Publications by authors named "Elodie Jouanno"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Primordial Germ Cell Migration and Histological and Molecular Characterization of Gonadal Differentiation in Pachón Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.

Sex Dev 2021 Mar 10:1-18. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

INRAE, Laboratoire de Physiologie et Génomique des poissons, Rennes, France,

The genetic regulatory network governing vertebrate gonadal differentiation appears less conserved than previously thought. Here, we investigated the gonadal development of Astyanax mexicanus Pachón cavefish by looking at primordial germ cells (PGCs) migration and proliferation, gonad histology, and gene expression patterns. We showed that PGCs are first detected at the 80% epiboly stage and then reach the gonadal primordium at 1 day post-fertilization (dpf). However, in contrast to the generally described absence of PGCs proliferation during their migration phase, PGCs number in cavefish doubles between early neurula and 8-9 somites stages. Combining both gonadal histology and vasa (germ cell marker) expression patterns, we observed that ovarian and testicular differentiation occurs around 65 dpf in females and 90 dpf in males, respectively, with an important inter-individual variability. The expression patterns of dmrt1, gsdf, and amh revealed a conserved predominant male expression during cavefish gonadal development, but none of the ovarian differentiation genes, i. e., foxl2a, cyp19a1a, and wnt4b displayed an early sexually dimorphic expression, and surprisingly all these genes exhibited predominant expression in adult testes. Altogether, our results lay the foundation for further research on sex determination and differentiation in A. mexicanus and contribute to the emerging picture that the vertebrate sex differentiation downstream regulatory network is less conserved than previously thought, at least in teleost fishes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513378DOI Listing
March 2021

RADSex: A computational workflow to study sex determination using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing data.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jul 9;21(5):1715-1731. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Physiological Chemistry, Biocenter, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

The study of sex determination and sex chromosome organization in nonmodel species has long been technically challenging, but new sequencing methodologies now enable precise and high-throughput identification of sex-specific genomic sequences. In particular, restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) is being extensively applied to explore sex determination systems in many plant and animal species. However, software specifically designed to search for and visualize sex-biased markers using RAD-Seq data is lacking. Here, we present RADSex, a computational analysis workflow designed to study the genetic basis of sex determination using RAD-Seq data. RADSex is simple to use, requires few computational resources, makes no prior assumptions about the type of sex-determination system or structure of the sex locus, and offers convenient visualization through a dedicated R package. To demonstrate the functionality of RADSex, we re-analysed a published data set of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, where we uncovered a previously unknown Y chromosome polymorphism. We then used RADSex to analyse new RAD-Seq data sets from 15 fish species spanning multiple taxonomic orders. We identified the sex determination system and sex-specific markers in six of these species, five of which had no known sex-markers prior to this study. We show that RADSex greatly facilitates the study of sex determination systems in nonmodel species thanks to its speed of analyses, low resource usage, ease of application and visualization options. Furthermore, our analysis of new data sets from 15 species provides new insights on sex determination in fish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13360DOI Listing
July 2021

The rise and fall of the ancient northern pike master sex-determining gene.

Elife 2021 Jan 28;10. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

INRAE, Sigenae, Genotoul Bioinfo, Toulouse, France.

The understanding of the evolution of variable sex determination mechanisms across taxa requires comparative studies among closely related species. Following the fate of a known master sex-determining gene, we traced the evolution of sex determination in an entire teleost order (Esociformes). We discovered that the northern pike () master sex-determining gene originated from a 65 to 90 million-year-old gene duplication event and that it remained sex linked on undifferentiated sex chromosomes for at least 56 million years in multiple species. We identified several independent species- or population-specific sex determination transitions, including a recent loss of a Y chromosome. These findings highlight the diversity of evolutionary fates of master sex-determining genes and the importance of population demographic history in sex determination studies. We hypothesize that occasional sex reversals and genetic bottlenecks provide a non-adaptive explanation for sex determination transitions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.62858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870143PMC
January 2021

Sex chromosome and sex locus characterization in goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758).

BMC Genomics 2020 Aug 11;21(1):552. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

INRAE, LPGP, 35000, Rennes, France.

Background: Goldfish is an important model for various areas of research, including neural development and behavior and a species of significant importance in aquaculture, especially as an ornamental species. It has a male heterogametic (XX/XY) sex determination system that relies on both genetic and environmental factors, with high temperatures being able to produce female-to-male sex reversal. Little, however, is currently known on the molecular basis of genetic sex determination in this important cyprinid model. Here we used sequencing approaches to better characterize sex determination and sex-chromosomes in an experimental strain of goldfish.

Results: Our results confirmed that sex determination in goldfish is a mix of environmental and genetic factors and that its sex determination system is male heterogametic (XX/XY). Using reduced representation (RAD-seq) and whole genome (pool-seq) approaches, we characterized sex-linked polymorphisms and developed male specific genetic markers. These male specific markers were used to distinguish sex-reversed XX neomales from XY males and to demonstrate that XX female-to-male sex reversal could even occur at a relatively low rearing temperature (18 °C), for which sex reversal has been previously shown to be close to zero. We also characterized a relatively large non-recombining region (~ 11.7 Mb) on goldfish linkage group 22 (LG22) that contained a high-density of male-biased genetic polymorphisms. This large LG22 region harbors 373 genes, including a single candidate as a potential master sex gene, i.e., the anti-Mullerian hormone gene (amh). However, no sex-linked polymorphisms were detected in the coding DNA sequence of the goldfish amh gene.

Conclusions: These results show that our goldfish strain has a relatively large sex locus on LG22, which is likely the Y chromosome of this experimental population. The presence of a few XX males even at low temperature also suggests that other environmental factors in addition to temperature could trigger female-to-male sex reversal. Finally, we also developed sex-linked genetic markers, which will be important tools for future research on sex determination in our experimental goldfish population. However, additional work would be needed to explore whether this sex locus is conserved in other populations of goldfish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-06959-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430817PMC
August 2020

Identification of the master sex determining gene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) reveals restricted sex chromosome differentiation.

PLoS Genet 2019 08 22;15(8):e1008013. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

INRA, UR1037 LPGP, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France.

Teleost fishes, thanks to their rapid evolution of sex determination mechanisms, provide remarkable opportunities to study the formation of sex chromosomes and the mechanisms driving the birth of new master sex determining (MSD) genes. However, the evolutionary interplay between the sex chromosomes and the MSD genes they harbor is rather unexplored. We characterized a male-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) as the MSD gene in Northern Pike (Esox lucius), using genomic and expression evidence as well as by loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments. Using RAD-Sequencing from a family panel, we identified Linkage Group (LG) 24 as the sex chromosome and positioned the sex locus in its sub-telomeric region. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this MSD originated from an ancient duplication of the autosomal amh gene, which was subsequently translocated to LG24. Using sex-specific pooled genome sequencing and a new male genome sequence assembled using Nanopore long reads, we also characterized the differentiation of the X and Y chromosomes, revealing a small male-specific insertion containing the MSD gene and a limited region with reduced recombination. Our study reveals an unexpectedly low level of differentiation between a pair of sex chromosomes harboring an old MSD gene in a wild teleost fish population, and highlights both the pivotal role of genes from the amh pathway in sex determination, as well as the importance of gene duplication as a mechanism driving the turnover of sex chromosomes in this clade.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6726246PMC
August 2019

The unusual rainbow trout sex determination gene hijacked the canonical vertebrate gonadal differentiation pathway.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 12 21;115(50):12781-12786. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UR1037 Fish Physiology and Genomics, F-35000 Rennes, France;

Evolutionary novelties require rewiring of transcriptional networks and/or the evolution of new gene functions. Sex determination (SD), one of the most plastic evolutionary processes, requires such novelties. Studies on the evolution of vertebrate SD revealed that new master SD genes are generally recruited from genes involved in the downstream SD regulatory genetic network. Only a single exception to this rule is currently known in vertebrates: the intriguing case of the salmonid master SD gene (), which arose from duplication of an immune-related gene. This exception immediately posed the question of how a gene outside from the classical sex differentiation cascade could acquire its function as a male SD gene. Here we show that SdY became integrated in the classical vertebrate sex differentiation cascade by interacting with the Forkhead box domain of the female-determining transcription factor, Foxl2. In the presence of Foxl2, SdY is translocated to the nucleus where the SdY:Foxl2 complex prevents activation of the aromatase () promoter in cooperation with Nr5a1 (Sf1). Hence, by blocking a positive loop of regulation needed for the synthesis of estrogens in the early differentiating gonad, SdY disrupts a preset female differentiation pathway, consequently allowing testicular differentiation to proceed. These results also suggest that the evolution of unusual vertebrate master sex determination genes recruited from outside the classical pathway like is strongly constrained by their ability to interact with the canonical gonadal differentiation pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1803826115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294932PMC
December 2018

Evolution of gene expression after whole-genome duplication: New insights from the spotted gar genome.

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2017 Nov 25;328(7):709-721. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

INRA, UR1037 LPGP, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France.

Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are important evolutionary events. Our understanding of underlying mechanisms, including the evolution of duplicated genes after WGD, however, remains incomplete. Teleost fish experienced a common WGD (teleost-specific genome duplication, or TGD) followed by a dramatic adaptive radiation leading to more than half of all vertebrate species. The analysis of gene expression patterns following TGD at the genome level has been limited by the lack of suitable genomic resources. The recent concomitant release of the genome sequence of spotted gar (a representative of holosteans, the closest-related lineage of teleosts that lacks the TGD) and the tissue-specific gene expression repertoires of over 20 holostean and teleostean fish species, including spotted gar, zebrafish, and medaka (the PhyloFish project), offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of gene expression following TGD in teleosts. We show that most TGD duplicates gained their current status (loss of one duplicate gene or retention of both duplicates) relatively rapidly after TGD (i.e., prior to the divergence of medaka and zebrafish lineages). The loss of one duplicate is the most common fate after TGD with a probability of approximately 80%. In addition, the fate of duplicate genes after TGD, including subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or retention of two "similar" copies occurred not only before but also after the divergence of species tested, in consistency with a role of the TGD in speciation and/or evolution of gene function. Finally, we report novel cases of TGD ohnolog subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization that further illustrate the importance of these processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.22770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5679426PMC
November 2017

Gene evolution and gene expression after whole genome duplication in fish: the PhyloFish database.

BMC Genomics 2016 05 18;17:368. Epub 2016 May 18.

INRA, Laboratoire de Physiologie et Génomique des poissons, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042, Rennes cedex, France.

With more than 30,000 species, ray-finned fish represent approximately half of vertebrates. The evolution of ray-finned fish was impacted by several whole genome duplication (WGD) events including a teleost-specific WGD event (TGD) that occurred at the root of the teleost lineage about 350 million years ago (Mya) and more recent WGD events in salmonids, carps, suckers and others. In plants and animals, WGD events are associated with adaptive radiations and evolutionary innovations. WGD-spurred innovation may be especially relevant in the case of teleost fish, which colonized a wide diversity of habitats on earth, including many extreme environments. Fish biodiversity, the use of fish models for human medicine and ecological studies, and the importance of fish in human nutrition, fuel an important need for the characterization of gene expression repertoires and corresponding evolutionary histories of ray-finned fish genes. To this aim, we performed transcriptome analyses and developed the PhyloFish database to provide (i) de novo assembled gene repertoires in 23 different ray-finned fish species including two holosteans (i.e. a group that diverged from teleosts before TGD) and 21 teleosts (including six salmonids), and (ii) gene expression levels in ten different tissues and organs (and embryos for many) in the same species. This resource was generated using a common deep RNA sequencing protocol to obtain the most exhaustive gene repertoire possible in each species that allows between-species comparisons to study the evolution of gene expression in different lineages. The PhyloFish database described here can be accessed and searched using RNAbrowse, a simple and efficient solution to give access to RNA-seq de novo assembled transcripts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2709-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870732PMC
May 2016

High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX) rainbow trout "Mal" population.

PLoS One 2014 12;9(12):e113355. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

INRA, UR1037 LPGP Fish Physiology and Genomics, F-35000, Rennes, France.

Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY). However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal). As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C), and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold) at the highest temperature treatment (18°C). Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C). However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0113355PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4264747PMC
October 2015

Heritable targeted inactivation of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene using zinc-finger nucleases.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2014 Apr 2;16(2):243-50. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

INRA, UR1037, LPGP, Fish Physiology and Genomics, 35000, Rennes, France.

Gene targeting is a powerful tool for analyzing gene function. Recently, new technology for gene targeting using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) has been described in fish species. However, it has not yet been widely used for cold water and slow developing species, such as Salmonidae. Here, we present the results of successful ZFN-mediated disruption of the sex-determining gene sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y chromosome) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three pairs of ZFN mRNA targeted to different regions of the sdY gene were injected into fertilized rainbow trout eggs. Sperm from 1-year-old male founders (parental generation one or P1) carrying a ZFN-induced mutation in their germline were then used to produce F1 non-mosaic animals. In these F1 populations, we characterized 14 different mutations in the sdY gene, including one mutation leading to the deletion of leucine 43 (L43) and 13 mutations at other target sites that had different effects on the SdY protein, i.e., amino acid insertions, deletions, and frameshift mutations producing premature stop codons in the mRNA. The gonadal phenotype analysis of the F1-mutated animals revealed that the single L43 amino acid deletion did not lead to a male-to-female sex reversal, but all other mutations induced a clear ovarian phenotype. These results show that targeted gene disruption using ZFN is efficient in rainbow trout but depends on the ZFN design. We also characterized new sdY mutations resulting in male-to-female sex reversal, and we conclude that L43 seems dispensable for SdY function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-013-9546-8DOI Listing
April 2014

The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids.

Evol Appl 2013 Apr 3;6(3):486-96. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

INRA, UR1037, LPGP, Fish Physiology and Genomics Rennes, France.

All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), in 15 different species of salmonids. We found that the sdY sequence is highly conserved in all salmonids and that sdY is a male-specific Y-chromosome gene in the majority of these species. These findings demonstrate that most salmonids share a conserved sex-determining locus and also strongly suggest that sdY may be this conserved master sex-determining gene. However, in two whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae), sdY was found both in males and females, suggesting that alternative sex-determination systems may have also evolved in this family. Based on the wide conservation of sdY as a male-specific Y-chromosome gene, efficient and easy molecular sexing techniques can now be developed that will be of great interest for studying these economically and environmentally important species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3673476PMC
April 2013

An immune-related gene evolved into the master sex-determining gene in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Curr Biol 2012 Aug 21;22(15):1423-8. Epub 2012 Jun 21.

INRA, UR1037, LPGP, Fish Physiology and Genomics, 35000 Rennes, France.

Since the discovery of Sry in mammals [1, 2], few other master sex-determining genes have been identified in vertebrates [3-7]. To date, all of these genes have been characterized as well-known factors in the sex differentiation pathway, suggesting that the same subset of genes have been repeatedly and independently selected throughout evolution as master sex determinants [8, 9]. Here, we characterized in rainbow trout an unknown gene expressed only in the testis, with a predominant expression during testicular differentiation. This gene is a male-specific genomic sequence that is colocalized along with the sex-determining locus. This gene, named sdY for sexually dimorphic on the Y chromosome, encodes a protein that displays similarity to the C-terminal domain of interferon regulatory factor 9. The targeted inactivation of sdY in males using zinc-finger nuclease induces ovarian differentiation, and the overexpression of sdY in females using additive transgenesis induces testicular differentiation. Together, these results demonstrate that sdY is a novel vertebrate master sex-determining gene not related to any known sex-differentiating gene. These findings highlight an unexpected evolutionary plasticity in vertebrate sex determination through the demonstration that master sex determinants can arise from the de novo evolution of genes that have not been previously implicated in sex differentiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.05.045DOI Listing
August 2012

Integrative genomic analysis reveals somatic mutations in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

Hum Mol Genet 2011 Oct 22;20(20):3974-85. Epub 2011 Jul 22.

INSERM, UMR970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, F-75015 Paris, France.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors that occur in the context of inherited cancer syndromes in ∼30% of cases and are linked to germline mutations in the VHL, RET, NF1, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2 and TMEM127 genes. Although genome-wide expression studies have revealed some of the mechanisms likely to be involved in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumorigenesis, the complete molecular distinction of all subtypes of hereditary tumors has not been solved and the genetic events involved in the generation of sporadic tumors are unknown. With these purposes in mind, we investigated 202 pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas, including 75 hereditary tumors, using expression profiling, BAC array comparative genomic hybridization and somatic mutation screening. Gene expression signatures defined the hereditary tumors according to their genotype and notably, led to a complete subseparation between SDHx- and VHL-related tumors. In tumor tissues, the systematic characterization of somatic genetic events associated with germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a majority of cases, but also detected point mutations and copy-neutral LOH. Finally, guided by transcriptome classifications and LOH profiles, somatic mutations in VHL or RET genes were identified in 14% of sporadic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Overall, we found a germline or somatic genetic alteration in 45.5% (92/202) of the tumors in this large series of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Regarding mutated genes, specific molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis mechanisms are identified. Altogether, these new findings suggest that somatic mutation analysis is likely to yield important clues for personalizing molecular targeted therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddr324DOI Listing
October 2011

Mineralocorticoid receptor mutations differentially affect individual gene expression profiles in pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Mar 15;96(3):E519-27. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Department of Puericulture and Pediatrics, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto 14040-900, Brazil.

Context: Type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a primary form of mineralocorticoid resistance, is due to inactivating mutations of the NR3C2 gene, coding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR).

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess whether different NR3C2 mutations have distinct effects on the pattern of MR-dependent transcriptional regulation of aldosterone-regulated genes.

Design And Methods: Four MR mutations affecting residues in the ligand binding domain, identified in families with PHA1, were tested. MR proteins generated by site-directed mutagenesis were analyzed for their binding to aldosterone and were transiently transfected into renal cells to explore the functional effects on the transcriptional activity of the receptors by cis-trans-cotransactivation assays and by measuring the induction of endogenous gene transcription.

Results: Binding assays showed very low or absent aldosterone binding for mutants MR(877Pro), MR(848Pro), and MR(947stop) and decreased affinity for aldosterone of MR(843Pro). Compared with wild-type MR, the mutations p.Leu843Pro and p.Leu877Pro displayed half-maximal aldosterone-dependent transactivation of reporter genes driven by mouse mammary tumor virus or glucocorticoid response element-2 dependent promoters, whereas MR(848Pro) and MR(947stop) nearly or completely lost transcriptional activity. Although MR(848Pro) and MR(947stop) were also incapable of inducing aldosterone-dependent gene expression of endogenous sgk1, GILZ, NDRG2, and SCNN1A, MR(843Pro) retained complete transcriptional activity on sgk1 and GILZ gene expression, and MR(877Pro) negatively affected the expression of sgk1, NDRG2, and SCNN1A.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that MR mutations differentially affect individual gene expression in a promoter-dependent manner. Investigation of differential gene expression profiles in PHA1 may allow a better understanding of the molecular substrate of phenotypic variability and to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2010-1486DOI Listing
March 2011

SDHA is a tumor suppressor gene causing paraganglioma.

Hum Mol Genet 2010 Aug 18;19(15):3011-20. Epub 2010 May 18.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Génétique, 20-40 rue Leblanc, F-75015 Paris, France.

Mitochondrial succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (complex II) consists of four subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Heterozygous germline mutations in SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and SDHAF2 [encoding for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex assembly factor 2] cause hereditary paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. Surprisingly, no genetic link between SDHA and paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma syndrome has ever been established. We identified a heterozygous germline SDHA mutation, p.Arg589Trp, in a woman suffering from catecholamine-secreting abdominal paraganglioma. The functionality of the SDHA mutant was assessed by studying SDHA, SDHB, HIF-1alpha and CD34 protein expression using immunohistochemistry and by examining the effect of the mutation in a yeast model. Microarray analyses were performed to study gene expression involved in energy metabolism and hypoxic pathways. We also investigated 202 paragangliomas or pheochromocytomas for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD loci by BAC array comparative genomic hybridization. In vivo and in vitro functional studies demonstrated that the SDHA mutation causes a loss of SDH enzymatic activity in tumor tissue and in the yeast model. Immunohistochemistry and transcriptome analyses established that the SDHA mutation causes pseudo-hypoxia, which leads to a subsequent increase in angiogenesis, as other SDHx gene mutations. LOH was detected at the SDHA locus in the patient's tumor but was present in only 4.5% of a large series of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. The SDHA gene should be added to the list of genes encoding tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins that act as tumor suppressor genes and can now be considered as a new paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma susceptibility gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddq206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901140PMC
August 2010