Publications by authors named "Ellen Triantafellow"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of VPS34 Provide Chemical Tools to Modulate Autophagy in Vivo.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2016 Jan 13;7(1):72-6. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research , 250 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Autophagy is a dynamic process that regulates lysosomal-dependent degradation of cellular components. Until recently the study of autophagy has been hampered by the lack of reliable pharmacological tools, but selective inhibitors are now available to modulate the PI 3-kinase VPS34, which is required for autophagy. Here we describe the discovery of potent and selective VPS34 inhibitors, their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and ability to inhibit autophagy in cellular and mouse models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716600PMC
January 2016

Selective VPS34 inhibitor blocks autophagy and uncovers a role for NCOA4 in ferritin degradation and iron homeostasis in vivo.

Nat Cell Biol 2014 Nov 19;16(11):1069-79. Epub 2014 Oct 19.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, 250 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Cells rely on autophagy to clear misfolded proteins and damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this study we use the new autophagy inhibitor PIK-III to screen for autophagy substrates. PIK-III is a selective inhibitor of VPS34 that binds a unique hydrophobic pocket not present in related kinases such as PI(3)Kα. PIK-III acutely inhibits autophagy and de novo lipidation of LC3, and leads to the stabilization of autophagy substrates. By performing ubiquitin-affinity proteomics on PIK-III-treated cells we identified substrates including NCOA4, which accumulates in ATG7-deficient cells and co-localizes with autolysosomes. NCOA4 directly binds ferritin heavy chain-1 (FTH1) to target the iron-binding ferritin complex with a relative molecular mass of 450,000 to autolysosomes following starvation or iron depletion. Interestingly, Ncoa4(-/-) mice exhibit a profound accumulation of iron in splenic macrophages, which are critical for the reutilization of iron from engulfed red blood cells. Taken together, the results of this study provide a new mechanism for selective autophagy of ferritin and reveal a previously unappreciated role for autophagy and NCOA4 in the control of iron homeostasis in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb3053DOI Listing
November 2014

Defective autophagy and mTORC1 signaling in myotubularin null mice.

Mol Cell Biol 2013 Jan 29;33(1):98-110. Epub 2012 Oct 29.

Developmental and Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Autophagy is a vesicular trafficking pathway that regulates the degradation of aggregated proteins and damaged organelles. Initiation of autophagy requires several multiprotein signaling complexes, such as the ULK1 kinase complex and the Vps34 lipid kinase complex, which generates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] on the forming autophagosomal membrane. Alterations in autophagy have been reported for various diseases, including myopathies. Here we show that skeletal muscle autophagy is compromised in mice deficient in the X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM)-associated PtdIns(3)P phosphatase myotubularin (MTM1). Mtm1-deficient muscle displays several cellular abnormalities, including a profound increase in ubiquitin aggregates and abnormal mitochondria. Further, we show that Mtm1 deficiency is accompanied by activation of mTORC1 signaling, which persists even following starvation. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of mTOR is sufficient to normalize aberrant autophagy and improve muscle phenotypes in Mtm1 null mice. These results suggest that aberrant mTORC1 signaling and impaired autophagy are consequences of the loss of Mtm1 and may play a primary role in disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01075-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3536306PMC
January 2013

Relieving autophagy and 4EBP1 from rapamycin resistance.

Mol Cell Biol 2011 Jul 16;31(14):2867-76. Epub 2011 May 16.

Developmental and Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, 250 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge,Massachusetts 02139, USA.

The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a multiprotein signaling complex regulated by oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Outputs downstream of mTORC1 include ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), and autophagy, and their modulation leads to changes in cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Rapamycin, an allosteric mTORC1 inhibitor, does not antagonize equally these outputs, but the reason for this is unknown. Here, we show that the ability of rapamycin to activate autophagy in different cell lines correlates with mTORC1 stability. Rapamycin exposure destabilizes mTORC1, but in cell lines where autophagy is drug insensitive, higher levels of mTOR-bound raptor are detected than in cells where rapamycin stimulates autophagy. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), we find that knockdown of raptor relieves autophagy and the eIF4E effector pathway from rapamycin resistance. Importantly, nonefficacious concentrations of an ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor can be combined with rapamycin to synergistically inhibit mTORC1 and activate autophagy but leave mTORC2 signaling intact. These data suggest that partial inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin can be overcome using combination strategies and offer a therapeutic avenue to achieve complete and selective inhibition of mTORC1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.05430-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3133392PMC
July 2011

Activation of a metabolic gene regulatory network downstream of mTOR complex 1.

Mol Cell 2010 Jul;39(2):171-83

Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Aberrant activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common molecular event in a variety of pathological settings, including genetic tumor syndromes, cancer, and obesity. However, the cell-intrinsic consequences of mTORC1 activation remain poorly defined. Through a combination of unbiased genomic, metabolomic, and bioinformatic approaches, we demonstrate that mTORC1 activation is sufficient to stimulate specific metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, the oxidative arm of the pentose phosphate pathway, and de novo lipid biosynthesis. This is achieved through the activation of a transcriptional program affecting metabolic gene targets of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1alpha) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1 and SREBP2). We find that SREBP1 and 2 promote proliferation downstream of mTORC1, and the activation of these transcription factors is mediated by S6K1. Therefore, in addition to promoting protein synthesis, mTORC1 activates specific bioenergetic and anabolic cellular processes that are likely to contribute to human physiology and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2010.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946786PMC
July 2010

Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy.

Cell 2009 Feb;136(3):521-34

Respiratory Diseases Area, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Horsham Research Centre, West Sussex, UK.

Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential amino acids (EAA) is the rate-limiting step that activates mTOR. L-glutamine uptake is regulated by SLC1A5 and loss of SLC1A5 function inhibits cell growth and activates autophagy. The molecular basis for L-glutamine sensitivity is due to SLC7A5/SLC3A2, a bidirectional transporter that regulates the simultaneous efflux of L-glutamine out of cells and transport of L-leucine/EAA into cells. Certain tumor cell lines with high basal cellular levels of L-glutamine bypass the need for L-glutamine uptake and are primed for mTOR activation. Thus, L-glutamine flux regulates mTOR, translation and autophagy to coordinate cell growth and proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3733119PMC
February 2009

Down-regulation of class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha expression below a critical threshold induces apoptotic cell death.

Mol Cancer Res 2008 Apr;6(4):614-23

Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.

Members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family collectively control multiple cellular responses, including proliferation, growth, chemotaxis, and survival. These diverse effects can partly be attributed to the broad range of downstream effectors being regulated by the products of these lipid kinases, the 3'-phosphoinositides. However, an additional layer of complexity is introduced by the existence of multiple PI3K enzyme isoforms. Much has been learned over the last years on the roles of the classes I and III PI3K members in cellular signaling, but little is known about the isoform-specific tasks done by the class II PI3Ks (C2alpha, beta, and gamma). In this study, we used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and RNA interference in mammalian cells to gain further insight into the function of these lesser studied PI3K enzymes. We find that PI3K-C2alpha, but not PI3K-C2beta, has an important role in controlling cell survival and by using a panel of RNA interference reagents, we were able to determine a critical threshold of PI3K-C2alpha mRNA levels, below which the apoptotic program is switched on, via the intrinsic cell death pathway. In addition, knockdown of PI3K-C2alpha to levels that by themselves do not induce apoptosis sensitize cells to the anticancer agent Taxol (paclitaxel). Lastly, we report that lowering the levels of PI3K-C2alpha in a number of cancer cell lines reduces their proliferation and cell viability, arguing that PI3K inhibitors targeting not only the class Ialpha isoform but also class IIalpha may contribute to an effective anticancer strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-07-0262DOI Listing
April 2008

CD2 engagement induces dendritic cell activation: implications for immune surveillance and T-cell activation.

Blood 2003 Sep 24;102(5):1745-52. Epub 2003 Apr 24.

The Center for Blood Research, 800 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

We have shown previously that primary dendritic cells and monocytes express equal levels of CD14 but are distinguishable by the presence of CD2 on dendritic cells. CD2 is known to mediate the activation of T and natural killer (NK) cells through its interaction with CD58. CD2 epitopes recognized by anti-T111, -T112, and -T113 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are present on dendritic cells. Here we show that CD2 engagement significantly increases class II, costimulatory (CD40, CD80, CD86), adhesion (CD54, CD58), and CCR7 molecule expression on primary dendritic cells. Conversely, minimal or no change in the expression of the above antigens occurs on monocyte-derived dendritic cells, because these molecules are already maximally expressed. However, both kinds of dendritic cells release interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-12 after CD2 engagement. Lastly, interference with dendritic cell CD2-T-cell CD58 engagement decreases naive CD4+CD45RA+ T-cell proliferation. Collectively, our results suggest another role of the CD2-CD58 pathway that allows nonimmune and immune cells to interact directly with dendritic cells and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-07-2206DOI Listing
September 2003