Publications by authors named "Elma M J Salentijn"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exploring the alpha-gliadin locus: the 33-mer peptide with six overlapping coeliac disease epitopes in Triticum aestivum is derived from a subgroup of Aegilops tauschii.

Plant J 2021 Apr 19;106(1):86-94. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Most alpha-gliadin genes of the Gli-D2 locus on the D genome of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) encode for proteins with epitopes that can trigger coeliac disease (CD), and several contain a 33-mer peptide with six partly overlapping copies of three epitopes, which is regarded as a remarkably potent T-cell stimulator. To increase genetic diversity in the D genome, synthetic hexaploid wheat lines are being made by hybridising accessions of Triticum turgidum (AB genome) and Aegilops tauschii (the progenitor of the D genome). The diversity of alpha-gliadins in A. tauschii has not been studied extensively. We analysed the alpha-gliadin transcriptome of 51 A. tauschii accessions representative of the diversity in A. tauschii. We extracted RNA from developing seeds and performed 454 amplicon sequencing of the first part of the alpha-gliadin genes. The expression profile of allelic variants of the alpha-gliadins was different between accessions, and also between accessions of the Western and Eastern clades of A. tauschii. Generally, both clades expressed many allelic variants not found in bread wheat. In contrast to earlier studies, we detected the 33-mer peptide in some A. tauschii accessions, indicating that it was introduced along with the D genome into bread wheat. In these accessions, transcripts with the 33-mer peptide were present at lower frequencies than in bread wheat varieties. In most A. tauschii accessions, however, the alpha-gliadins do not contain the epitope, and this may be exploited, through synthetic hexaploid wheats, to breed bread wheat varieties with fewer or no coeliac disease epitopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15147DOI Listing
April 2021

Genetic Architecture of Flowering Time and Sex Determination in Hemp ( L.): A Genome-Wide Association Study.

Front Plant Sci 2020 4;11:569958. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Flowering time and sex determination in hemp ( L.) strongly influence fiber quality and seed production of this crop. The control of these traits is paramount for the breeding of new cultivars. Yet, little is known about the genetics underlying such complex traits and a better understanding requires in depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms responsible for these traits. In this report, the genetic architecture of flowering time and sex determination in hemp was studied using a Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) approach. Association studies were performed on a panel of 123 hemp accessions, tested in three contrasting environments, using a set of 600 K SNP markers. Altogether, eight QTLs were identified across environments; six for flowering time traits and two for sex determination. These QTLs covered genomic regions with 33 transcripts predicted to be involved in flowering and sex determination as well as a microRNA, Genes related to perception and transduction of light and transcription factors well-known to regulate flowering were identified in QTLs for flowering time traits. Transcription factors and genes involved in regulating the balance of phytohormones, specially auxins and gibberellic acid, were identified in QTLs for sex determination. Sex determination QTLs were associated with the development of male flowers in female plants and thus with the stability of sex determination in monecious plants. The present study elucidates relevant knowledge on the genetic mechanisms of flowering and sex determination traits in hemp, and provides new tools for hemp breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.569958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672029PMC
November 2020

Elucidating the Genetic Architecture of Fiber Quality in Hemp ( L.) Using a Genome-Wide Association Study.

Front Genet 2020 17;11:566314. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Hemp ( L.) is a bast-fiber crop with a great potential in the emerging bio-based economy. Yet, hemp breeding for fiber quality is restricted and that is mainly due to the limited knowledge of the genetic architecture of its fiber quality. A panel of 123 hemp accessions, with large phenotypic variability, was used to study the genetic basis of seven cell wall and bast fiber traits relevant to fiber quality. These traits showed large genetic variance components and high values of broad sense heritability in this hemp panel, as concluded from the phenotypic evaluation across three test locations with contrasting environments. The hemp panel was genotyped using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). Subsequently, a large set (> 600,000) of selected genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to get insights into quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling fiber quality traits. In absence of a complete hemp genome sequence, identification of QTLs was based on the following characteristics: (i) association level to traits, (ii) fraction of explained trait variance, (iii) collinearity between QTLs, and (iv) detection across different environments. Using this approach, 16 QTLs were identified across locations for different fiber quality traits, including contents of glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, xylose, lignin, and bast fiber content. Among them, six were found across the three environments. The genetic markers composing the QTLs that are common across locations are valuable tools to develop novel genotypes of hemp with improved fiber quality. Underneath the QTLs, 12 candidate genes were identified which are likely to be involved in the biosynthesis and modification of monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and lignin. These candidate genes were suggested to play an important role in determining fiber quality in hemp. This study provides new insights into the genetic architecture of fiber traits, identifies QTLs and candidate genes that form the basis for molecular breeding for high fiber quality hemp cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.566314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527631PMC
September 2020

Genetic Variability of Morphological, Flowering, and Biomass Quality Traits in Hemp ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2020 20;11:102. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research (WUR), Wageningen, Netherlands.

Hemp ( L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (×) interactions on fiber quality traits in hemp. To investigate these parameters, a panel of 123 hemp accessions was phenotyped for 28 traits relevant to fiber quality at three locations in Europe, corresponding to climates of northern, central, and southern Europe. In general, hemp cultivated in northern latitudes showed a larger plant vigor while earlier flowering was characteristic of plants cultivated in southern latitudes. Extensive variability between accessions was observed for all traits. Most cell wall components (contents of monosaccharides derived from cellulose and hemicellulose; and lignin content), bast fiber content, and flowering traits revealed large genetic components with low × interactions and high broad-sense heritability values, making these traits suitable to maximize the genetic gains of fiber quality. In contrast, contents of pectin-related monosaccharides, most agronomic traits, and several fiber traits (fineness and decortication efficiency) showed low genetic components with large × interactions affecting the rankings across locations. These results suggest that pectin, agronomic traits, and fiber traits are unsuitable targets in breeding programs of hemp, as their large × interactions might lead to unexpected phenotypes in untested locations. Furthermore, all environmental effects on the 28 traits were statistically significant, suggesting a strong adaptive behavior of fiber quality in hemp to specific environments. The high variability in fiber quality observed in the hemp panel, the broad range in heritability, and adaptability among all traits prescribe positive prospects for the development of new hemp cultivars of excellent fiber quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044243PMC
February 2020

The Complex Interactions Between Flowering Behavior and Fiber Quality in Hemp.

Front Plant Sci 2019 16;10:614. Epub 2019 May 16.

Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Hemp, L., is a sustainable multipurpose fiber crop with high nutrient and water use efficiency and with biomass of excellent quality for textile fibers and construction materials. The yield and quality of hemp biomass are largely determined by the genetic background of the hemp cultivar but are also strongly affected by environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. Hemp is a facultative short-day plant, characterized by a strong adaptation to photoperiod and a great influence of environmental factors on important agronomic traits such as "flowering-time" and "sex determination." This sensitivity of hemp can cause a considerable degree of heterogeneity, leading to unforeseen yield reductions. Fiber quality for instance is influenced by the developmental stage of hemp at harvest. Also, male and female plants differ in stature and produce fibers with different properties and quality. Next to these causes, there is evidence for specific genotypic variation in fiber quality among hemp accessions. Before improved hemp cultivars can be developed, with specific flowering-times and fiber qualities, and adapted to different geographical regions, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling important phenological traits such as "flowering-time" and "sex determination" in relation to fiber quality in hemp is required. It is well known that genetic factors play a major role in the outcome of both phenological traits, but the major molecular factors involved in this mechanism are not characterized in hemp. Genome sequences and transcriptome data are available but their analysis mainly focused on the cannabinoid pathway for medical purposes. Herein, we review the current knowledge of phenotypic and genetic data available for "flowering-time," "sex determination," and "fiber quality" in short-day and dioecious crops, respectively, and compare them with the situation in hemp. A picture emerges for several controlling key genes, for which natural genetic variation may lead to desired flowering behavior, including examples of pleiotropic effects on yield quality and on carbon partitioning. Finally, we discuss the prospects for using this knowledge for the molecular breeding of this sustainable crop a candidate gene approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6532435PMC
May 2019

Latitudinal Adaptation and Genetic Insights Into the Origins of L.

Front Plant Sci 2018 21;9:1876. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Industrial Crops Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming, China.

Cannabis is one of the most important industrial crops distributed worldwide. However, the phylogeographic structure and domestication knowledge of this crop remains poorly understood. In this study, sequence variations of five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions were investigated to address these questions. For the 645 individuals from 52 accessions sampled (25 wild populations and 27 domesticated populations or cultivars), three haplogroups (Haplogroup H, M, L) were identified and these lineages exhibited distinct high-middle-low latitudinal gradients distribution pattern. This pattern can most likely be explained as a consequence of climatic heterogeneity and geographical isolation. Therefore, we examined the correlations between genetic distances and geographical distances, and tested whether the climatic factors are correlated with the cpDNA haplogroup frequencies of populations. The "isolation-by-distance" models were detected for the phylogeographic structure, and the day-length was found to be the most important factor (among 20 BioClim factors) that influenced the population structures. Considering the distinctive phylogeographic structures and no reproductive isolation among members of these lineages, we recommend that be recognized as a monotypic genus typified by L., containing three subspecies: subsp. , subsp. , and subsp. . Within each haplogroup which possesses a relatively independent distribution region, the wild and domesticated populations shared the most common haplotypes, indicating that there are multiregional origins for the domesticated crop. Contrast to the prevalent Central-Asia-Origin hypothesis of , molecular evidence reveals for the first time that the low latitude haplogroup (Haplogroup L) is the earliest divergent lineage, implying that is probably originated in low latitude region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309158PMC
December 2018

Screening for recombinants of Crambe abyssynica after transformation by the pMF1 marker-free vector based on chemical selection and meristematic regeneration.

Sci Rep 2015 Sep 11;5:14033. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 386, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The T-DNA region of pMF1 vector of marker-free system developed by Wageningen UR, has Recombinase R-LBD gene fusion and nptII and codA gene fusion between two recombination sites. After transformation applying dexamethasone (DEX) can activate the recombinase to remove the T-DNA fragment between recombination sites. The recombinant ought to be selected on 5-fluorocytocine (5-FC) because of codA converting 5-FC into 5-fluorouracil the toxic. A PMF1 vector was transformed into hexaploid species Crambe abyssinica. Two independent transformants were chosen for DEX-induced recombination and later 5-FC selection. In contrast to earlier pMF1 experiments, the strategy of stepwise selection based on meristematic regeneration was engaged. After a long period of 5-FC selection, recombinants were obtained successfully, but most of the survivors were wildtype and non-recombinant. The results revealed when applying the PMF1 marker-free system on C. abyssinica, 1) Increasing in the DEX concentration did not correspondingly enhance the success of recombination; 2) both of the DEX-induced recombination and 5-FC negative selection were apparently insufficient which was leading to the extremely high frequency in chimerism occurring for recombinant and non-recombinant cells in tissues; 3) the strategy of stepwise selection based on meristem tissue regeneration was crucial for successfully isolating the recombinant germplasm from the chimera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4566089PMC
September 2015

Detection of induced mutations in CaFAD2 genes by next-generation sequencing leading to the production of improved oil composition in Crambe abyssinica.

Plant Biotechnol J 2015 May 13;13(4):471-81. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen, The Netherlands; College of Life Science, Hubei University, Hubei, China.

Crambe abyssinica is a hexaploid oil crop for industrial applications. An increase of erucic acid (C22:1) and reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in crambe oil is a valuable improvement. An increase in oleic acid (C18:1), a reduction in PUFA and possibly an increase in C22:1 can be obtained by down-regulating the expression of fatty acid desaturase2 genes (CaFAD2), which code for the enzyme that converts C18:1 into C18:2. We conducted EMS-mutagenesis in crambe, followed by Illumina sequencing, to screen mutations in three expressed CaFAD2 genes. Two novel analysis strategies were used to detect mutation sites. In the first strategy, mutation detection targeted specific sequence motifs. In the second strategy, every nucleotide position in a CaFAD2 fragment was tested for the presence of mutations. Seventeen novel mutations were detected in 1100 one-dimensional pools (11 000 individuals) in three expressed CaFAD2 genes, including non-sense mutations and mis-sense mutations in CaFAD2-C1, -C2 and -C3. The homozygous non-sense mutants for CaFAD2-C3 resulted in a 25% higher content of C18:1 and 25% lower content of PUFA compared to the wild type. The mis-sense mutations only led to small changes in oil composition. Concluding, targeted mutation detection using NGS in a polyploid was successfully applied and it was found that a non-sense mutation in even a single CaFAD2 gene can lead to changes in crambe oil composition. Stacking the mutations in different CaFAD2 may gain additional changes in C18:1 and PUFA contents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12269DOI Listing
May 2015

Functional analysis of the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (CaFAD2) gene family of the oil seed crop Crambe abyssinica.

BMC Plant Biol 2013 Oct 1;13:146. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, P,O, Box 16, 6700, AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Crambe abyssinica produces high erucic acid (C22:1, 55-60%) in the seed oil, which can be further increased by reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. The omega-6 fatty acid desaturase enzyme (FAD2) is known to be involved in PUFA biosynthesis. In crambe, three CaFAD2 genes, CaFAD2-C1, CaFAD2-C2 and CaFAD2-C3 are expressed.

Results: The individual effect of each CaFAD2 gene on oil composition was investigated through studying transgenic lines (CaFAD2-RNAi) for differential expression levels in relation to the composition of seed-oil. Six first generation transgenic plants (T1) showed C18:1 increase (by 6% to 10.5%) and PUFA reduction (by 8.6% to 10.2%). The silencing effect in these T1-plants ranged from the moderate silencing (40% to 50% reduction) of all three CaFAD2 genes to strong silencing (95% reduction) of CaFAD2-C3 alone. The progeny of two T1-plants (WG4-4 and WG19-6) was further analysed. Four or five transgene insertions are characterized in the progeny (T2) of WG19-6 in contrast to a single insertion in the T2 progeny of WG4-4. For the individual T2-plants of both families (WG19-6 and WG4-4), seed-specific silencing of CaFAD2-C1 and CaFAD2-C2 was observed in several individual T2-plants but, on average in both families, the level of silencing of these genes was not significant. A significant reduction in expression level (P < 0.01) in both families was only observed for CaFAD2-C3 together with significantly different C18:1 and PUFA levels in oil.

Conclusions: CaFAD2-C3 expression is highly correlated to levels of C18:1 (r = -0.78) and PUFA (r = 0.75), which suggests that CaFAD2-C3 is the most important one for changing the oil composition of crambe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-13-146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3829706PMC
October 2013

Expansion of the gamma-gliadin gene family in Aegilops and Triticum.

BMC Evol Biol 2012 Nov 8;12:215. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen UR, P,O, Box 16, Wageningen, NL-6700 AA, The Netherlands.

Background: The gamma-gliadins are considered to be the oldest of the gliadin family of storage proteins in Aegilops/Triticum. However, the expansion of this multigene family has not been studied in an evolutionary perspective.

Results: We have cloned 59 gamma-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species (Aegilops caudata L., Aegilops comosa Sm. in Sibth. & Sm., Aegilops mutica Boiss., Aegilops speltoides Tausch, Aegilops tauschii Coss., Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., Aegilops uniaristata Vis., and Triticum monococcum L.) representing eight different genomes: Am, B/S, C, D, M, N, T and U. Overall, 15% of the sequences contained internal stop codons resulting in pseudogenes, but this percentage was variable among genomes, up to over 50% in Ae. umbellulata. The most common length of the deduced protein, including the signal peptide, was 302 amino acids, but the length varied from 215 to 362 amino acids, both obtained from Ae. speltoides. Most genes encoded proteins with eight cysteines. However, all Aegilops species had genes that encoded a gamma-gliadin protein of 302 amino acids with an additional cysteine. These conserved nine-cysteine gamma-gliadins may perform a specific function, possibly as chain terminators in gluten network formation in protein bodies during endosperm development. A phylogenetic analysis of gamma-gliadins derived from Aegilops and Triticum species and the related genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum showed six groups of genes. Most Aegilops species contained gamma-gliadin genes from several of these groups, which also included sequences from the genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum. Hordein and secalin sequences formed separate groups.

Conclusions: We present a model for the evolution of the gamma-gliadins from which we deduce that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Aegilops/Triticum-Dasypyrum-Lophopyrum-Crithopsis already had four groups of gamma-gliadin sequences, presumably the result of two rounds of duplication of the locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-12-215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3537741PMC
November 2012

Celiac disease T-cell epitopes from gamma-gliadins: immunoreactivity depends on the genome of origin, transcript frequency, and flanking protein variation.

BMC Genomics 2012 Jun 22;13:277. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 16, NL-6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Celiac disease (CD) is caused by an uncontrolled immune response to gluten, a heterogeneous mixture of wheat storage proteins. The CD-toxicity of these proteins and their derived peptides is depending on the presence of specific T-cell epitopes (9-mer peptides; CD epitopes) that mediate the stimulation of HLA-DQ2/8 restricted T-cells. Next to the thoroughly characterized major T-cell epitopes derived from the α-gliadin fraction of gluten, γ-gliadin peptides are also known to stimulate T-cells of celiac disease patients. To pinpoint CD-toxic γ-gliadins in hexaploid bread wheat, we examined the variation of T-cell epitopes involved in CD in γ-gliadin transcripts of developing bread wheat grains.

Results: A detailed analysis of the genetic variation present in γ-gliadin transcripts of bread wheat (T. aestivum, allo-hexaploid, carrying the A, B and D genome), together with genomic γ-gliadin sequences from ancestrally related diploid wheat species, enabled the assignment of sequence variants to one of the three genomic γ-gliadin loci, Gli-A1, Gli-B1 or Gli-D1. Almost half of the γ-gliadin transcripts of bread wheat (49%) was assigned to locus Gli-D1. Transcripts from each locus differed in CD epitope content and composition. The Gli-D1 transcripts contained the highest frequency of canonical CD epitope cores (on average 10.1 per transcript) followed by the Gli-A1 transcripts (8.6) and the Gli-B1 transcripts (5.4). The natural variants of the major CD epitope from γ-gliadins, DQ2-γ-I, showed variation in their capacity to induce in vitro proliferation of a DQ2-γ-I specific and HLA-DQ2 restricted T-cell clone.

Conclusions: Evaluating the CD epitopes derived from γ-gliadins in their natural context of flanking protein variation, genome specificity and transcript frequency is a significant step towards accurate quantification of the CD toxicity of bread wheat. This approach can be used to predict relative levels of CD toxicity of individual wheat cultivars directly from their transcripts (cDNAs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3469346PMC
June 2012

A universal approach to eliminate antigenic properties of alpha-gliadin peptides in celiac disease.

PLoS One 2010 Dec 16;5(12):e15637. Epub 2010 Dec 16.

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Celiac disease is caused by an uncontrolled immune response to gluten, a heterogeneous mixture of wheat storage proteins, including the α-gliadins. It has been shown that α-gliadins harbor several major epitopes involved in the disease pathogenesis. A major step towards elimination of gluten toxicity for celiac disease patients would thus be the elimination of such epitopes from α-gliadins. We have analyzed over 3,000 expressed α-gliadin sequences from 11 bread wheat cultivars to determine whether they encode for peptides potentially involved in celiac disease. All identified epitope variants were synthesized as peptides and tested for binding to the disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 molecules and for recognition by patient-derived α-gliadin specific T cell clones. Several specific naturally occurring amino acid substitutions were identified for each of the α-gliadin derived peptides involved in celiac disease that eliminate the antigenic properties of the epitope variants. Finally, we provide proof of principle at the peptide level that through the systematic introduction of such naturally occurring variations α-gliadins genes can be generated that no longer encode antigenic peptides. This forms a crucial step in the development of strategies to modify gluten genes in wheat so that it becomes safe for celiac disease patients. It also provides the information to design and introduce safe gluten genes in other cereals, which would exhibit improved quality while remaining safe for consumption by celiac disease patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0015637PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002971PMC
December 2010

Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease.

Theor Appl Genet 2010 Nov 28;121(8):1527-39. Epub 2010 Jul 28.

Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of CD. This may partly be attributed to an increase in awareness and to improved diagnostic techniques, but increased wheat and gluten consumption is also considered a major cause. To analyze whether wheat breeding contributed to the increase of the prevalence of CD, we have compared the genetic diversity of gluten proteins for the presence of two CD epitopes (Glia-α9 and Glia-α20) in 36 modern European wheat varieties and in 50 landraces representing the wheat varieties grown up to around a century ago. Glia-α9 is a major (immunodominant) epitope that is recognized by the majority of CD patients. The minor Glia-α20 was included as a technical reference. Overall, the presence of the Glia-α9 epitope was higher in the modern varieties, whereas the presence of the Glia-α20 epitope was lower, as compared to the landraces. This suggests that modern wheat breeding practices may have led to an increased exposure to CD epitopes. On the other hand, some modern varieties and landraces have been identified that have relatively low contents of both epitopes. Such selected lines may serve as a start to breed wheat for the introduction of 'low CD toxic' as a new breeding trait. Large-scale culture and consumption of such varieties would considerably aid in decreasing the prevalence of CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-010-1408-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2963738PMC
November 2010

Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines.

BMC Plant Biol 2009 Apr 7;9:41. Epub 2009 Apr 7.

Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, PO Box 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) (AABBDD).

Results: The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the alpha-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS) resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the omega-gliadin, gamma-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS) removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties.

Conclusion: The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-9-41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670835PMC
April 2009

Up- and down-regulation of Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase: impacts on furanone and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

J Exp Bot 2006 23;57(10):2445-53. Epub 2006 Jun 23.

Technical University Muenchen, Biomolecular Food Technology, Lise-Meitner-Str. 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany.

A complex mixture of hundreds of substances determines strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) aroma, but only approximately 15 volatiles are considered as key flavour compounds. Of these, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is regarded as the most important, but it is methylated further by FaOMT (Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase) to 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) during the ripening process. It is shown here that transformation of strawberry with the FaOMT sequence in sense and antisense orientation, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, resulted in a near total loss of DMMF, whereas the levels of the other volatiles remained unchanged. FaOMT repression also affected the ratio of feruloyl 1-O-beta-D-glucose and caffeoyl 1-O-beta-D-glucose, indicating a dual function of the enzyme in planta. Thus, FaOMT is involved in at least two different biochemical pathways in ripe strawberry fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erl008DOI Listing
October 2006

Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).

J Agric Food Chem 2006 Mar;54(6):2145-53

Biomolecular Food Technology, Technical University München, Lise-Meitner-Strasse 34, 85354 Freising, Germany.

An octaploid (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Out of 25 transgenic lines, nine lines showed a reduction in CHS mRNA accumulation of more than 50% as compared to the untransformed cv. Calypso control. The antisense CHS construct was found to be integrated into the genome, with a copy number ranging from one to four. The pigmentation of the fruit was only affected when less than 5% of the control CHS expression level was detected. A stable antisense phenotype over a period of 4 years was obtained in the primary transgenic lines at a rate of 1:20. As a consequence of the reduced activity of CHS, the levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins were downregulated and precursors of the flavonoid pathway were shunted to the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to highly increased levels of cinnamoyl glucose (520% of control), caffeoyl glucose (816% of control), and feruloyl glucose (1092% of control) as well as p-coumaryl alcohol (363% of control) and p-coumaryl-1-acetate (1079% of control), which occur only as trace components in untransformed control fruits. These results demonstrate that the introduction of an antisense CHS construct in strawberry results in an unpredictable biochemical phenotype, thereby confirming that CHS function is an important regulatory point of substrate flow between the flavonoid and the phenylpropanoid pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf052574zDOI Listing
March 2006

Cinnamate metabolism in ripening fruit. Characterization of a UDP-glucose:cinnamate glucosyltransferase from strawberry.

Plant Physiol 2006 Mar 27;140(3):1047-58. Epub 2006 Jan 27.

Biomolecular Food Technology, Technical University Munich, Freising, Germany.

Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit accumulate (hydroxy)cinnamoyl glucose (Glc) esters, which may serve as the biogenetic precursors of diverse secondary metabolites, such as the flavor constituents methyl cinnamate and ethyl cinnamate. Here, we report on the isolation of a cDNA encoding a UDP-Glc:cinnamate glucosyltransferase (Fragaria x ananassa glucosyltransferase 2 [FaGT2]) from ripe strawberry cv Elsanta that catalyzes the formation of 1-O-acyl-Glc esters of cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, and their derivatives in vitro. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that FaGT2 transcripts accumulate to high levels during strawberry fruit ripening and to lower levels in flowers. The levels in fruits positively correlated with the in planta concentration of cinnamoyl, p-coumaroyl, and caffeoyl Glc. In the leaf, high amounts of Glc esters were detected, but FaGT2 mRNA was not observed. The expression of FaGT2 is negatively regulated by auxin, induced by oxidative stress, and by hydroxycinnamic acids. Although FaGT2 glucosylates a number of aromatic acids in vitro, quantitative analysis in transgenic lines containing an antisense construct of FaGT2 under the control of the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter demonstrated that the enzyme is only involved in the formation of cinnamoyl Glc and p-coumaroyl Glc during ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.074955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1400576PMC
March 2006

A gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) shows developmental regulation and pathogen-induced expression in strawberry.

New Phytol 2004 Jul;163(1):99-110

Plantebiosenteret, Department of Biology, NTNU, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.

•  Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) have been demonstrated to play a role in host defence in several plants. •  The PGIP now cloned from strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) showed a high degree of homology to other fruit PGIPs. The gene expression of strawberry PGIP was monitored in healthy leaves, flowers and fruit at different maturity stages. PGIP transcript levels were also analysed following fruit inoculation with the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea in strawberry cultivars displaying variation in susceptibility. •  Healthy mature berries showed the highest constitutive PGIP gene expression levels compared with leaves, flowers and immature fruit, indicating that the gene is developmentally regulated. Among the cultivars studied ('Elsanta', 'Korona', 'Polka', 'Senga sengana', 'Tenira'), 'Polka' had the highest constitutive expression level of PGIP. After inoculation with B. cinerea, all five cultivars displayed a significant induction of PGIP gene expression, but the differences between them were not statistically significant. •  The high induction of the PGIP gene after inoculation with B. cinerea indicates that PGIP has a role in defence of strawberry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01088.xDOI Listing
July 2004