZ; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE.

Purpose Of Review: This is a comprehensive literature review of the available for treatment of oral muscle relaxants for cerebral palsy (CP) and associated chronic pain. It briefly describes the background and etiology of pain in CP and proceeds to review and weigh the available evidence for treatment for muscle relaxants.

Recent Findings: CP is a permanent, chronic, non-progressive neuromuscular and neurocognitive disorder of motor dysfunction that is diagnosed in infancy and is frequently (62% of patients) accompanied by chronic or recurrent muscular pain. Treatment of pain is crucial, and focuses mostly on treatment of spasticity through non-interventional techniques, surgery and medical treatment. Botulinum toxin injections provide temporary denervation, at the cost of repeated needle sticks. More recently, the use of oral muscle relaxants has gained ground and more evidence are available to evaluate its efficacy. Common oral muscle relaxants include baclofen, dantrolene and diazepam. Baclofen is commonly prescribed for spasticity in CP; however, despite year-long experience, there is little evidence to support its use and evidence from controlled trials are mixed. Dantrolene has been used for 30 years, and very little current evidence exists to support its use. Its efficacy is usually impacted by non-adherence due to difficult dosing and side-effects. Diazepam, a commonly prescribed benzodiazepine carries risks of CNS depression as well as addiction and abuse. Evidence supporting its use is mostly dated, but more recent findings support short-term use for pain control as well as enabling non-pharmacological interventions that achieve long term benefit but would otherwise not be tolerated. More recent options include cyclobenzaprine and tizanidine. Cyclobenzaprine carries a more significant adverse events profile, including CNS sedation; it was found to be effective, possible as effective as diazepam, however, it is not currently FDA approved for CP-related spasticity and further evidence is required to support its use. Tizanidine was shown to be very effective in a handful of small studies.

Summary: Muscle relaxants are an important adjunct in CP therapy and are crucial in treatment of pain, as well as enabling participation in other forms of treatments. Evidence exist to support their use, however, it is not without risk and further research is required to highlight proper dosing, co-treatments and patient selection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901132PMC
October 2020

Interventional Approaches to Pain and Spasticity Related to Cerebral Palsy.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Oct;50(4 Suppl 1):108-120

Peck, MD, Kassem, MD, Berger, MD, PhD, Herman, DO, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Miami Beach, FL. Urits, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Lee, BS, Creighton University School of Medicine, Phoenix, Arizona. Robinson, BS, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington DC. Cornett, PhD, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Anesthesiology, New Orleans, LA. Jung, BS, Georgetown University School of Medicine, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC. Kaye, Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Valley Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ; University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology, Phoenix, AZ; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE.

Purpose Of Review: This review will cover seminal and emerging evidence on interventional therapy chronic pain in cerebral palsy (CP). It will cover the background and burden of disease, present the current options, and then weigh the evidence that is available to support interventional therapy and the current indications.

Recent Findings: CP is a permanent posture and movement disorder from in-utero brain development defects with a 3-4/1,000 incidence in the US. The cost of care for each child is estimated at $921,000. Pain in CP is attributed to musculoskeletal deformities, spasticity, increased muscle tone, dislocations, and GI dysfunction. First-line treatments include physical and occupational therapy and oral pharmacological agents; however, a significant amount of patients remain refractory to these and require further therapy. Injection therapy includes botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections and intrathecal baclofen. BTA injections were shown to control chronic pain effectively and are FDA approved for spastic pain; intra-thecal baclofen, in contrast, was only shown to improve comfort and quality of life with a focus on the pain. Surgical intervention includes selection dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). It may increase range of motion and quality of life and reduce spasticity and pain; however, most evidence is anecdotal, and more research is required.

Summary: Interventional therapy, including injection and surgical, is the last line of therapy for chronic pain in CP. It extends the possibility of therapy in hard-to-treat individuals; however, more data is required to provide strong evidence to the efficacy of these treatments and guide proper patient selection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901135PMC
October 2020

A Comprehensive Update of Adhesive Capsulitis and Minimally Invasive Treatment Options.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Oct;50(4 Suppl 1):91-107

Patel, MD, Wolf, BS, Creighton University School of Medicine - Phoenix Regional Campus, Phoenix, AZ. Urits, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Murthy, MS, BS, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C. Cornett, PhD, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Anesthesiology, New Orleans, LA. Ngo, MD, MBA, Pain Specialty Group, Department of Pain Medicine, Newington, NH; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Manchikanti, MD, Pain Management Centers of America, Paducah, KY. Kaye, Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Valley Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ; University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology, Phoenix, AZ; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE.

Background: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (AC) is characterized by fibrosis and contracture of the glenohumeral joint capsule, resulting in progressive stiffness, pain, and restriction of motion of the shoulder. The prevalence of AC is estimated to be 2-5% of the general population. Patients with AC typically have an insidious onset of pain and can progress to severe limitation of the shoulder leading to significant disability and decreased quality of life.

Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of AC with a focus on clinical presentation, natural history, pathophysiology, and various treatment modalities.

Study Design: A review article.

Setting: A review of literature.

Methods: A search was made on the Pubmed database using the keywords of adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, shoulder capsulitis, arthrofibrosis, shoulder pain, shoulder stiffness.

Results: Our search identified numerous studies in order to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the treatment and management of AC.

Limitations: There remains limited evidence in literature about the understanding of AC and optimal treatment.

Conclusion: AC is an important cause of chronic pain and disability. There is currently no consensus on treatment. Initial treatment modalities revolve around conservative measures as well as aggressive physical therapy. Further treatment options include intraarticular injections, hydro-dilation, nerve blocks, and for more refractory cases, surgical interventions such as arthroscopic capsulotomy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901130PMC
October 2020

HTX-011 (bupivacaine and meloxicam) for the prevention of postoperative pain - clinical considerations.

Pain Manag 2021 Apr 23;11(4):347-356. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Provost & Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

HTX-011 is an extended-release, dual-acting local anesthetic consisting of bupivacaine (sodium-channel blocker) and low-dose meloxicam (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]) applied needle-free during surgery. Introducing low-dose meloxicam addresses the limited efficacy of liposomal bupivacaine in acidic inflamed tissues and allows enhanced analgesic effects over three days. It has great promise to be an extremely effective postoperative pain regimen and produce an opioid-free surgical recovery, as it has consistently significantly reduced pain scores and opioid consumption through 72 h. This manuscript provides an updated, concise narrative review of the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of this drug and its applications to prevent postoperative pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pmt-2020-0097DOI Listing
April 2021

Treatment and Management of Loin Pain Hematuria Syndrome.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2021 Jan 25;25(1). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS) is rare and seldom diagnosed, yet it has a particularly significant impact on those affected. This is a review of the latest and seminal evidence of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of LPHS and presents the typical clinical presentation and treatment options available.

Recent Findings: LPHS is typically found in young women with characteristic symptoms, including severe recurrent flank pain and gross or microscopic hematuria. The majority of patients will experience crippling pain for many years without effective therapy, often requiring frequent use of narcotic medication. However, the lack of conclusive pathophysiology, in conjunction with the rarity of LPHS, has prohibited the development and trial of definitive treatment options. Nevertheless, in order to combat this rare but severe disease, management strategies have continued to evolve, ranging from conservative measures to invasive procedures. This review presents an overview of the current hypotheses on the pathophysiology of LPHS in addition to summarizing the management strategies that have been utilized. Only 30% of LPHS patients will experience spontaneous resolution, whereas the majority will continue to face chronic, crippling pain. Several methods of treatment, including invasive and non-invasive, may provide an improved outcome to these patients. Treatment should be individually tailored and multi-disciplinary in nature. Further research is required to further elucidate the pathophysiology and develop new, specific, treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00925-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Belantamab Mafodotin to Treat Multiple Myeloma: A Comprehensive Review of Disease, Drug Efficacy and Side Effects.

Curr Oncol 2021 Jan 21;28(1):640-660. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excessive clonal proliferation of plasma cells. The treatment of multiple myeloma presents a variety of unique challenges due to the complex molecular pathophysiology and incurable status of the disease at this time. Given that MM is the second most common blood cancer with a characteristic and unavoidable relapse/refractory state during the course of the disease, the development of new therapeutic modalities is crucial. Belantamab mafodotin (belamaf, GSK2857916) is a first-in-class therapeutic, indicated for patients who have previously attempted four other treatments, including an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, a proteosome inhibitor, and an immunomodulatory agent. In November 2017, the FDA designated belamaf as a breakthrough therapy for heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. In August 2020, the FDA granted accelerated approval as a monotherapy for relapsed or treatment-refractory multiple myeloma. The drug was also approved in the EU for this indication in late August 2020. Of note, belamaf is associated with the following adverse events: decreased platelets, corneal disease, decreased or blurred vision, anemia, infusion-related reactions, pyrexia, and fetal risk, among others. Further studies are necessary to evaluate efficacy in comparison to other standard treatment modalities and as future drugs in this class are developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924384PMC
January 2021

Preoperative, Multidisciplinary Clinical Optimization of Patients with Severely Depressed Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Who Are Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

Cardiol Ther 2020 Dec 23. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains a routine operation despite major advancements in angioplastic procedures. Around 200,000 CABG procedures are performed annually in the U.S. Patients who are not candidates for angioplasty intervention often have advanced coronary disease and comorbidities that raise the risk of heart failure with decreased ejection fraction to around 25%. Over the years, significant developments in various preoperative interventions have occurred; in this paper, we suggest a multidisciplinary preoperative algorithm that can be included in a regularly scheduled multidisciplinary care plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40119-020-00207-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Istradefylline to Treat Patients with Parkinson's Disease Experiencing "Off" Episodes: A Comprehensive Review.

Neurol Int 2020 Dec 8;12(3):109-129. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to significant morbidity and disability. PD is caused by a loss of dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and peripherally; the syndromic parkinsonism symptoms of movement disorder, gait disorder, rigidity and tremor are mostly driven by the loss of these neurons in the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients taking levodopa, the standard of care treatment for PD, will begin to experience a decrease in effectiveness at varying times. These periods, referred to as "off episodes", are characterized by increased symptoms and have a detrimental effect on quality of life and disability. Istradefylline, a novel adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is indicated as a treatment addition to levodopa/carbidopa in patients experiencing "off episodes". It promotes dopaminergic activity by antagonizing adenosine in the basal ganglia. This review will discuss istradefylline as a treatment for PD patients with off episodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/neurolint12030017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768423PMC
December 2020

Ozanimod to Treat Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review of Disease, Drug Efficacy and Side Effects.

Neurol Int 2020 Dec 3;12(3):89-108. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prevalent and debilitating neurologic condition characterized by widespread neurodegeneration and the formation of focal demyelinating plaques in the central nervous system. Current therapeutic options are complex and attempt to manage acute relapse, modify disease, and manage symptoms. Such therapies often prove insufficient alone and highlight the need for more targeted MS treatments with reduced systemic side effect profiles. Ozanimod is a novel S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) receptor modulator used for the treatment of clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. It selectively modulates S1P1 and S1P5 receptors to prevent autoreactive lymphocytes from entering the CNS where they can promote nerve damage and inflammation. Ozanimod was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the management of multiple sclerosis in March 2020 and has been proved to be both effective and well tolerated. Of note, ozanimod is associated with the following complications: increased risk of infections, liver injury, fetal risk, increased blood pressure, respiratory effects, macular edema, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, among others. Further investigation including head-to-head clinical trials is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of ozanimod compared with other S1P1 receptor modulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/neurolint12030016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768354PMC
December 2020

A Comprehensive Review of Over the Counter Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain.

Pain Ther 2020 Nov 4. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants-Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Purpose Of The Review: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major contributor to societal disease burden and years lived with disability. Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is attributed to physical and psychosocial factors, including lifestyle factors, obesity, and depression. Mechanical low back pain occurs related to repeated trauma to or overuse of the spine, intervertebral disks, and surrounding tissues. This causes disc herniation, vertebral compression fractures, lumbar spondylosis, spondylolisthesis, and lumbosacral muscle strain.

Recent Findings: A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and two clinical trials registry databases up to 24 June 2015 were included in this review. Search terms included: low back pain, over the counter, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID), CLBP, ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminophen, disk herniation, lumbar spondylosis, vertebral compression fractures, spondylolisthesis, and lumbosacral muscle strain. Over-the-counter analgesics are the most frequently used first-line medication for LBP, and current guidelines indicate that over-the-counter medications should be the first prescribed treatment for non-specific LBP. Current literature suggests that NSAIDs and acetaminophen as well as antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and opioids are effective treatments for CLBP. Recent randomized controlled trials also evaluate the benefit of buprenorphine, tramadol, and strong opioids such as oxycodone. This systematic review discusses current evidence pertaining to non-prescription treatment options for chronic low back pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40122-020-00209-wDOI Listing
November 2020

Basivertebral Nerve Ablation for the Treatment of Vertebrogenic Pain.

Pain Ther 2020 Oct 31. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Chronic low back pain affects a significant portion of patients worldwide and is a major contributor to patient disability; however, it is a difficult problem to diagnose and treat. The prevailing model of chronic low back pain has presumed to follow a discogenic model, but recent studies have shown a vertebrogenic model that involves the basivertebral nerve (BVN). Radiofrequency ablation of the BVN has emerged as a possible nonsurgical therapy for vertebrogenic low back pain. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of vertebrogenic pain diagnosis and our current understanding of BVN ablation as treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40122-020-00211-2DOI Listing
October 2020

Exparel for Postoperative Pain Management: a Comprehensive Review.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Oct 23;24(11):73. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Multimodal pain management is the most effective way to treat postsurgical pain. However, the use of opioids for acute pain management has unfortunately been a significant contributor to the current opioid epidemic. The use of opioids should be limited and only considered a "rescue" pain medication after other modalities of pain management have been utilized.

Recent Findings: It may be difficult to curtail the use of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain; however, in the postsurgical setting, there is compelling evidence that an opioid-centric analgesic approach is not necessary for good patient outcomes and healthcare cost benefits. Opioid-related adverse effects are the leading cause of preventable harm in the hospital setting. After the realization in recent years of the many harmful effects of opioids, alternative regimens including the use of multimodal analgesia have become a standard practice in acute pain management. Exparel, a long-lasting liposomal bupivacaine local anesthetic agent, has many significant benefits in the management of postoperative pain. Overall, the literature suggests that Exparel may be a significant component for postoperative multimodal pain control owing to its efficacy and long duration of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00905-4DOI Listing
October 2020

The Impact of the Quantity and Quality of Social Support on Patients with Chronic Pain.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Oct 15;24(11):72. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 5777 E Mayo Blvd, Phoenix, AZ, 85054, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Social support is an important yet often overlooked aspect of chronic pain management. Understanding the impact of social support on patients with chronic pain and determining if a relationship exists between a patient's perceived social support and their perceived quality of life is a crucial component to completely treating a pain patient. We sought to develop an intervention for patients with chronic pain that addresses the different types of social support, barriers to using social support, and ways to improve the quality of their social support.

Recent Findings: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was utilized in an Outpatient Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Program with 23 patients with a chronic pain diagnosis who participated in a 3-week comprehensive pain rehabilitation program. Evaluation, intervention, and discharge were evaluated utilizing The American Chronic Pain Association's Quality of Life Scale and The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The intervention phase comprised a 45-min group session. At discharge, the occupational therapist followed up with the patient regarding the results of their social survey. Overall, the results indicated an underutilization of social support among patients with chronic pain. Out of the four questions asked on the social support survey, patients scored their use of tangible support (Q2) as the lowest. No significant positive correlation (0.27) was found between social support and quality of life which can be attributed to the wide variety of patients seen at the PRC. Social support is an essential part of chronic pain treatment and should be addressed throughout all stages of pain management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00906-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Cariprazine to Treat Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder in Adults.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Sep;50(4):83-117

Edinoff, MD, Jani, MD, Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport, Department of Psychiatry, and Behavioral Medicine. Ruoff, BA, Ghaffar, BS, Rezayev, BS, Louisiana State University Shreveport School of Medicine. Kaye, Pharm D, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Stockton, CA. Cornett, PhD, Kaye, MD, PhD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE, Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ. Urits, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose Of Review: Antipsychotics are the standard of care when it comes to the treatment of Schizophrenia, and they are often used in Bipolar as well. Their use can come with adverse effects such as extrapyramidal movements, metabolic complications as well as cardiovascular complications such as a prolonged QT interval. Treatment for these side effects ranges from the treatment of the complications up to the cessation of the medication, which could come at the expense of the user's stability. Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have an increased risk of suicide and increased morbidity. The purpose of this review presents the background, evidence, and indications for the use of the new second-generation antipsychotic Cariprazine, which has a primary function as a D3 and D2 partial agonist, with higher selectivity for the D3 receptor type.

Recent Findings: Schizophrenia is currently teated by dopamine antagonists and/or 5HT modulators, each with their own set of side effects. Bipolar disorder is mostly treated with mood stabilizers. Studies looking at the efficacy and safety of cariprazine have shown in two phase II trials and phase III trials the decrease in PANSS scores in schizophrenia. The most common adverse effects were akathisia, insomnia, constipation, and other extrapyramidal side effects. A unique side effect of Cariprazine caused bilateral cataract and cystic degeneration of the retina in the dog following daily oral administration for 13 weeks and/or 1 year and retinal degeneration in rats following daily oral administration for 2 years. Another study showed that cariprazine had significant efficacy in preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The time to the loss of sustained remission was significantly longer (P = .0020) for cariprazine compared to placebo (hazard ratio = 0.51) during the double-blind treatment. 60.5% of patients treated with cariprazine and 34.9% of patients treated with placebo sustained remission through the final visit (odds ratio [OR] = 2.85; P = .0012; number needed to treat [NNT] = 4. Another Phase IIIb study looked at negative symptoms and used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Factor Score for Negative Symptoms (PANSS-FSNS), and it found that the use of cariprazine, from baseline to week 26, led to a greater least-squares mean change in PANSS-FSNS than did risperidone. Another study looked at the quality of life years with the treatment of cariprazine and showed those treated with cariprazine had superior quality of life compared to those treated with risperidone. In terms of bipolar disorder, it showed a decrease in depressive symptoms as measured by decreased MADRs scores with a dose of 3.0mg/day. A phase II study looked at the use of cariprazine in mania or mix states and showed cariprazine significantly decreased YMRS scores compared to placebo, least-square mean difference of -6.1 (p < 0.001). The metabolic parameters demonstrated comparable changes except for fasting glucose in which cariprazine was associated with elevations in glucose levels compared to placebo (p < 0.05). Another phase III study showed significant differences in YMRS total score mean change between cariprazine versus placebo-treated group. Changes in metabolic profiles in all mentioned studies were minimal.

Summary: Cariprazine, in recent studies, has shown some promise in being able to treat both bipolar disorder in manic, depressed, and mixed states as well as schizophrenia. Side effects noted as adverse events in these studies are similar in profile to the medications that were developed in the past. With better relapse prevention, cariprazine could be a reasonable alternative clozapine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511151PMC
September 2020

Asenapine Transdermal Patch for the Management of Schizophrenia.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Sep;50(4):60-82

Zhou, MD, Derakhshanian, MD, Rath, MD, Menard, MD, Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport, Department of Psychiatry, and Behavioral Medicine. Bertrand, BS, DeGraw, BS, Barlow, BS, Louisiana State University Shreveport School of Medicine. Kaye, Pharm D, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Stockton, CA. Hasoon, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Cornett, PhD, Kaye, MD, PhD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE, Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ. Urits, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA.

Purpose Of Review: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of asenapine for the treatment of schizophrenia (SZ) in adults. It covers an introduction, epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and current treatment modalities regarding SZ, provides a background on the mechanism of action of asenapine, and then reviews the existing evidence for use of asenapine in both its sublingual and transdermal formulation in the treatment of SZ.

Recent Findings: SZ is a complex and multifactorial mental disorder which is thought to combine several genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors causing abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. Symptoms are categorized in delusions, hallucinations, disorganization, and negative presentations like affective flattening and apathy. Current treatment focuses on antipsychotic medications by means of oral administration or long-acting injection. Asenapine is a second-generation antipsychotic with 5HT-2A antagonist and 5HT-1A/1B partial agonist properties, which provides a favorable profile in targeting schizophrenic symptoms, while reducing motor side effects and improving mood and cognition. Asenapine in its sublingual formulation was FDA approved for treatment of SZ and bipolar I disorder in adults in August of 2009 and has been proven to be both effective and safe. Transdermal patch of asenapine (Secuado) was FDA approved in October of 2019, the first and only FDA approved patch for SZ in adults, which offers another strategy for treatment to improve compliance and ease of administration.

Summary: SZ is a chronic and debilitating disease which is still not well understood and comes at great cost with regards to the quality of life for patients. Medication side-effects and compliance are enormous issues which take a toll on health care systems in industrialized nations and keep patients from achieving stability with their disease. Transdermal asenapine is a new first-in-class dosage form and provides a novel modality of administration. It has been shown to be effective in reducing positive, as well as negative symptoms, while still maintaining a favorable side-effect profile.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511145PMC
September 2020

Lumateperone for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Sep;50(4):32-59

Edinoff, Wu, Tzoneva, Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport, Department of Psychiatry, and Behavioral Medicine. deBoisblanc, Feltner, Norder, Louisiana State University Shreveport School of Medicine. Kaye, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Stockton, CA. Cornett, Kaye, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE, Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ. Urits, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder that is diagnosed by the presence of hallucinations or delusions along with disorganized speech, disorganized thought, or negative symptoms that are present for at least six months. Roughly 1 in 10,000 people a year are diagnosed with this psychiatric disorder. It is a chronic disorder requiring a lifetime of treatment of which antipsychotics have been the mainstay of this treatment. First-generation antipsychotics have dystonia, parkinsonism, and development of Tardive Dyskinesia as major side effects, and they are also nonspecific in terms of their actions. Second Generation antipsychotics target more specific dopamine and sometimes serotonin receptors with less dystonic side effects; however, there are additional concerns for the development of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to look at new medication on the market, lumateperone, for the treatment of Schizophrenia.

Recent Studies: In one four week study with 60mg and 120mg of Lumateperone compared, 4mg of Risperdal, and a placebo found that Lumateperone significantly decreased the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) from baseline. Safety analysis of this study also found that Lumateperone was not associated with EPS or significant weight gain. Another study found that 42mg of Lumateperone significantly decreased PANSS score over placebo and 28mg of Lumateperone with associated TEAEs of somnolence, sedation, fatigue, and constipation. In an open-label safety, patients were switched from their current antipsychotic to Lumateperone and then switched back to their previous treatment after six weeks. PATIENTS were found to have statistically significant improvements in metabolic parameters, weight, and endocrine parameters, which were all lost when they were switched back to their previous treatment and their schizophrenic symptoms at pre-trial levels or improved them while on Lumateperone. In a continuation of the previous study over 12 months, 4 TEAEs occurred in 5% or more of the participants: diarrhea, dry mouth, weight decrease, and headache. Prolactin, metabolic labs, BMI, and weight all decreased as compared to the standard of care. Pooled studies revealed EPS related TEAEs were less frequent in patients receiving 42 mg lumateperone over Risperdal. Another pooled study looked at the safety profile; they found patients treated with lumateperone, two TEAEs occurred at twice the placebo rate and at a rate of 5% or more: dry mouth (5% vs. 2.2%) and sedation (24.1% vs. 10.0%) though TEAE discontinuation rates were lower than with Risperdal.

Summary: Taken together, data from these trials suggest that lumateperone can effectively treat positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Lumateperone entrance to the market introduces an innovative way to treat schizophrenia featuring both a novel mechanism of action and a markedly reduced side effect profile. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of Lumateperone in treating bipolar disorder in addition to schizophrenia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511146PMC
September 2020

An Evidence-Based Review of Galcanezumab for the Treatment of Migraine.

Neurol Ther 2020 Dec 3;9(2):403-417. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This is a comprehensive review of the current literature on the usage of galcanezumab for migraine treatment. It reviews the biology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and conventional treatment of migraines, then compares the literature available for galcanezumab with historical treatment options.

Recent Findings: Migraine is a common headache disorder and constitutes a significant source of distress from both a personal and societal perspective. Conventional treatment includes abortive and preventive treatment. Treatment options are limited and may be only partially or minimally effective in some of the population. Recent evidence points to metabolic changes in the brain as possible causes of migraine, via reduced available energy or a spiking need for it, resulting in a relative insufficiency. This leads to trigeminocervical complex (TCC) activation and a headache episode, modulated by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Galcanezumab (Emgality) is a monoclonal antibody targeting CGRP that is given in a monthly injection for the prevention of migraines. Its safety was previously shown in phase 1 and 2 trials, and recent phase 3 trials showed efficacy, with up to 50% reduction in monthly migraine days and improved functional capacity in migraineurs. Studies show that the drug is well tolerated and safe. Migraine headache is a common neurological syndrome that causes great pain and suffering. Treatment options today are limited. Galcanezumab does not prevent migraines, but it is effective in decreasing their frequency and length. It is also much better tolerated than the currently existing therapies. While it is unlikely to provide monotherapy for migraines, it is a novel therapy that may be added for cases of severe or frequent migraines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-020-00214-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606392PMC
December 2020

Pharmacogenomics, concepts for the future of perioperative medicine and pain management: A review.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2020 Sep 22;34(3):651-662. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic differences between individuals affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These differences are apparent to clinicians when taking into account the wide range of responses to medications given in clinical practice. A review of literature involving pharmacogenomics and pain management was performed. The implementation of preoperative pharmacogenomics will allow us to better care for our patients by delivering personalized, safer medicine. This review describes the current state of pharmacogenomics as it relates to many aspects of clinical practice and how clinicians can use these tools to improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.07.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Acupuncture and Its Role in the Treatment of Migraine Headaches.

Neurol Ther 2020 Dec 1;9(2):375-394. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Acupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that is performed by placing needles or pressure in specific locations on a patient's skin to achieve a therapeutic effect. Although used to treat a variety of disorders, one of the most common applications of acupuncture is to treat chronic pain, especially headache and migraine pain. Migraines are difficult to treat, and pharmacotherapies are often the first line of treatment, although these options have many unwanted side effects, such as exacerbation of headache pain in those with chronic migraine. Many complimentary and integrative therapies are available to treat migraine (including nutraceuticals, yoga, tai chi, and biofeedback), among which acupuncture as a treatment is gaining increasing attention. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of both acupuncture and migraine and of current research investigating the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating migraine and chronic migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40120-020-00216-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606388PMC
December 2020

Folic Acid Supplementation in Patients with Elevated Homocysteine Levels.

Adv Ther 2020 10 26;37(10):4149-4164. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Pathology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Introduction: Folic acid is the most important dietary determinant of homocysteine (Hcy). Hcy serves as a critical intermediate in methylation reactions. It is created from methionine and either converted back to methionine or transformed into cysteine. This process is aided through several enzymes and three vitamins, folic acid, B12, and B6. Daily supplementation with 0.5-5.0 mg of folic acid typically lowers plasma Hcy levels by approximately 25%. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease. In this regard, elevated levels of Hcy have been found in a majority of patients with vascular disease.

Methods: A literature review of folic acid supplementation for various disease states including cardiovascular disease was conducted. This article is based on previously conducted studies and does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Results: In this review, we discuss the biochemistry of folic acid, Hcy biosynthesis, Hcy and hydrogen sulfide bioavailability, pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia and its role as a risk factor for disease, and treatment studies with folic acid supplementation in disease states.

Conclusion: Folic acid supplementation should be recommended to any patient who has an elevated Hcy level, and this level should be measured and treated at an early age, since folic acid is easily obtained and may likely reduce vascular disease and other deleterious pathologic processes in high-risk populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01474-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497502PMC
October 2020

Novel Agents in Neuropathic Pain, the Role of Capsaicin: Pharmacology, Efficacy, Side Effects, Different Preparations.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2020 Aug 6;24(9):53. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Capsaicin is a natural substance used to treat neuropathic pain because of its ability to be used in a more direct form on patients and efficiently treat their pain without the amount of side effects seen in the use of oral medications.

Recent Findings: Currently, the treatments for neuropathic pain are, control of the underlying disease process, then focused on symptomatic relief with pharmacotherapy, topical analgesics, or other interventions. When all pharmacological agents fail to relieve the pain, interventional strategies can be considered, such as neural blocks, spinal cord stimulation, and intrathecal administered medications. The response to current treatment of neuropathic pain is only modest relief of symptoms. Multiple treatment options may be attempted, while ultimately leaving patients with refractory neuropathic pain. For these reasons, a better treatment approach to neuropathic pain is greatly needed. Overall, capsaicin has great potential for becoming a first- or second-line treatment for neuropathic pain, and for becoming a therapeutic option for many other neuropathic pain-related disease states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-020-00886-4DOI Listing
August 2020

Platelet Dysfunction Diseases and Conditions: Clinical Implications and Considerations.

Adv Ther 2020 09 29;37(9):3707-3722. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Introduction: Platelet diseases and dysfunction are taught early in medical school to all future physicians. Understanding of the coagulation cascade and hemostatic mechanisms has allowed for targeted pharmacological therapies that have been significantly impactful in clinical practice. Platelets are an early participant in hemostasis physiologically and under pathophysiological states.

Methods: A review of literature involving platelet disfunction.

Results: Various presentations of platelet diseases and dysfunction challenge clinicians and require a firm understanding of normal platelet function, drugs that mediate or modulate platelet effectiveness, and nonpharmacologic etiologies of platelet diseases and dysfunction with corresponding best practice treatment approaches.

Conclusion: This review summarizes normal and abnormal states associated with platelets and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01453-4DOI Listing
September 2020

Multiple drug allergies: Recommendations for perioperative management.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2020 Jun 29;34(2):325-344. Epub 2020 May 29.

Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neurosciences, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA. Electronic address:

Life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions are more likely to occur in patients with a history of allergy, atopy, or asthma. Hence, in a patient who presented with a history of multiple drug allergies (MDA), an allergological assessment should be performed prior to surgical procedure. Drug allergies, being one of the causes of catastrophic events occurring in the perioperative period, are of major concern to anesthesiologists. Neuromuscular blocking agents are regularly used during anesthesia and are one of the most common causes of perioperative anaphylaxis. They are estimated to be responsible for 50%-70% of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions. Antibiotics and latex represent the next two groups of drug allergy. Allergic reactions to propofol are rare with an incidence of 1:60,000 exposures. Although intraoperative drug anaphylaxis is rare, it contributes to 4.3% of deaths occurring during general anesthesia. These recommendations discuss pathophysiology of MDA, preoperative evaluation, and anesthesia considerations as well as the prevention and management of allergic reactions in anesthetized patients with a history of MDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.05.004DOI Listing
June 2020

Preoperative laboratory testing: Implications of "Choosing Wisely" guidelines.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2020 Jun 22;34(2):303-314. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neurosciences, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport LA, 71103, USA. Electronic address:

Preoperative laboratory testing is often necessary and can be invaluable for diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. However, performing routine laboratory tests for patients who are considered otherwise healthy is not usually beneficial and is costly. It is estimated that $18 billion (U.S.) is spent annually on preoperative testing, although how much is wasteful remains unknown. Ideally, a targeted and comprehensive patient history and physical exam should largely determine whether preprocedure laboratory studies should be obtained. Healthcare providers, primarily anesthesiologists, should remain cost-conscious when ordering specific laboratory or imaging tests prior to surgery based on available literature. We review the overall evidence and key points from the Choosing Wisely guidelines, the identification of potential wasteful practices, possible harms of testing, and key clinical findings associated with preoperative laboratory testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.04.006DOI Listing
June 2020

Clinical management of the pregnant patient undergoing non-obstetric surgery: Review of guidelines.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2020 Jun 21;34(2):269-281. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA. Electronic address:

The management principles of non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy are important concepts for all health care providers to be cognizant of. The goals of non-obstetric surgery are to ensure maternal safety, maintain the pregnancy, and ensure fetal well-being. In this regard, organogenesis occurs roughly between days 7-57 and thus, certain medications have a higher incidence of fetal teratogenicity in this first trimester. Some examples of common surgeries performed urgently or emergently include appendectomies, ovarian detorsions, bowel obstruction, trauma, and cholecystectomies. The choice of anesthetic technique and the selection of appropriate anesthetic drugs should be guided by indication for surgery, the nature of the surgery, and the site of the surgical procedure. Many of the concerns for any patients undergoing urgent or emergent surgery must be considered by anesthesia providers along with steps to ensure the fetus has the best outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.04.004DOI Listing
June 2020