Publications by authors named "Elvin Kedhi"

96 Publications

COVID-19 pandemic, mechanical reperfusion and 30-day mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Heart 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Cardiology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Objective: The initial data of the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes - ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction COVID-19 showed in Europe a remarkable reduction in primary percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and higher in-hospital mortality during the initial phase of the pandemic as compared with the prepandemic period. The aim of the current study was to provide the final results of the registry, subsequently extended outside Europe with a larger inclusion period (up to June 2020) and longer follow-up (up to 30 days).

Methods: This is a retrospective multicentre registry in 109 high-volume primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) centres from Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia and North Africa, enrolling 16 674 patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PPPCI in March/June 2019 and 2020. The main study outcomes were the incidence of PPCI, delayed treatment (ischaemia time >12 hours and door-to-balloon >30 min), in-hospital and 30-day mortality.

Results: In 2020, during the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in PPCI as compared with 2019 (incidence rate ratio 0.843, 95% CI 0.825 to 0.861, p<0.0001). This reduction was significantly associated with age, being higher in older adults (>75 years) (p=0.015), and was not related to the peak of cases or deaths due to COVID-19. The heterogeneity among centres was high (p<0.001). Furthermore, the pandemic was associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon time (40 (25-70) min vs 40 (25-64) min, p=0.01) and total ischaemia time (225 (135-410) min vs 196 (120-355) min, p<0.001), which may have contributed to the higher in-hospital (6.5% vs 5.3%, p<0.001) and 30-day (8% vs 6.5%, p=0.001) mortality observed during the pandemic.

Conclusion: Percutaneous revascularisation for STEMI was significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a 16% reduction in PPCI procedures, especially among older patients (about 20%), and longer delays to treatment, which may have contributed to the increased in-hospital and 30-day mortality during the pandemic.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04412655.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8561823PMC
October 2021

Intravascular imaging beyond ischaemia assessment: a possible way for improving risk stratification.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Erasmus Hospital, Universite' libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeab195DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical outcomes according to lesion complexity in high bleeding risk patients treated with 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy following PCI: Analysis from the Onyx ONE clear study.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: To compare clinical outcomes in high bleeding risk (HBR) patients with and without complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treated with Resolute Onyx zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) after 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT).

Background: PCI with 1-month DAPT has been demonstrated to be safe in HBR patients treated with Resolute Onyx ZES. Whether these outcomes are consistent in patients with complex lesions is uncertain.

Methods: Among HBR patients who were event-free 1 month after PCI with ZES and treated thereafter with single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT), the clinical outcomes between 1 month and 1 year were compared after complex PCI (3 vessels treated, ≥ 3 lesions treated, total stent length > 60 mm, bifurcation with ≥ 2 stents implanted, atherectomy, or left main, surgical bypass graft or chronic total occlusion PCI) versus noncomplex PCI. Propensity score adjustment was performed to adjust for baseline differences among complex and noncomplex patients.

Results: Complex patients (N = 401, 26.6% of total) had a higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction (MI). Between 1 month and 1 year, rates of MI (7.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.02) and cardiac death/MI (9.3% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.04) were higher among complex versus noncomplex patients, although stent thrombosis rates were similar. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, differences in outcomes were no longer significant between groups.

Conclusions: Higher rates of ischemic outcomes in complex PCI patients were largely explained by baseline clinical differences, rather than lesion complexity, among HBR patients treated with 1-month DAPT following PCI with Resolute Onyx ZES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29939DOI Listing
September 2021

Paclitaxel Drug-Coated Balloon for the Treatment of De Novo Small-Vessel and Restenotic Coronary Artery Lesions: 12-Month Results of the Prospective, Multicenter, Single-Arm PREVAIL Study.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Nov 19;33(11):E863-E869. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Montefiore-Einstein Center for Heart and Vascular Care, 111 East 210th Street, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.

Objectives: The PREVAIL study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of a paclitaxel-coated percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty balloon catheter for the treatment of coronary de novo and in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions in patients with symptomatic ischemic heart disease.

Methods: PREVAIL was a prospective, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled patients with clinical evidence of ischemia who had coronary lesions (de novo or first ISR) amenable to treatment with a drug-coated balloon (DCB). The study included 50 subjects (53 target lesions) who were treated with a Prevail DCB (Medtronic) during the index procedure and followed for 12 months. Mean lesion length was 14.5 ± 7.6 mm. The primary endpoint was in-stent (in-balloon) late lumen loss (LLL) by quantitative coronary angiography at 6 months post procedure. If the mean in-stent (in-balloon) LLL was less than the maximum acceptance rate of 0.50 mm at 6 months, then the study was considered successful.

Results: Mean in-stent (in-balloon) LLL was 0.05 ± 0.44 mm at 6 months post procedure. There were no deaths, myocardial infarctions, or stent (lesion) thrombosis events within 12 months. The incidence of clinically driven target-lesion revascularization was 6.0% at 12 months and clinically driven target-vessel revascularization was 10.0%.

Conclusions: Paclitaxel DCB treatment of coronary de novo and first ISR lesions led to low LLL at 6 months and low rates of revascularization and safety events through 12 months.
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November 2021

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity on clinical outcome among STEMI patients undergoing mechanical reperfusion: Insights from the ISACS STEMI COVID 19 registry.

Atherosclerosis 2021 09 21;332:48-54. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Cardiology, Ospedale "Sant'Anna", Ferrara, Italy.

Background And Aims: SARS-Cov-2 predisposes patients to thrombotic complications, due to excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and coagulation/fibrinolysis disturbances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity among STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).

Methods: We selected SARS-CoV-2 positive patients included in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter European registry including 6609 STEMI patients treated with PPCI from March 1st until April 30th, in 2019 and 2020. As a reference group, we randomly sampled 5 SARS-Cov-2 negative patients per each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient, individually matched for age, sex, and hospital/geographic area. Study endpoints were in-hospital mortality, definite stent thrombosis, heart failure.

Results: Our population is represented by 62 positive SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who were compared with a matched population of 310 STEMI patients. No significant difference was observed in baseline characteristics or the modality of access to the PCI center. In the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, the culprit lesion was more often located in the RCA (p < 0.001). Despite similar pre and postprocedural TIMI flow, we observed a trend in higher use of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and a significantly higher use of thrombectomy in the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was associated with a remarkably higher in hospital mortality (29% vs 5.5%, p < 0.001), definite in-stent thrombosis (8.1% vs 1.6%, p = 0.004) and heart failure (22.6% vs 10.6%, p = 0.001) that was confirmed after adjustment for confounding factors.

Conclusions: Our study showed that among STEMI patients, SARS-CoV-2 positivity is associated with larger thrombus burden, a remarkably higher mortality but also higher rates of in-stent thrombosis and heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.06.926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294603PMC
September 2021

Thin-cap fibroatheroma predicts clinical events in diabetic patients with normal fractional flow reserve: the COMBINE OCT-FFR trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 Dec;42(45):4671-4679

Division of Cardiology and Structural Heart Diseases, Medical University of Silesia, Ziolowa 45, 40-635, Katowice, Poland.

Aims: The aim of this study was to understand the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) on clinical outcomes of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with fractional flow reserve (FFR)-negative lesions.

Methods And Results: COMBINE OCT-FFR study was a prospective, double-blind, international, natural history study. After FFR assessment, and revascularization of FFR-positive lesions, patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions (target lesions) were classified in two groups based on the presence or absence of ≥1 TCFA lesion. The primary endpoint compared FFR-negative TCFA-positive patients with FFR-negative TCFA-negative patients for a composite of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularization or unstable angina requiring hospitalization at 18 months. Among 550 patients enrolled, 390 (81%) patients had ≥1 FFR-negative lesions. Among FFR-negative patients, 98 (25%) were TCFA positive and 292 (75%) were TCFA negative. The incidence of the primary endpoint was 13.3% and 3.1% in TCFA-positive vs. TCFA-negative groups, respectively (hazard ratio 4.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-10.89; P < 0.001). The Cox regression multivariable analysis identified TCFA as the strongest predictor of major adverse clinical events (MACE) (hazard ratio 5.12; 95% confidence interval 2.12-12.34; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Among DM patients with ≥1 FFR-negative lesions, TCFA-positive patients represented 25% of this population and were associated with a five-fold higher rate of MACE despite the absence of ischaemia. This discrepancy between the impact of vulnerable plaque and ischaemia on future adverse events may represent a paradigm shift for coronary artery disease risk stratification in DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab433DOI Listing
December 2021

Ticagrelor and prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome: a single-arm crossover platelet reactivity study.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 09;22(9):686-692

Department of Translational Medicine.

Aim: To compare the degree of platelet inhibition between ticagrelor and prasugrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome.

Methods: Platelet function was assessed by impedance aggregometry after 30-90 days of therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and ticagrelor and over 15 days after switching to prasugrel. High-on-treatment platelet reactivity (HRPR) was defined for ADP test results above the upper limit of normal.

Results: A total of 105 patients were included, 81.9% males and 33.3% people with diabetes, with a mean age of 60.8 ± 8.1 years. Mean platelet reactivity was not significantly different between the two antiplatelet strategies, as the prevalence of HRPR (8.6 vs 12.3%, P = 0.50). Switching between the two antiplatelet agents was safe and well tolerated, and effectively reduced platelet reactivity in over 95% of the patients (only 3.8% of the study population displaying ineffective response to both drugs).

Conclusion: Ticagrelor and prasugrel have a similar effect on platelet reactivity. Switching between the two drugs can be safely done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001222DOI Listing
September 2021

The danger of meta-analyses. Response.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 09 17;74(9):817-818. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria "Maggiore della Carità", Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2021.05.008DOI Listing
September 2021

Benefits with drug-coated balloon as compared to a conventional revascularization strategy for the treatment of coronary and non-coronary arterial disease: a comprehensive meta-analysis of 45 randomized trials.

Vascul Pharmacol 2021 06 2;138:106859. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Translational Medicine, Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Drug-coated balloons (DCB) have shown promising results for the percutaneous treatment of de novo and restenotic lesions, involving both the coronary and femoropopliteal district. However, clinical outcomes data associated with the use of this devices are still unclear, with potential warnings on increased mortality being raised from initial studies. We aimed at performing an updated and comprehensive meta-analysis comparing DCB with conventional percutaneous revascularization strategies for the treatment of coronary (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Methods: Literature and main scientific session abstracts were searched for studies comparing DCB vs a standard percutaneous revascularization strategy, with or without stenting, for the treatment of CAD and PAD. The primary efficacy endpoint was mortality. Secondary endpoints were recurrent acute ischemic events (myocardial infarction or amputation) or target lesion revascularization (TLR).

Results: We included 45 randomized trials, (CAD: 27 studies, PAD: 18 studies) with an overall population of 7718 patients, (56.4%) randomized to a DCB strategy. At a mean follow-up of19.3 ± 15.2 months, death occurred in 5.8% of the patients, with no significant difference between DCB or conventionally treated patients (5.9% vs 5.7%, OR[95%CI] = 0.89[0.71,1.11], p = 0.31; phet = 0.43). We observed a non-significant reduction in recurrent acute ischemic events, whereas the use of DCB significantly reduced the rate of TLR, with larger benefits observed in patients with PAD and respect to balloon-only angioplasty, while being lower in comparison with stent implantation. No significant interaction was observed with de novo lesions or in-stent restenosis.

Conclusions: Based on the current meta-analysis, the use of drug-coated balloons for the percutaneous treatment of CAD and PAD is associated to a comparable risk of mortality and recurrent acute ischemic events as compared to a conventional revascularization strategy, although offering larger benefits in terms of TLR, especially when compared with balloon-only angioplasty and in femoropopliteal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2021.106859DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on mortality during the COVID Pandemic among STEMI patients undergoing mechanical reperfusion: Insight from an international STEMI registry.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 16;138:111469. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Complexo Hospetaliero Universitario La Coruna, La Coruna, Spain.

Background: Concerns have been raised on a potential interaction between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) and the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No data have been so far reported on the prognostic impact of RASI in patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during COVID-19 pandemic, which was the aim of the present study.

Methods: STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and enrolled in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry were included in the present sub-analysis and divided according to RASI therapy at admission.

Results: Our population is represented by 6095 patients, of whom 3654 admitted in 2019 and 2441 in 2020. No difference in the prevalence of SARSCoV2 infection was observed according to RASI therapy at admission (2.5% vs 2.1%, p = 0.5), which was associated with a significantly lower mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.68 [0.51-0.90], P = 0.006), confirmed in the analysis restricted to 2020 (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.5[0.33-0.74], P = 0.001). Among the 5388 patients in whom data on in-hospital medication were available, in-hospital RASI therapy was associated with a significantly lower mortality (2.1% vs 16.7%, OR [95% CI]=0.11 [0.084-0.14], p < 0.0001), confirmed after adjustment in both periods. Among the 62 SARSCoV-2 positive patients, RASI therapy, both at admission or in-hospital, showed no prognostic effect.

Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate the impact of RASI therapy on the prognosis and SARSCoV2 infection of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both pre-admission and in-hospital RASI were associated with lower mortality. Among SARSCoV2-positive patients, both chronic and in-hospital RASI therapy showed no impact on survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962982PMC
June 2021

Impact of age on the comparison between short-term vs 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with the COMBO dual therapy stent: 2-Year follow-up results of the REDUCE trial.

Atherosclerosis 2021 03 16;321:39-44. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

AOU Maggiore della Carità, Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The impact of advanced age on the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (PCI) is still greatly debated. Therefore, the aim of the present sub-analysis of the REDUCE trial was to assess the impact of age on the comparison between a short 3 months vs standard 12 months DAPT in ACS patients treated with the COMBO Dual Stent Therapy.

Methods: The REDUCE trial is a prospective, multicenter, investigator-initiated study that randomized ACS patients undergoing PCI with the COMBO drug eluting stent to either 3 or 12 months of DAPT. The study population was divided according to age (
Results: From June 2014 to May 2016, 1496 patients were included in the study, of whom 205 (13.7%) ≥75 years of age. Among them, 50.7% of the elderly and 50.2% of younger patients were assigned to the 3-month DAPT treatment. Baseline characteristics were well matched between the two arms, except for a higher rate of males (p=0.02) and a reduced number of lesions on the right coronary artery (p=0.02) in elderly patients treated for the short DAPT duration. Median follow-up was 682.5 days [IQR:667-731]. At 12 months, no difference in the primary endpoint was observed according to DAPT duration in both patients aged ≥75 years (22.1% vs 18.8%, HR [95%CI] = 1.6 [0.73-3.5], p=0.24) and younger ones (9.7% vs 10.9%, HR [95%CI] = 0.85 [0.59-1.27], p=0.44; p INT = 0.15). Results were confirmed after correction for baseline differences among the elderly (adjusted HR [95%CI] = 1.7 [0.75-3.9], p=0.21). Comparable rates of survival, thrombotic (MI, stent thrombosis, TVR, stroke) and bleeding events were observed with the two DAPT strategies, with no impact of age.

Conclusions: The present study shows that among ACS patients randomized in the REDUCE trial, a 3-month DAPT strategy was comparable to a standard 12-month DAPT at a 2-year follow-up for both ischemic and bleeding endpoints, in elderly and younger patients. Thus, despite presenting the limitations of a subgroup analysis, our study strengthens the feasibility of a shorter DAPT duration even among high-risk subsets of ACS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.02.006DOI Listing
March 2021

Low hemoglobin predicts high-platelet reactivity and major cardiovascular ischemic events at long-term follow-up among ACS patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Dec 1;98(7):1309-1316. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Translational Medicine, Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy.

Background: Reduced levels of hemoglobin (Hb) represent an established marker of impaired outcomes and increased cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease, challenging the management of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, while anemia has emerged as an independent predictor of suboptimal platelet inhibition in patients receiving clopidogrel, no study has so far evaluated the impact of Hb levels on high-on treatment platelet reactivity (HRPR) with ticagrelor and their prognostic consequences, that were the aim of the present study.

Methods: Patients on DAPT with ASA + Ticagrelor (90 mg/twice a day) after percutaneous coronary revascularization for ACS were scheduled for platelet function assessment 30-90 days post-discharge. Aggregation tests were performed by multiple electrode aggregometry. Suboptimal platelet inhibition (HRPR-high residual platelet reactivity was defined if above the lower limit of normality (417 AU*min). The primary study endpoint was defined as the occurrence of major cardiovascular events (a composite of cardiovascular death, recurrent acute coronary syndrome [MI], target vessel revascularization) at longest available follow-up.

Results: We included 397 patients that were divided according to tertiles values of Hb (< 12.7, 12-7-14.09, ≥14.1 g/dl). Patients with lower Hb were older and displayed a more severe cardiovascular risk profile. Mean levels of platelet reactivity were enhanced in patients with lower Hb after stimulation with TRAP peptide (TRAP test, p = .03) and ADP (p = .02). Elevated platelet reactivity (HRPR) on Ticagrelor was more frequent among patients with reduced Hb (16.4% vs. 12% vs. 5.4%, p = .005, adjusted OR [95%CI] = 1.71[0.996;3.01], p = .056). At a mean follow-up of 820.9 ± 553.4 days, 21.4% of the patients experienced the primary composite endpoint, with a higher rate of events in patients with lower Hb (27.6% vs. 22.6% vs. 13.5%, p = .006, adjusted HR [95%CI] = 1.51[1.12; 2.03], p = .006), mainly driven by a higher rate of recurrent ACS. After correction for baseline differences lower Hb tertiles but not HRPR emerged as independent predictor of MACE (adjusted HR [95%CI] = 0.98[0.50; 1.92], p = .95).

Conclusions: In the present study, we demonstrated that among patients on DAPT with ASA and ticagrelor after PCI for ACS, lower Hb levels are independently associated with a higher rate of HRPR and an increased rate of major ischemic events, and especially for recurrent ACS, although with no impact on survival. Neutral prognostic effect of HRPR was observed across Hb tertiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29512DOI Listing
December 2021

Impact of aging on the effects of intracoronary adenosine, peak hyperemia and its duration during fractional flow reserve assessment.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 11;32(7):625-631

Division of Cardiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria 'Maggiore della Carità', Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy.

Introduction: Functional assessment of coronary stenoses is crucial for determining the correct therapeutic strategy. Age-related modifications in cardiovascular function could alter the functional significance of an intermediate coronary lesion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of age on fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements in patients with intermediate coronary artery disease.

Methods: We included patients undergoing coronary angiography at our Division of Cardiology from June 2008 to February 2019 for elective indication or recent acute coronary syndrome and receiving FFR assessment for an intermediate coronary stenosis (angiographic 40-70% stenoses). FFR measurement was performed by pressure-recording guidewire (Prime Wire; Volcano Imaging System Philips Healthcare, San Diego, California, USA), after induction of hyperemia with intracoronary boluses of adenosine (from 60 to 720 μg, with dose doubling at each step).

Results: We included in our study 276 patients, undergoing FFR evaluation on 314 lesions, that were divided according to age (< or ≥70 years). Elderly patients displayed a higher cardiovascular risk profile and received more often specific therapy. We found significantly higher FFR values and lower Delta FFR and time to recovery in patients with age ≥70 years old even with high-dose adenosine. Elderly patients showed a trend in lower percentage of positive FFRs, especially with high-dose (P = 0.09). Overall, any FFR ≤ 0.80 was observed in 33.5% of younger patients and 21.1% of patients ≥70 years (P = 0.02). Results were confirmed after correction for baseline differences [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.60 (0.33-1.09), P = 0.08].

Conclusion: This is one of the first studies investigating the impact of age on the measurement of FFR with high-dose adenosine. Patients with age >70 years old with intermediate CAD are more likely to have higher FFR values and lower duration of hyperemia after adenosine boluses, as compared with younger patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000001019DOI Listing
November 2021

Ticagrelor as compared to conventional antiplatelet agents in coronary artery disease: A comprehensive meta-analysis of 15 randomized trials.

Vascul Pharmacol 2021 04 29;137:106828. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria "Maggiore della Carità", Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Ticagrelor has been shown to offer potential outcome benefits in acute coronary syndromes and for the long-term cardiovascular prevention, reducing mortality and the recurrence of ischemic events. However, data from real-world and recent meta-analyses have suggested that the anti-ischemic benefits of ticagrelor could be lower than expected, potentially outweighed by an increased risk of bleeding complications. Therefore, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic impact of ticagrelor as compared to the conventional antiplatelet agents (ASA and clopidogrel) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), enclosing patients with acute coronary syndromes and stable CAD.

Methods: Literature and main scientific session abstracts were searched for studies comparing a ticagrelor-based antiplatelet regimen vs different antiplatelet agents in patients with CAD. The primary efficacy endpoint was mortality, and the primary safety endpoint was the occurrence of major bleedings. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Results: We included 15 randomized clinical trials, with a total population of 73,402 patients (55% randomized to ticagrelor). At a mean follow-up of 15 ± 11.3 months, the ticagrelor based strategy did not significantly reduce mortality as compared to the traditional therapy (OR[95%CI] = 0.88[0.70,1.09], p = 0.24; phet<0.00001), with comparable results and no interaction according to patients' presentation (p interaction = 0.80). A similar result was achieved for cardiovascular mortality, whereas the reduction of recurrent myocardial infarction was significant (OR[95%CI] = 0.84[0.78,0.90], p < 0.00001; phet = 0.76). As for the risk of stroke, the largest reduction was observed in stable patients, while a neutral effect was observed in the ACS subgroup (p int = 0.35). Major bleeding events were increased in ticagrelor-treated patients (OR [95%CI] = 1.40 [1.06, 1.84], p = 0.02; phet<0.00001), especially ICH (OR [95% CI] = 1.45[1.13,1.84], p = 0.003; phet = 0.93), and mainly among non-ACS patient. No interaction for any outcome endpoint was observed according to patients' age.

Conclusions: Based on the current meta-analysis, a ticagrelor-based strategy for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease is associated to a significant increase in major bleeding complications and especially for intracranial hemorrhage, as compared to a strategy based on conventional antiplatelet agents, while resulting in a neutral effect on survival. However, a significant reduction of recurrent myocardial infarction was observed with ticagrelor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2020.106828DOI Listing
April 2021

Impact of the Polymorphism rs5751876 of the Purinergic Receptor ADORA2A on Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Feb 19;28(2):137-145. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Translational Medicine, Eastern Piedmont University.

Aim: Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI), a severe complication of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) procedures, has a negative prognostic effect, both at short and long-term follow-up. So far, adenosine's role in preventing PMI has shown contrasting results. A genetic variant of ADORA2A receptor, 1976 C>T, has been suggested as a potential determinant of the interindividual response to adenosine, thus conditioning its potential benefits on PMI. In our study, we investigated whether the ADORA2A 1976 C>T polymorphism is associated with PMI occurrence in patients undergoing coronary stenting.

Methods: The study included consecutive patients undergoing PCI at the Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria "Maggiore della Carità," Novara, Italy, between January 2010 and January 2016. Their genetic status was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism technique. Myonecrosis biomarkers were measured at intervals from 6 to 48 hours. PMI was defined as CKMB increased 3 times over the Upper Limit of Normal (ULN), or 50% of pre-PCI value; periprocedural myonecrosis was defined as troponin I increased 3 times over the ULN or by 50% of the baseline value.

Results: We included 1,104 patients undergoing PCI, 863 (78.2%) of whom carried the ADORA2A T-allele. No difference was found for the main demographic, clinical features, or biochemistry parameters. However, C-carriers had lower statin therapy use (p=0.008) and lower HDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.01). Homozygous C/C patients had more frequent multivessel disease (p=0.03), longer lesions (p=0.01) and Type C lesions (p=0.01), thus requiring more complex procedures. After correction for baseline confounding factors at multivariate analysis, there was no difference in myocardial necrosis according to the ADORA2A genotype (p=0.40). In contrast, PMI tended to increase in the homozygous C/C population (p=0.06), but this trend was attenuated at multivariate analysis after correction for baseline confounding factors (C/C: OR[95%CI]=1.52 [0.88-2.6], p=0.14).

Conclusions: Our study showed that the polymorphism rs5751876 of the ADORA2A receptor is associated with a higher prevalence of complex coronary lesions and multivessel disease. However, it does not significantly influence the occurrence of periprocedural MI or myonecrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.53405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957027PMC
February 2021

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic and diabetes on mechanical reperfusion in patients with STEMI: insights from the ISACS STEMI COVID 19 Registry.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2020 12 18;19(1):215. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Central Hospital of Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland.

Background: It has been suggested the COVID pandemic may have indirectly affected the treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, by avoidance or significant delays in contacting the emergency system. No data have been reported on the impact of diabetes on treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, that was therefore the aim of the current subanalysis conducted in patients included in the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (ISACS-STEMI) COVID-19.

Methods: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 is a retrospective registry performed in European centers with an annual volume of > 120 primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and assessed STEMI patients, treated with primary PCI during the same periods of the years 2019 versus 2020 (March and April). Main outcomes are the incidences of primary PCI, delayed treatment, and in-hospital mortality.

Results: A total of 6609 patients underwent primary PCI in 77 centers, located in 18 countries. Diabetes was observed in a total of 1356 patients (20.5%), with similar proportion between 2019 and 2020. During the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in primary PCI as compared to 2019, similar in both patients with (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.85, p < 0.0001) and without diabetes (IRR 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85, p < 0.0001) (p int = 0.40). We observed a significant heterogeneity among centers in the population with and without diabetes (p < 0.001, respectively). The heterogeneity among centers was not related to the incidence of death due to COVID-19 in both groups of patients. Interaction was observed for Hypertension (p = 0.024) only in absence of diabetes. Furthermore, the pandemic was independently associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon and total ischemia times only among patients without diabetes, which may have contributed to the higher mortality, during the pandemic, observed in this group of patients.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the treatment of patients with STEMI, with a similar reduction in primary PCI procedures in both patients with and without diabetes. Hypertension had a significant impact on PCI reduction only among patients without diabetes. We observed a significant increase in ischemia time and door-to-balloon time mainly in absence of diabetes, that contributed to explain the increased mortality observed in this group of patients during the pandemic.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04412655.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-020-01196-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747477PMC
December 2020

Beta-blocker effect on ST-segment: a prespecified analysis of the EARLY-BAMI randomised trial.

Open Heart 2020 12;7(2)

Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, Limburg, The Netherlands.

Objective: The effect of early intravenous (IV) beta-blockers (BBs) administration in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) on ST-segment deviation is unknown. We undertook a prespecified secondary analysis of the Early Beta-blocker Administration before primary PCI in patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (EARLY-BAMI) trial to investigate the effect of early IV BB on ST-segment deviation.

Methods: The EARLY-BAMI trial randomised patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to IV metoprolol (2×5 mg bolus) or matched placebo before pPCI. The prespecified outcome, evaluated by an independent core laboratory blinded to study treatment, was the residual ST-segment deviation 1 hour after pPCI (ie, the percentage of patients with >3 mm cumulative ST deviation at 1 hour after pPCI).

Results: An ECG for the evaluation of residual ST-segment deviation 1 hour after pPCI was available in 442 out of 683 randomised patients. The BB group had a lower heart rate after pPCI compared with placebo (71.2±13.2 vs 74.3±13.6, p=0.016); however, no differences were noted in the percentages of patients with >3 mm cumulative ST deviation at 1 hour after pPCI (58.6% vs 54.1%, p=0.38, in BB vs placebo, respectively) neither a significant difference was found for the percentages of patients in each of the four prespecified groups (normalised ST-segment; 1-3 mm; 4-6 mm;>6 mm residual ST-deviation).

Conclusions: In patients with STEMI, who were being transported for primary PCI, early IV BB administration did not significantly affect ST-segment deviation after pPCI compared with placebo. The neutral result of early IV BB administration on an early marker of pharmacological effect is consistent with the absence of subsequent improvement of clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737101PMC
December 2020

Comparison of overexpansion capabilities and thrombogenicity at the side branch ostia after implantation of four different drug eluting stents.

Sci Rep 2020 11 27;10(1):20791. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, 5 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169609, Singapore.

Interventions in bifurcation lesions often requires aggressive overexpansion of stent diameter in the setting of long tapering vessel segment. Overhanging struts in front of the side branch (SB) ostium are thought to act as a focal point for thrombi formation and consequently possible stent thrombosis. This study aimed to evaluate the overexpansion capabilities and thrombogenicity at the SB ostia after implantation of four latest generation drug-eluting stents (DES) in an in-vitro bifurcation model. Four clinically available modern DES were utilized: one bifurcation dedicated DES (Bioss LIM C) and three conventional DES (Ultimaster, Xience Sierra, Biomime). All devices were implanted in bifurcation models with proximal optimization ensuring expansion before perfusing with porcine blood. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), immunofluorescence (IF) and scanning electron microscope analysis were done to determine thrombogenicity and polymer coating integrity at the over-expanded part of the stents. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed to study the flow disruption. OCT (p = 0.113) and IF analysis (p = 0.007) demonstrated lowest thrombus area at SB ostia in bifurcation dedicated DES with favorable biomechanical properties compared to conventional DES. The bifurcated DES also resulted in reduced area of high shear rate and maximum shear rate in the CFD analysis. This study demonstrated numerical differences in terms of mechanical properties and acute thrombogenicity at SB ostia between tested devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75836-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695862PMC
November 2020

Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after myocardial infarction: Insights from a pooled database of the SMART-DATE and DAPT-STEMI trials.

Atherosclerosis 2020 12 9;315:55-61. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Aims: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after myocardial infarction (MI) in patients treated with second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) is unclear, therefore, we aim to evaluate the ischemic and bleeding risk according to DAPT duration using a pooled-analysis of two randomized trials.

Methods: MI patients treated with durable-polymer second-generation DES from two randomized trials, SMART-DATE and DAPT-STEMI, were pooled. The primary endpoint was a composite of net adverse clinical events (NACEs) defined by all-cause mortality, any MI, stroke and BARC 3-5 bleeding, between 6 and 18 months after index percutaneous coronary intervention.

Results: A total of 2016 patients were analyzed, 1014 were treated with 6-month DAPT versus 1002 patients with ≥12-month DAPT duration. The primary endpoint occurred in 2.7% vs 2.5% (HR 1.07; 95%CI 0.62-1.85, p = 0.80) of cases, in 6 vs ≥ 12-month DAPT, respectively. The composite of cardiac death, MI and stroke was similar (2% vs 1.6%, HR 1.24, 95%CI 0.65-2.4, p = 0.52). BARC 3-5 bleeding occurred more frequently in the ≥12-month DAPT (0.2% vs 0.9%, HR 0.22, 95%CI 0.05-1.02 p = 0.05, log rank p = 0.03). MI occurred more frequently in the 6-month DAPT (1.6% vs 0.6%, HR 2.66, 95%CI 1.04-6.79, p = 0.04). Stent thrombosis was similar in both arms (0.7% vs 0.5%, p = 0.26).

Conclusions: Six vs ≥ 12-month DAPT, followed by aspirin alone, resulted in comparable NACEs in patients with event-free MI at six months after durable-polymer DES implantation. However, single therapy with aspirin beyond the 6 months reduced bleeding rates but was associated with a higher rate of MI compared to ≥12-month DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.11.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mechanical Reperfusion for Patients With STEMI.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 11;76(20):2321-2330

Division of Cardiology, Ospedale "Sant'Anna", Ferrara, Italy.

Background: The fear of contagion during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have potentially refrained patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from accessing the emergency system, with subsequent impact on mortality.

Objectives: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry aims to estimate the true impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the treatment and outcome of patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), with identification of "at-risk" patient cohorts for failure to present or delays to treatment.

Methods: This retrospective registry was performed in European high-volume PPCI centers and assessed patients with STEMI treated with PPPCI in March/April 2019 and 2020. Main outcomes are the incidences of PPCI, delayed treatment, and in-hospital mortality.

Results: A total of 6,609 patients underwent PPCI in 77 centers, located in 18 countries. In 2020, during the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in PPCI as compared with 2019 (incidence rate ratio: 0.811; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.84; p < 0.0001). The heterogeneity among centers was not related to the incidence of death due to COVID-19. A significant interaction was observed for patients with arterial hypertension, who were less frequently admitted in 2020 than in 2019. Furthermore, the pandemic was associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon and total ischemia times, which may have contributed to the higher mortality during the pandemic.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic had significant impact on the treatment of patients with STEMI, with a 19% reduction in PPCI procedures, especially among patients suffering from hypertension, and a longer delay to treatment, which may have contributed to the increased mortality during the pandemic. (Primary Angioplasty for STEMI During COVID-19 Pandemic [ISACS-STEMI COVID-19] Registry; NCT04412655).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.09.546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834750PMC
November 2020

One-Month Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents in High-Bleeding-Risk Patients.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 11 10;13(11):e009565. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY (A.J.K., G.W.S.).

Background: Despite treatment guidance endorsing shortened dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration in high bleeding risk (HBR) patients after drug-eluting stents, limited evidence exists to support these recommendations. The present study was designed to examine the safety and effectiveness of 1-month DAPT duration following percutaneous coronary intervention with zotarolimus-eluting stents in HBR patients.

Methods: Onyx ONE Clear was a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized study evaluating the safety and effectiveness of 1-month DAPT followed by single antiplatelet therapy in HBR patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with Resolute Onyx drug-eluting stents. The primary analysis of cardiac death or myocardial infarction between 1 month and 1 year was performed in the prespecified one-month clear population of patients pooled from the Onyx ONE US/Japan study and Onyx ONE randomized controlled trial. One-month clear was defined as DAPT adherence and without major adverse events during the first month following percutaneous coronary intervention.

Results: Among patients enrolled in Onyx ONE US/Japan (n=752) and Onyx ONE randomized controlled trial (n=1018), 1506 patients fulfilled one-month clear criteria. Mean HBR characteristics per patient was 1.6 with 44.7% having multiple risks. By 2 months and 1 year, respectively, 96.9% and 89.3% of patients were taking single antiplatelet therapy. Between 1 month and 1 year, the rate of the primary end point was 7.0%. The 1-sided upper 97.5% CI was 8.4%, less than the performance goal of 9.7% (<0.001).

Conclusions: Among HBR patients who were event free before DAPT discontinuation at 1 month, favorable safety and effectiveness through 1 year support treatment with Resolute Onyx drug-eluting stents as part of an individualized strategy for shortened DAPT duration following percutaneous coronary intervention. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier NCT03647475.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665241PMC
November 2020

Intra-coronary Imaging for the Evaluation of Plaque Modifications Induced by Drug Therapies for Secondary Prevention.

Curr Atheroscler Rep 2020 10 6;22(12):76. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Cardio-toraco-vascular Department, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease are at a high risk of subsequent cardiovascular events; therefore, secondary prevention in the form of therapeutic lifestyle changes, and drug therapies is vital. This article aims to review potential application of intra-coronary imaging for the evaluation of plaque modifications, induced by medications for secondary prevention for CAD.

Recent Findings: Intra-coronary imaging provides detailed information on the atherosclerotic plaque which is the primary pathological substrate for the recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. These modalities can detect features associated with high risk and allow serial in vivo imaging of lesions. Therefore, intravascular imaging tools have been used in landmark studies and played a role in improving our understanding of the disease processes. Changes in size and plaque composition over time can be evaluated by these tools and may help understanding the impact of a treatment. Moreover, surrogate imaging end points can be used when testing new drugs for secondary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-020-00890-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538414PMC
October 2020

Higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) increases the risk of suboptimal platelet inhibition and major cardiovascular ischemic events among ACS patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor.

Vascul Pharmacol 2020 09 16;132:106765. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Translational Medicine, Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy; Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria "Maggiore della Carità", Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has emerged as a useful and easy-to-assess prognostic tool and biomarker of cardiovascular risk. However, few studies have evaluated its role on platelet inhibition among patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), and especially in the settings of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed at assessing the impact of NLR on platelet reactivity and the risk of major ischemic events at long-term follow-up among ACS patients on DAPT with ticagrelor.

Methods: Patients on dual antiplatelet therapy with ASA + ticagrelor (90 mg/twice a day) after percutaneous coronary revascularization for ACS were scheduled for platelet function assessment 30-90 days post-discharge. Aggregation tests were performed by Multiple Electrode Aggregometry (MEA). Suboptimal platelet inhibition (HRPR-high residual platelet reactivity was defined if above the lower limit of normality (417 AU*min). The primary study endpoint was defined as the occurrence of major cardiovascular events (a composite of cardiovascular death, recurrent acute coronary syndrome, target vessel revascularization) at longest available follow-up.

Results: We included 397 patients, that were divided according to NLR tertiles. Patients with higher NLR were older (p < .001), less frequently smokers (p = .03), with higher rates of renal failure (p = .001), previous bypass surgery (p = .05) and use of statins (p = .03) and diuretics (p = .01). Higher white blood cells count and C-reactive protein (p < .001) and lower haemoglobin (p = .001) were associated with NLR. Mean platelet reactivity and the prevalence of high platelet reactivity (HRPR) on ticagrelor were significantly associated to higher NLR tertiles values (7% vs 12% vs 14.3%, p = .04), with a significant relationship between NLR and platelet reactivity being confirmed for all the different activating stimuli. At a mean follow-up of 939 ± 581.4 days, 21.2% of the patients experienced the primary composite endpoint, with a trend for a higher risk of events across NLR tertiles (15.4% vs 24.2% vs 24.4%, p = .09), that became statistically significant after correction for baseline confounders (adjusted HR[95%CI] = 1.13[1.008-1.26], p = .036). Moreover, NLR was significantly associated to overall mortality and recurrent ACS (adjusted p = .008, p = .06 and p = .02 respectively).

Conclusions: In the present study we found that among ACS patients treated with ASA and ticagrelor after PCI, suboptimal platelet inhibition despite DAPT was significantly increased for higher values of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio. Moreover, mortality and the risk of recurrent major ischemic events at long-term were associated to NLR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2020.106765DOI Listing
September 2020

Left Ventricular End-Systolic Dimension and Outcome in Patients With Heart Failure Undergoing Percutaneous MitraClip Valve Repair for Secondary Mitral Regurgitation.

Am J Cardiol 2020 07 7;126:56-65. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Cardiology, Sint-Jan Hospital Bruges, Brugge, Belgium.

Recent MitraClip heart failure (HF) trials suggest that baseline left ventricular (LV) remodeling may be critical for patient selection. We, therefore, investigated whether baseline LV remodeling affects safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes in HF patients with symptomatic secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair using MitraClip. LV remodeling was assessed by LV end-systolic dimension index (LVESDi) on transthoracic baseline echocardiography. Early and late outcome was reported using Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium-criteria. A total of 107 consecutive HF patients (73 ± 10 years, 70% male) who underwent MitraClip intervention for secondary MR were studied. The study population was stratified by median LVESDi between nonadvanced (<28 mm/m², n = 49) and advanced LV remodeling (≥28 mm/m², n = 58). Both groups had similar acute procedural success, in hospital bleeding and nonbleeding complications and significant improvement in MR severity and symptoms, sustained up to 36 months (all p >0.05). LVESDi, but not LV end-diastolic diameter index nor LV ejection fraction, independently related to HF hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.16, p <0.001) and mortality (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.17, p <0.001). At 1 and 3 years, survival free of HF hospitalization was higher in patients without versus with advanced LV remodeling (89% vs 66% and 65% vs 37%, p = 0.002) and mortality was lower (9% vs 24% and 36% vs 47%, p = 0.074), respectively. Annual HF hospitalization rate only decreased in the nonadvanced LV remodeling group (-43%, p = 0.025). Advanced LV remodeling, assessed by LVESDi, in HF patients who underwent MitraClip therapy does not influence therapeutic safety nor efficacy, but implies increased HF hospitalization and mortality risk. This parameter may be valuable for MitraClip therapy patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.03.045DOI Listing
July 2020

Safety and Efficacy of Embolic Protection Devices in Saphenous Vein Graft Interventions: A Propensity Score Analysis-Multicenter SVG PCI PROTECTA Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Apr 22;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiology and Structural Heart Diseases, Medical University of Silesia, 40-635 Katowice, Poland.

: Evidence concerning the efficacy of the embolic protection devices (EPDs) in saphenous vein graft (SVG) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is sparse. The study was designed to compare major cardiovascular events of all-comer population of SVG PCI with and without EPDs at one year of follow-up. : A multi-center registry comparing PCI with and without EPDs in consecutive patients undergoing PCI of SVG. The group comprised 792 patients, among which 266 (33.6%) had myocardial infarction (MI). The primary composite endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) defined as death, MI, target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stroke assessed at one year. After propensity score analysis, there were no differences in MACCE (21.9% vs. 23.9%; HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.57-1.45, = 0.681, respectively) nor in secondary endpoints of death, MI, TVR, target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stroke at one year in EPDs PCI group vs. no-EPDs PCI group. Similarly, there were no differences between groups in the study endpoints at 30 days follow-up. : There were no clinical benefit for routine use of EPDs during SVG PCI in short and long-term follow-up. Further studies are warranted to explore the effect of individual types of EPDs on clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230434PMC
April 2020

Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Duration in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: The State of the Art and Open Issues.

Cardiovasc Ther 2020 7;2020:6495036. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria "Maggiore della Carità", Eastern Piedmont University, Novara, Italy.

Conflicting results have been reported so far in pooled analyses and studies evaluating the optimum duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. However, randomized clinical trials dedicated to this specific setting of higher thrombotic risk patients have only recently been completed, pointing at the noninferiority of a shorter strategy as compared to the traditional 12-month DAPT, furthermore allowing to reduce the risk of major bleeding complications. Therefore, a reconsideration of current clinical practice and guidelines should be certainly be advocated in light of the most recent updates, especially among ACS patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and modern drug-eluting stents (DES). Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the optimal DAPT duration in ACS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6495036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166288PMC
July 2020

Impact of gender on immature platelet count and its relationship with coronary artery disease.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2020 May;49(4):511-521

Department of Translational Medicine, Ospedale "Maggiore Della Carità", Eastern Piedmont University, C.so Mazzini, 18, 28100, Novara, Italy.

The impact of platelet parameters on the cardiovascular risk is still debated. Gender differences in platelet volume indexes and turnover have been previously reported, potentially conditioning their role in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few studies have addressed, so far, the impact of gender on the immature platelet fraction (IPF) and count (IPC) and their relationship with CAD. We enrolled consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography in a single centre. IPF and platelet indexes were measured at admission. Significant CAD was defined as the presence of at least one coronary stenosis more than 50%. A total of 2550 patients were included, 1835 (72%) were males, and 715 (28%) were females. Female patients were older (p < 0.001), with lower BMI (p = 0.002), lower prevalence of active smoking (p < 0.001), previous MI, previous PCI and CABG (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p < 0.001), whilst a higher prevalence of renal failure (p = 0.02), acute presentation (p < 0.001) and CAD (p < 0.001). Platelet count was higher in females (p < 0.001), as well as the IPC levels (838.38 ± 562.05 vs 792.24 ± 535.66, p = 0.05) with no difference in the levels of immature platelet fraction (3.67 ± 2.68% vs 3.74 ± 2.6%, p = 0.55) or the prevalence of patients with IPF ≥ 3rd tertile (33.7% vs 35.2%, p = 0.26). At multivariate analysis, after correction for baseline confounders, gender did not emerge as an independent predictor of higher IPF (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.64-1.06], p = 0.13). When dividing our patients according to the levels of IPF, in women we observed an inverse association between IPF ≥ 3rd tertile and coronary calcifications (p = 0.025) and a higher prevalence of restenosis (p = 0.003), but no difference in CAD (65.6% vs 66.9%, p = 0.71) or severe CAD (28.1% vs 24.7%, p = 0.31). In males, the IPF ≥ 3rd tertile related with a lower TIMI flow (p = 0.001). Males with lower IPF had a significantly higher percentage of CAD (87.7% vs 83.3%, p = 0.007; adjusted OR: 0.699 [95% CI] = [0.54-0.91], p = 0.008) but not for severe CAD (36.5% vs 39.9%, p = 0.134). The present study shows that among patients undergoing coronary angiography, gender is not associated to the levels of immature platelet fraction. Moreover, we found no association between IPF and the prevalence and extent of CAD in female gender, whereas in male gender the IPF was inversely related with the prevalence of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-020-02080-0DOI Listing
May 2020

Polymer-based or Polymer-free Stents in Patients at High Bleeding Risk.

N Engl J Med 2020 03 12;382(13):1208-1218. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

From Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (S.W.); Montefiore Medical Center (A.L.), Columbia University Irving Medical Center-New York-Presbyterian Hospital (A.J.K., S.O.M.), the Cardiovascular Research Foundation (A.J.K., S.O.M., I.J., G.W.S.), Mount Sinai Medical Center (R. Mehran), and the Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (G.W.S.) - all in New York; Isala Zwolle, Zwolle, the Netherlands (E.K.); Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (E.K.), and Poland Miedziowe Centrum Zdrowia, Lubin (A.W.) - both in Poland; Piedmont Heart Institute, Atlanta (D.E.K.); the Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla (M.J.P.), and Medtronic, Santa Rosa (S.B., L.B., M.L.) - both in California; Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo (A. Abizaid); University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland (D.I.S.); GenesisCare Cardiology, Alexandria, NSW (S.G.W.), and St. Andrew's Hospital, Adelaide, SA (C.T.) - both in Australia; Freeman Hospital and Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom (A.Z.); Stredoslovensky Ustav Srdcovych a Cievnych Chorob, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia (M.H., P.P.); Hospital Serdang, Kajang, Malaysia (A.K.A.G., K.S.); Acibadem City Clinic, Sofia, Bulgaria (I.P.); Galway University Hospitals-University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland (D.M.); Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, El Palmar (E.P.), and Hospital Universitario La Paz and Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, Madrid (R. Moreno) - all in Spain; Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan (F.F.); Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand (S.P.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (H.-S.K.), and Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (S.-H.H.) - both in South Korea; and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charleroi, Charleroi, Belgium (A. Aminian).

Background: Polymer-free drug-coated stents provide superior clinical outcomes to bare-metal stents in patients at high bleeding risk who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and are treated with 1 month of dual antiplatelet therapy. Data on the use of polymer-based drug-eluting stents, as compared with polymer-free drug-coated stents, in such patients are limited.

Methods: In an international, randomized, single-blind trial, we compared polymer-based zotarolimus-eluting stents with polymer-free umirolimus-coated stents in patients at high bleeding risk. After PCI, patients were treated with 1 month of dual antiplatelet therapy, followed by single antiplatelet therapy. The primary outcome was a safety composite of death from cardiac causes, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis at 1 year. The principal secondary outcome was target-lesion failure, an effectiveness composite of death from cardiac causes, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target-lesion revascularization. Both outcomes were powered for noninferiority.

Results: A total of 1996 patients at high bleeding risk were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive zotarolimus-eluting stents (1003 patients) or polymer-free drug-coated stents (993 patients). At 1 year, the primary outcome was observed in 169 of 988 patients (17.1%) in the zotarolimus-eluting stent group and in 164 of 969 (16.9%) in the polymer-free drug-coated stent group (risk difference, 0.2 percentage points; upper boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 3.5; noninferiority margin, 4.1; P = 0.01 for noninferiority). The principal secondary outcome was observed in 174 patients (17.6%) in the zotarolimus-eluting stent group and in 169 (17.4%) in the polymer-free drug-coated stent group (risk difference, 0.2 percentage points; upper boundary of the one-sided 97.5% CI, 3.5; noninferiority margin, 4.4; P = 0.007 for noninferiority).

Conclusions: Among patients at high bleeding risk who received 1 month of dual antiplatelet therapy after PCI, use of polymer-based zotarolimus-eluting stents was noninferior to use of polymer-free drug-coated stents with regard to safety and effectiveness composite outcomes. (Funded by Medtronic; ONYX ONE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03344653.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1910021DOI Listing
March 2020
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