Publications by authors named "Elliott Faller"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early Warning of Infection in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Heart Rate Variability and Serum Biomarkers.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Departments of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Early warning of infection is critical to reduce the risk of deterioration and mortality, especially in neutropenic patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Given that heart rate variability (HRV) is a sensitive and early marker for infection, and that serum inflammatory biomarkers can have high specificity for infection, we hypothesized their combination may be useful for accurate early warning of infection. In this study, we developed and evaluated a composite predictive model using continuous HRV with daily serum biomarker measurements to provide risk stratification of future deterioration in HCT recipients. A total of 116 ambulatory outpatients about to undergo HCT consented to collection of prospective demographic, clinical (daily vital signs), HRV (continuous electrocardiography [ECG] monitoring, laboratory [daily serum samples frozen at -80 °C]), and infection outcome variables (defined as the time of escalation of antibiotics), all from 24 hours pre-HCT to the onset of infection or 14 days post-HCT. Indications for antibiotic escalation were adjudicated as "true infection" or not by 2 blinded HCT clinicians. A composite time series of 8 HRV metrics was created for each patient, and the probability of deterioration within the next 72 hours was estimated using logistic regression modeling of composite HRV and serum biomarkers using a rule-based naïve Bayes model if the HRV-based probability exceeded a median threshold. Thirty-five patients (30%) withdrew within <24 hours owing to intolerability of ECG monitoring, leaving 81 patients, of whom 48 (59%) had antibiotic escalation adjudicated as true infection. The combined HRV and biomarker (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-7) predictive model began increasing at ∼48 hours on average before the diagnosis of infection, could distinguish between high risk of impending infection (>90% incidence of subsequent infection within 72 hours), average risk (∼50%), and low risk (<10%), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87. However, given that prophylactic predictive ECG monitoring and daily serum collection proved challenging for many patients, further refinement in measurement is necessary for further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.023DOI Listing
May 2021

Transcriptional regulation of the IL-7Rα gene by dexamethasone and IL-7 in primary human CD8 T cells.

Immunogenetics 2017 Jan 19;69(1):13-27. Epub 2016 Aug 19.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8L6, Canada.

Interleukin-7 is essential for the development and maintenance of T cells, and the expression of the IL-7 receptor is tightly regulated at every stage of the T cell's lifespan. In mature CD8 T cells, IL-7 plays important roles in cell survival, peripheral homeostasis, and cytolytic function. The IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) is expressed at high levels on naïve and memory cells, but it is rapidly downregulated upon IL-7 stimulation. In this study, we illustrate the dynamicity of the CD127 promoter and show that it possesses positive as well as negative regulatory sites involved in upregulating and downregulating CD127 expression, respectively. We cloned the CD127 gene promoter and identified key cis-regulatory elements required for CD127 expression in mature resting primary CD8 T cells. The core promoter necessary for efficient basal transcription is contained within the first 262 bp upstream of the TATA box. Additional positive regulatory elements are located between -1200 and -2406 bp, conferring a further 2- to 4-fold enhancement in gene expression. While transcription of the CD127 gene is increased directly through a glucocorticoid response element located between -2255 and -2269 bp upstream of the TATA box, we identified a suppressive region that lies upstream of 1760 bp from the TATA box, which is likely involved in the IL-7-mediated suppression of CD127 transcription. Finally, we illustrated IL-7 does not bias alternative splicing of CD127 transcripts in primary human CD8 T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-016-0948-4DOI Listing
January 2017

Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are induced by IL-7 and target surface CD127 protein for degradation in human CD8 T cells.

Cell Immunol 2016 Aug-Sep;306-307:41-52. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada; Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Ottawa Hospital General Campus, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada. Electronic address:

Given the essential role interleukin (IL)-7 plays in T-cell survival, homeostasis and function, it is no surprise expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) is tightly regulated. We have previously shown IL-7 binding to its receptor on the surface of CD8 T cells leads to both suppression of CD127 gene transcription and loss of existing CD127 protein from the cell membrane. Indeed upon binding IL-7, CD127 is rapidly internalized into early endosomes where phosphorylation by JAK targets the receptor for degradation. We now show that IL-7 induces the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins CIS, SOCS1 and SOCS2 through the JAK/STAT-5 pathway and that CIS and SOCS2 specifically interact with CD127 in early endosomes and direct the receptor complex to the proteasome for degradation. These results illustrate how expression of the IL-7 receptor and thus IL-7 signaling is modulated in human CD8 T cells by a negative feedback mechanism dependent on members of the SOCS family of proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2016.07.002DOI Listing
June 2017

IL-7 induces clathrin-mediated endocytosis of CD127 and subsequent degradation by the proteasome in primary human CD8 T cells.

Immunol Cell Biol 2016 Feb 14;94(2):196-207. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Interleukin-7 (IL-7), a key immunoregulatory cytokine, plays an essential role in peripheral T-cell homeostasis and function. Signaling via the IL-7 receptor is tightly regulated and we and others have shown IL-7 provides negative feedback on its own signaling by downregulating expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) through both suppression of CD127 gene transcription and by internalization of existing CD127 proteins from the cell membrane. We show here for the first time in primary human CD8 T cells that upon stimulation with IL-7, CD127 is internalized through clathrin-coated pits, a process dependent on both lipid-raft formation and the activity of dynamin. As visualized by confocal microscopy, CD127 shows increased co-localization with clathrin within 5 min of IL-7 stimulation and within 15-30 min is seen in multiple intracellular punctae co-localizing with the early endosomal marker EEA1. By 2 h after addition of IL-7, CD127 staining associates with the late endosomal marker RAB7 and with the proteasomal 20S subunit. By inducing receptor internalization and translocation from early endosomes to the proteasome, IL-7 directly influences its receptor density on the cell surface and thus regulates the intensity of its own signaling cascades. Given the important role IL-7 plays in T-cell development, homeostasis and function, deciphering how expression of its receptor is controlled on the cell surface is essential in understanding how T-cell activity can be regulated in different microenvironments and in response to different pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2015.80DOI Listing
February 2016

Expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain is down regulated on the surface of CD4 T-cells by the HIV-1 Tat protein.

PLoS One 2014 21;9(10):e111193. Epub 2014 Oct 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Ottawa Hospital General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

HIV infection elicits defects in CD4 T-cell homeostasis in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is essential to T-cell homeostasis and several groups have shown reduced levels of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) on both CD4 and CD8 T-cells in viremic HIV+ patients. We have shown previously that soluble HIV Tat protein specifically down regulates cell surface expression of CD127 on human CD8 T-cells in a paracrine fashion. The effects of Tat on CD127 expression in CD4 T-cells has yet to be described. To explore this effect, CD4 T-cells were isolated from healthy individuals and expression levels of CD127 were examined on cells incubated in media alone or treated with Tat protein. We show here that, similar to CD8 T-cells, the HIV-1 Tat protein specifically down regulates CD127 on primary human CD4 T-cells and directs the receptor to the proteasome for degradation. Down regulation of CD127 in response to Tat was seen on both memory and naive CD4 T-cell subsets and was blocked using either heparin or anti-Tat antibodies. Tat did not induce apoptosis in cultured primary CD4 T-cells over 72 hours as determined by Annexin V and PI staining. Pre-incubation of CD4 T-cells with HIV-1 Tat protein did however reduce the ability of IL-7 to up regulate Bcl-2 expression. Similar to exogenous Tat, endogenously expressed HIV Tat protein also suppressed CD127 expression on primary CD4 T-cells. In view of the important role IL-7 plays in lymphocyte proliferation, homeostasis and survival, down regulation of CD127 by Tat likely plays a central role in immune dysregulation and CD4 T-cell decline. Understanding this effect could lead to new approaches to mitigate the CD4 T-cell loss evident in HIV infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111193PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205093PMC
December 2015

IL-7 receptor recovery on CD8 T-cells isolated from HIV+ patients is inhibited by the HIV Tat protein.

PLoS One 2014 17;9(7):e102677. Epub 2014 Jul 17.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Chronic Disease, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Ottawa Hospital General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Expression of the IL-7 receptor α-chain (CD127) is decreased on CD8 T-cells in HIV infected patients and partially recovers in those receiving antiretroviral therapy with sustained viral suppression. We have shown that soluble HIV Tat protein down regulates CD127 expression on CD8 T-cells isolated from healthy HIV-negative individuals. Tat is taken up by CD8 T-cells via endocytosis, exits the endosome and then translocates to the inner leaflet of the cell membrane where it binds to the cytoplasmic tail of CD127 inducing receptor internalization and degradation by the proteasome. This down regulation of CD127 by Tat results in impaired CD8 T-cell function. Interestingly, suppression of CD127 by Tat is reversible and requires the continual presence of Tat in the culture media. We thus questioned whether the low IL-7 receptor expression evident on CD8 T-cells in HIV+ patients was similarly reversible and if suppression of the receptor could be maintained ex vivo by Tat protein alone. We show here that when CD8 T-cells isolated from HIV+ patients are incubated alone in fresh medium, low CD127 expression on the cell surface recovers to normal levels. This recovery of CD127, however, is completely inhibited by the addition of HIV Tat protein to the culture media. This study then provides evidence that soluble factor(s) are responsible for low CD127 expression on circulating CD8 T-cells in HIV+ individuals and further implicates Tat in suppressing this receptor essential to CD8 T-cell proliferation and function.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0102677PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4102547PMC
December 2015

Jak/STAT and PI3K signaling pathways have both common and distinct roles in IL-7-mediated activities in human CD8+ T cells.

J Leukoc Biol 2014 Jan 26;95(1):117-27. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

1.501 Smyth Rd., ORCC 4th Floor, Room C4464, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8L6, Canada.

IL-7 plays an important role in T cell survival, function, and memory cell development, yet the role of cytokine signaling pathways in these processes has not been fully elucidated. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms for the observed impairment of IL-7 activity in diseases, such as HIV infection, breast cancer, and autoimmunity, are not well understood. It was therefore hypothesized that IL-7-induced signaling molecules could be linked with distinct IL-7-associated activities. To address this, the activation and functional associations of IL-7-induced signaling pathways, specifically antigen-independent activities that are relevant to T cell homeostasis, were examined. Low concentrations of IL-7 (100 pg/ml) are capable of activating the Jak-STAT and PI3K signaling pathways, whereas higher concentrations (500-1000 pg/ml) were required to induce Bcl-2 production and glucose uptake. Even higher concentrations of IL-7 (10,000 pg/ml) were needed to induce cell proliferation and intracellular accumulation of perforin. Inhibition of Jak activation reduced IL-7-induced Bcl-2 and perforin production, whereas inhibition of Jak/STAT or PI3K pathways reduced glucose uptake and proliferation. This study suggests a complex control of IL-7-associated activities in the absence of antigen stimulation. These data may provide insights into mechanisms of impaired IL-7 signaling and function in disease and could be relevant for the study of IL-7-based immunotherapeutics. Specifically, this study has linked STAT5 and PI3K activation to shared and distinct IL-7-associated activities in human CD8+ T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0313122DOI Listing
January 2014

IL-7 downregulates IL-7Rα expression in human CD8 T cells by two independent mechanisms.

Immunol Cell Biol 2013 Feb 4;91(2):149-58. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Interleukin (IL)-7 is an essential nonredundant cytokine, and throughout the lifespan of a T-cell signaling via the IL-7 receptor influences cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. It is therefore no surprise that expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) is tightly regulated. We have previously shown that IL-7 downregulates expression of CD127 at the cell surface and now elucidate the kinetics of that suppression and demonstrate that IL-7 downregulates CD127 transcripts and surface protein in primary human CD8 T cells by two separate pathways. We show that IL-7 induces the initial reduction in cell-surface CD127 protein independent of transcriptional suppression, which is delayed by 40-60 min. Although IL-7-mediated downregulation of CD127 transcripts is dependent on Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT5, the early downregulation of surface CD127 protein is independent of JAK activity. The data further illustrate that low levels of IL-7 induce smaller and transient decreases in CD127 transcripts and surface protein, whereas higher concentrations induce more profound and sustained suppression. Such flexibility in receptor expression likely allows for fine-tuned immune responses in human CD8 T cells in different microenvironments and in response to different immunological challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2012.69DOI Listing
February 2013

Soluble HIV Tat protein removes the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain from the surface of resting CD8 T cells and targets it for degradation.

J Immunol 2010 Sep 26;185(5):2854-66. Epub 2010 Jul 26.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

IL-7 signaling is essential to CD8 T cell development, activation, and homeostasis. We have previously shown decreased expression of the IL-7R alpha-chain (CD127) on CD8 T cells in HIV(+) patients and that this downregulation is mediated at least in part by the HIV Tat protein. We show in this study that CD127 has a prolonged t(1/2) in resting CD8 T cells and continuously recycles on and off the cell membrane. We also demonstrate soluble Tat protein significantly decreases the t(1/2) of CD127. Soluble Tat is taken up from the medium and accumulates in CD8 T cells with a peak of 6 h. Once inside the cell, Tat exits the endosomes during their normal acidification and enters the cytosol. Tat then translocates to the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, where it binds directly to the cytoplasmic tail of CD127, inducing receptor aggregation and internalization through a process dependent on microtubules. Tat appears to then target CD127 for degradation via the proteasome. By removing CD127 from the cell surface, the HIV Tat protein is thus able to reduce IL-7 signaling and impair CD8 T cell proliferation and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0902207DOI Listing
September 2010

MAP1a associated light chain 3 increases microtubule stability by suppressing microtubule dynamics.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2009 May 20;41(1):85-93. Epub 2009 Feb 20.

University of Ottawa, Department of Biology, Gendron Hall, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Microtubule associated proteins (MAP) have been shown to play a role in microtubule stability in axons and dendrites, in determining neuronal shape and in regulating the balance between rigidity and plasticity in neuronal processes. MAP1a is the most abundant MAP in the adult brain, localized in axons and dendrites of neurons. MAP1a associates with three light chain molecules (LC1, LC2, LC3) that have been shown to bind microtubules independent of heavy chain molecules. In the present study we investigate the role of MAP1a associated light chain molecules in stabilizing microtubules and altering microtubule dynamics in vivo. All three light chain molecules co-localized with microtubules by fluorescence microscopy and bound taxol stabilized microtubules in an in vitro binding assay. LC-microtubule binding was associated with increased microtubule stability as shown by co localization of LC molecules with detyrosinated microtubules and increased amounts of detyrosinated tubulin in whole cell extracts. Both LC1 and LC2 binding to microtubules reorganized microtubules into wavy bundles that were resistant to nocodazole induced drug depolymerization. In contrast, LC3 bound microtubules were not resistant to nocodazole and the microtubule network of LC3 expressing cells was similar to media controls. Although LC3 bound microtubules were not resistant to drug induced depolymerization, in vivo measurement of microtubule dynamics shows that LC3 stabilizes microtubule networks by decreasing microtubule dynamicity and promoting growth over shortening events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2009.02.001DOI Listing
May 2009

IL-7 and the HIV Tat protein act synergistically to down-regulate CD127 expression on CD8 T cells.

Int Immunol 2009 Mar 15;21(3):203-16. Epub 2009 Jan 15.

Ottawa Health Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

IL-7 signaling is essential for optimal CD8 T cell function, homeostasis and establishment of memory. We have previously shown decreased expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) on CD8 T cells from HIV-infected patients with active viral replication. We have also shown that soluble HIV Tat protein specifically down-regulates CD127 on the surface of CD8 T cells and impairs cell proliferation and cytolytic potential following stimulation with IL-7 in vitro. We now show that soluble HIV Tat protein and IL-7 at near physiologic concentrations act synergistically to suppress CD127 expression. While soluble HIV Tat protein and IL-7 both independently reduce CD127 expression on the surface of CD8 T cells, Tat concentrations of 10 microg ml(-1) and IL-7 concentrations of 500 pg ml(-1) are required in vitro to have an appreciable effect. However, where 0.5 microg ml(-1) of Tat has no effect on CD127 expression and 200 pg ml(-1) of IL-7 decreases CD127 by only 14%, these two together at these same concentrations induce a 35% reduction in CD127 expression after 24 h. Inhibition of Janus kinase (JAK) completely blocks IL-7's ability to down-regulate CD127 on the surface of CD8 T cells and also abolishes synergy with Tat. Interestingly, while Tat acts synergistically with IL-7 to reduce CD127 expression, it antagonizes IL-7-induced cell proliferation and Ki-67 expression and has no effect on IL-7-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation or expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Thus, by affecting different IL-7 signal transduction pathways, HIV Tat protein is able to impair both CD8 T cell activation and proliferation without inducing apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxn140DOI Listing
March 2009

Modulation of microtubule dynamics by the microtubule-associated protein 1a.

J Neurosci Res 2009 Apr;87(5):1080-9

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Structural microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) interact with microtubules to regulate the various dynamic stages of microtubules. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of myc-tagged MAP1a fragments on microtubule dynamic phases in vivo. Cells from an epithelial kidney cell line (LLCPK1) that had been permanently transfected with human green fluorescent protein (GFP)-alpha-tubulin were transiently transfected with myc-tagged MAP1a fragments. Cells expressing MAP1a fragments were used to make direct observations of microtubule dynamics in living cells using fluorescence microscopy. All truncated MAP1a heavy chain fragments that contained the microtubule-binding domain were shown to associate with microtubules. Truncated fragments containing different regions of the projection domain of MAP1a demonstrated variations in their impact on microtubule dynamic events by promoting growth or inhibition of shortening phases. In contrast to MAP1a, MAP2c bundled microtubules and resulted in a complete arrest of microtubule motility. Results from the present study suggest that MAP1a promotes slow, stable growth of microtubules. This type of growth may be important in the maintenance and restructuring of adult neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.21920DOI Listing
April 2009

Interleukin-7 receptor expression on CD8 T-cells is downregulated by the HIV Tat protein.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006 Nov;43(3):257-69

Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

We have previously shown decreased expression of the interleukin (IL)-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) on CD8 T-cells in HIV-infected patients and an apparent recovery of this receptor in those receiving antiretroviral therapy with sustained viral suppression. Here, we demonstrate that the HIV Tat protein specifically downregulates cell surface expression of CD127 on human CD8 T-cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effects of Tat on CD127 expression could be blocked with anti-Tat monoclonal antibodies or by preincubating Tat with heparin. Tat had no effect on the expression of other cell surface proteins examined, including CD132, or on cell viability over 72 hours. Further, CD127 expression was not altered by other HIV proteins, including gp160 or Nef. Preincubation of purified CD8 T-cells with Tat protein inhibited CD8 T-cell proliferation and perforin synthesis after stimulation with IL-7. Because IL-7 signaling is essential for optimal CD8 T-cell proliferation and function, the downregulation of CD127 and apparent inhibition of cytotoxic activity by Tat may play an important role in HIV-induced immune dysregulation and impaired cell-mediated immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.qai.0000230319.78288.f4DOI Listing
November 2006