Publications by authors named "Ellen Kienzle"

59 Publications

Influence of Strain and Diet on Urinary pH in Laboratory Mice.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Biomedical Center, Core Facility Animal Models, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Großhaderner Straße 9, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Acid base homeostasis and urine pH is influenced by the dietary cation anion balance (DCAB) in many species. Here, a negative DCAB acidifies the urine, while higher DCABs alkalize the urine. The dimension of the DCAB effect can be species-specific, because of differences in urine buffer systems. The aim of the present study was to describe the response of laboratory mice to diets with different DCAB. We used 8-week-old wildtype male mice of the C57Bl/6J inbred strain and CD1 outbred stock. Three groups (n = 15 animals/group) were formed and fed standard diet A for adaptation. For the 7-week feeding trial, mice were either kept on diet A (DCAB -7 mmol/kg dry matter (DM) or switched to diet B (246 mmol/kg DM) or C (-257 mmol/kg DM). Urine pH was measured weekly from a pooled sample per cage. There was a significant difference in the basal urine pH on diet A between C57Bl6/J and CD1 mice. The shift in urine pH was also significantly different between the two groups investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000841PMC
March 2021

Processing Matters in Nutrient-Matched Laboratory Diets for Mice-Microbiome.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Chair of Bacteriology and Mycology, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, LMU Munich, Veterinärstr. 13, 80539 Munich, Germany.

The composition of the microbiome is subject to the host's diet. In commercial laboratory mouse diets, different physical forms of the same diets are available, containing-according to their labels-identical ingredients and nutrient compositions. However, variations in nutrient composition and starch gelatinization due to production processes and their impact on digestibility have been described. In this study, a total of 48 C57BL/J6 mice were assigned to two equal groups and were fed diets (produced with different processes-extruded vs. pelleted) for eight weeks in two biological replicates. At the end of the experiment, samples were collected from five different gastrointestinal regions, including the stomach, small intestine, cecum, large intestine, and an extracorporeal region (feces), and the microbiome was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The replicates in both experiments differed significantly in their relative abundances of Muribaculaceae species. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal content of pellet-fed mice contained larger numbers of species. These results indicate that starch gelatinization and ingredient composition significantly influence microbial makeup. In conclusion, different feed processing methods may affect fundamental digestive and metabolic processes, impacting animal experiments and biasing microbiome data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002992PMC
March 2021

Processing Matters in Nutrient-Matched Laboratory Diets for Mice-Energy and Nutrient Digestibility.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Chair for Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany.

Starch gelatinization is a major determinant of carbohydrate digestibility and varies with diet processing. Laboratory rodent diets are often marketed as identical, but are sold in different forms, regardless of the markedly higher starch gelatinization in extruded than in pelleted diets. Our hypothesis was that this would impact energy and nutrient digestibility in mice fed pellets or extrudate, respectively. Trial 1 showed that feeding C57BL/6 mice a standard maintenance diet in extruded form results in a significantly higher digestibility of organic matter, energy, and carbohydrates than the identical diet in pelleted form. The replication of the experiment, however, revealed a variation between batches of the same pelleted diet regarding starch and total dietary fiber contents. Given the significant differences in diet digestibility and the potential impacts of digestibility on nutrient utilization, the intestinal microbiome, and intermediary metabolism, trials performed with differently processed diets are not comparable. This might partly explain failures to reproduce results, especially in gastrointestinal or microbiome research. Considering this impact on experimental animals, the degree of starch gelatinization should be declared in the diet information for laboratory animal diets. The differences between batches of laboratory animal diets as observed in the pellets are not acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922409PMC
February 2021

The effect of crude protein content of the diet on renal energy losses in horses.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2020 Sep 14;104(5):1494-1500. Epub 2020 May 14.

Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Renal energy losses of horses are high in comparison with other species. In the present study, more data were obtained on this parameter to improve predictive equations for renal energy losses. Four adult ponies (247-344 kg body weight [BW]) were fed with eight different diets based on first cut hay, second cut hay, early first cut fresh grass, late cut herbs-grass mix, early cut clover-grass mix, sugar beet pulp, rice bran and straw. Feed intake was measured, and urine and faeces were quantitatively collected for 3 × 12 hr at daytime and afterwards 3 × 12 hr at nighttime. Feed was analysed for crude nutrients, gross energy, amino acids and neutral-detergent-insoluble crude protein (NDICP); faeces were analysed for crude nutrients and gross energy; and urine was analysed for nitrogen (N) and gross energy. Renal energy losses per gram dry matter (DM) intake (y; kJ/g DM) were strictly correlated to protein content in DM (x; g/kg DM): y = 0.325 + 0.00431x; r  = .81; n = 38; p < .001. The data suggest that the intercept represents energy losses by detoxification products such as hippuric acid and the regression coefficient by protein metabolites such as urea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13377DOI Listing
September 2020

Metabolisable energy intake and growth of privately owned growing dogs in comparison with official recommendations on the growth curve and energy supply.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2019 Nov 17;103(6):1952-1958. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Oberschleissheim, Germany.

The correct assumption of metabolisable energy (ME) requirement is essential for the nutrition consultation and diet formulation. In young dogs, too high energy supply can accelerate growth and thus lead to developmental orthopaedic diseases. The aim of the present study was to collect the data on ME intake and body weight (BW) development in privately owned growing dogs in order to compare these data with the current recommendations. Our hypothesis was that the actual ME intake of healthy young dogs would be lower than the actual recommendation. The data of 493 privately owned puppies (median age at first consultation 21 weeks, the median expected mature BW 30 kg) on ME intake, actual and expected mature BW were collected and compared with recommendations of the Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE, Meyer and Zentek and NRC). In 243 dogs, there was a follow-up. The actual BW did not deviate systematically from the calculated expected BW (R  = .929). The ME intake significantly decreased with age (p < .05) and significantly increased with expected mature BW (p < .05). There was no significant interaction between these two parameters (p > .05). Sex had no effect on the ME intake (p > .05). The ME intake of young dogs with a history of skeletal problems or of food allergy did not differ systematically from healthy dogs of similar age and expected mature BW. The ME intake was considerably below NRC recommendations, especially in younger puppies (>8-17 weeks: 78%, >17-26 weeks: 83% of NRC recommendation). A predictive linear equation for ME intake was developed: ME intake (MJ) = (1.063 - 0.565 × [actual BW/expected mature BW]) × actual BW .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13191DOI Listing
November 2019

Remarkable frequency of a history of liver disease in dogs fed homemade diets with buckwheat.

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2019 Aug 21;47(4):242-246. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-University.

Objective: In our nutrition consultation service we observed liver disease in 2 dogs of one owner who was feeding buckwheat. This led to the hypothesis that buckwheat may cause problems. The present retrospective study in a German and a Russian nutrition consultation service was carried out to see whether there is an increased incidence of liver disease in dogs fed buckwheat.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on the nutrition consultation cases of the Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, LMU Munich and a Russian nutrition consultant. All cases of dogs with buckwheat in their nutritional history were evaluated and compared with randomly selected dogs that had not been fed buckwheat from the same case set. Two German and 1 Russian buckwheat samples were compared (appearance, nutrient content, starch gelatinization, flavonoids, fagopyrin) as well as cooking methods.

Results: In the years 2007-2017, 34 cases of dogs fed buckwheat were identified in Germany and 57 in Russia. Eighty-five control cases in Germany and 48 in Russia were evaluated. In Germany, the incidence of liver disease in dogs fed buckwheat was 32 %, while that of the control group was 3.5 %. However, in Russia there was no significant difference between dogs fed buckwheat and control dogs. The appearance of the German and Russian buckwheat differed, with smaller seeds and more greenish colour in the German specimens while the Russian buckwheat presented larger and more brownish seeds. There was no difference in the analyses of the 3 buckwheat samples in crude nutrient and rutin content. Quercetin, quercitrin and fagopyrin were not detectable in all three samples. The degree of starch gelatinization in the Russian sample was higher than in the German. In Russia it is recommended to remove the reddish scum during boiling whereas this is rarely mentioned in Germany.

Conclusion And Clinical Significance: German buckwheat may represent a risk in canine diets. With the difference remaining unclear, it is recommended to refrain from feeding buckwheat to dogs. In dogs fed homemade diets and suffering from liver disease, buckwheat should be considered in the nutrition history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0894-8141DOI Listing
August 2019

[A simple indicator for ruling out inadequate phosphorus digestibility in growing pigs].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019 Aug 21;47(4):223-229. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Lehrstuhl für Tierernährung und Diätetik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.

Objective: Species differences in calcium and phosphorus metabolism can be expressed via dietary and faecal calcium/phosphorus ratios. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to use faecal Ca/P ratios as an indicator of phosphorus digestibility in growing pigs as a simple diagnostic tool. This tool can be useful in cases of suspected phosphorus deficiency but adequate dietary calcium and phosphorus contents.

Material And Methods: Studies (n = 34) with phytase-supplemented (PHYT; n = 110) and non-supplemented control (CON; n = 106) diets were analysed for dietary intake, faecal excretion and apparent digestibility of calcium and phosphorus. A modified Lucas-test was used for both minerals plotting intake against faecal excretion (mg/kg body weight).

Results: For calcium, there was no significant difference between PHYT and CON (p = 0.29) while in accordance with literature, the relative faecal phosphorus excretion was significantly lower in PHYT than CON (p < 0.01). Faecal calcium/phosphorus ratios were calculated and grouped according to the animals' body weight and apparent phosphorus digestibility (body weight ≤ 30 kg: apparent phosphorus digestibility ≤ 60 % and > 60 %; body weight > 30 kg: apparent phosphorus digestibility ≤ 40 % and > 40 %).

Conclusion: Data distribution as displayed in a box plot shows that - given a dietary Ca/P ratio of > 1.2 - faecal Ca/P ratios of > 1.5 in pigs with a body weight of ≤ 30 kg and of > 1.2 in pigs with a body weight of > 30 kg indicate a high apparent digestibility of phosphorus of > 60 % and > 40 %, respectively.

Clinical Relevance: When faecal samples reveal a Ca/P ratio above the indicated thresholds, a low phosphorus digestibility is unlikely. No conclusion regarding the apparent phosphorus digestibility can be drawn from faecal Ca/P ratios below this threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0947-8799DOI Listing
August 2019

Factorial calculation of calcium and phosphorus requirements of growing dogs.

PLoS One 2019 2;14(8):e0220305. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Calcium and phosphorus requirements for growing dogs can be calculated by different methods. The current standard feeding recommendations are based on experimental data derived from young giant breed puppies. In order to determine the absolute requirement, an extrapolation via metabolisable energy requirement is recommended. Another approach is to calculate the requirement factorially, taking into account the endogenous losses and the amount of calcium and phosphorus retained due to tissue accretion during growth as well as the expected availability of these nutrients. The working hypothesis was that both methods are valid and lead to comparable results in young puppies of a high mature body weight (BW). Yet, deviations for other age and mature BW groups were expected. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the results of both methods using exemplary puppies of different age and mature BW groups. The hypotheses could be verified for calcium. The extrapolated requirements overestimate the factorial requirements by up to 59.7% for puppies <60kg mature BW and/or >6 months of age. In case of phosphorus requirement, the deviations between both methods are overall very high in all stages. Taking into account the potentially harmful effects of calcium and phosphorus excess, the feeding recommendations based on the extrapolation should be reconsidered.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220305PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677383PMC
February 2020

Canine symmetrical lupoid onychomadesis in bearded collies.

Vet Dermatol 2019 Oct 22;30(5):411-e124. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Small Animal Medicine Clinic, Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, LMU Munich, Veterinaerstrasse 13, 80539, Munich, Germany.

Background: Symmetrical lupoid onychomadesis (SLO) is a disease not infrequently seen in bearded collie dogs in Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare historical and clinical data, as well as the mineral content of the hair and claws of bearded collies with SLO with that of normal control dogs.

Animals: Twenty-eight affected bearded collie dogs and 39 control dogs.

Methods And Materials: Owners completed an extensive questionnaire regarding upbringing, environmental conditions and diets. Claw specimens were obtained by claw trimming or gathering lost claws; hairs were obtained by plucking samples from several areas of the body; samples were converted to ash and evaluated in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: Clinical signs in affected dogs eventually involved all claws on all paws. In twelve dogs recurrence of onychomadesis was observed. There was no relevant association between gender, housing, diet and health management, physical stress and the development of SLO with exception of the age at which more intense exercise began. The most commonly used treatment combination was fatty acids, pentoxifylline and tetracycline; improvement occurred in 17 animals. Calcium, sodium and phosphorus concentrations were higher in the claws of affected dogs, whereas zinc concentrations were lower. The mineral content of hair samples of the affected dogs was not significantly different than controls.

Conclusion And Clinical Importance: Symmetrical lupoid onychomadesis in bearded collies is clinically similar to what has been described in other breeds with regard to clinical signs and response to treatment. Early strenuous activity may increase the risk for disease occurrence in this breed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12779DOI Listing
October 2019

A pilot study on in vitro solubility of phosphorus from mineral sources, feed ingredients and compound feed for pigs, poultry, dogs and cats.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2019 Jan 23;103(1):317-323. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Excess phosphorus (P) as seen in cat foods can have a negative effect on health (Dobenecker, Webel, Reese, & Kienzle, ; Pastoor, Klooster, Mathot, & Beynen, ). P surpluses may affect the environment, and economics in food producing animals, whereas marginal supply may impair performance and health. P can only be absorbed if it is soluble. Solubility of feed P in water and weak acid solution-as a precondition for absorption-was investigated in feed for dogs, cats, pigs and poultry. Different P containing mineral compounds (Ca(H PO ) , CaHPO •2H O, Ca Na(PO ) , KH PO , K P O , NaH PO , Na P O (29 samples), as well as eight different ingredients such as wheat or meat, 64 compound feeds for pig and poultry, eight complete dry and 13 complete moist dog foods, 25 complete moist cat foods and 29 experimental diets were analysed for P solubility. Finely ground feeds were soaked in water or hydrochloric acid (0.4%) for 1 and 90 min. The samples were centrifuged and the supernatant was analysed for P (photometric vanadate molybdate method after wet ashing). The solubility of P from inorganic sources reflected the solubility of the main compound of the feed grade material. "organic" ingredients, such as fish meal or meat, showed a lower P solubility than inorganic sources. Most ingredients from animal origin (exception fish meal) had a higher P solubility than those from plant origin. When inorganic and "organic" P sources were mixed, the P solubility of the mixture reflected the P solubility and percentages of its compounds. In chicken, turkey and pig compound feed the percentage of acid soluble P increased with increasing P content. Pet moist food showed high percentages of water-soluble P. The results show that the method is suitable to obtain data on water and acid solubility of P in feed and ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12986DOI Listing
January 2019

Renal phosphorus excretion in adult healthy cats after the intake of high phosphorus diets with either calcium monophosphate or sodium monophosphate.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2018 Dec 27;102(6):1759-1765. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.

Renal and faecal phosphorus excretion of adult healthy European shorthaired cats after the intake of high phosphorus diets (meat/rice based) with either calcium monophosphate (HP-CaP) or sodium monophosphate (HP-NaP) as main phosphorus source was compared. The control diets (CON-CaP and CON-NaP, respectively) did not contain any added phosphorus. Calcium/phosphorus ratio was adjusted to 1.3/1 by adding calcium carbonate. Twenty-three cats were available for the trials. All cats were fed the control diets for 29 days; then, the HP diets were tested for 29 days against controls in a crossover design. Faeces and urine were collected in the last 10 days of each trial. Phosphorus in food, faeces and urine was measured by photometry after wet digestion. Phosphorus intake amounted to 84 ± 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) in CON-NaP (n = 13) and to 74 ± 7 in CON-CaP (n = 12). In the HP groups, the intake was 255 ± 34 mg/kg BW (HP-NaP; n = 13) and 216 ± 20 mg/kg BW (HP-CaP; n = 12). The sodium monophosphate in group HP-NaP led to a higher renal phosphorus excretion (83 ± 15 mg/kg BW) than the calcium monophosphate (25 ± 5 mg/kg BW; p < 0.05), even though the apparent phosphorus digestibility was higher in HP-CaP than in HP-NaP (p < 0.05). Faecal calcium excretion was strictly correlated to faecal phosphorus excretion (r  = 0.98). The same was true for calcium and phosphorus balance (r  = 0.89). In group HP-NaP, seven of 13 cats showed glucosuria. By contrast, in HP-CaP glucosuria was not observed. Highly water-soluble inorganic phosphorus sources such as sodium phosphate are likely to lead to phosphaturia and may present a risk for renal health of cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12982DOI Listing
December 2018

[Nutrition of horses with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction ("Cushing's syndrome") treated with pergolid - A field study].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2018 Aug 24;46(4):249-256. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Objective And Aim: The nutritional status of 36 patients with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) under pergolide treatment was investigated.

Animals, Materials And Methods: The body condi tion score (BCS) and feeding were determined at the beginning of the study and after 60 and 120 days. Sampled blood for control of pergolid therapy were used for insulin and glucose measurement. A standardized questionnaire regarding the symptoms of the disease, including hypertrichosis and weight change, was completed by the owners.

Results: The mean BCS (scale of 1 = cachexia to 9 = grossly obese) was 3.1 ± 0.8 (large horses 2.7 ± 0.8, ponies 3.5 ± 0.8). The mean energy requirement of the large horses was estimated to be 74 ± 10 MJ of metabolizable energy, but the intake amounted only to 65 ± 15 MJ. There was a significant correlation between the BCS and the estimated energy intake in percent of requirements in the large horses. The energy requirements of the ponies were generally met. The patients were fed a mean of 2.0 ± 0.7 meals of roughage per day (total roughage intake per day 0.2-2.1 kg/100 kg body weight) and a maximum of one meal of concentrates. Sixteen ponies and one large horse did not receive any concentrates, whereas five ponies and 14 horses were fed concentrates (mean amount for ponies 0.15 kg and for large horses 0.8 kg). The requirements for zinc, copper, selenium and vitamins A and E were not met in the majority of patients. Blood glucose levels were within the reference range in all samples, but insulin levels were elevated in seven animals at least at one sampling point. The serious underweight of some of the patients was not recognized as a problem by some of the owners.

Conclusion And Practical Relevance: Owners of PPID patients need more guidance on body condition scoring, amount of feed, number of meals, and logistics of feeding to avoid malnutrition of their animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15653/tpg-170574DOI Listing
August 2018

Metabolic syndrome and extensive adipose tissue inflammation in morbidly obese Göttingen minipigs.

Mol Metab 2018 10 28;16:180-190. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Chair for Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Gene Center and Department of Veterinary Sciences, LMU Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 25, 81377, Munich, Germany; Center for Innovative Medical Models (CiMM), Department of Veterinary Sciences, LMU Munich, Hackerstr. 27, 85764, Oberschleißheim, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany; Laboratory for Functional Genome Analysis (LAFUGA), Gene Center, LMU Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 25, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Objective: The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased to 10% in men and 15% in women and is associated with severe comorbidities such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Animal models of obesity are central to experimental studies of disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) models in rodents have provided important insights into the pathophysiology of obesity and, in most instances, are the first in line for exploratory pharmacology studies. To deepen the relevance towards translation to human patients, we established a corresponding DIO model in Göttingen minipigs (GM).

Methods: Young adult female ovariectomized GM were fed a high-fat/high-energy diet for a period of 70 weeks. The ration was calculated to meet the requirements and maintain body weight (BW) of lean adult minipigs (L-GM group) or increased stepwise to achieve an obese state (DIO-GM group). Body composition, blood parameters and intravenous glucose tolerance were determined at regular intervals. A pilot chronic treatment trial with a GLP1 receptor agonist was conducted in DIO-GM. At the end of the study, the animals were necropsied and a biobank of selected tissues was established.

Results: DIO-GM developed severe subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (body fat >50% of body mass vs. 22% in L-GM), increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >5 vs. 2 in L-GM), impaired glucose tolerance and increased heart rate when resting and active. However, fasting glucose concentrations stayed within normal range throughout the study. Treatment with a long-acting GLP1 receptor agonist revealed substantial reduction of food intake and body weight within four weeks, with increased drug sensitivity relative to observations in other DIO animal models. Extensive adipose tissue inflammation and adipocyte necrosis was observed in visceral, but not subcutaneous, adipose tissue of DIO-GM.

Conclusions: The Munich DIO-GM model resembles hallmarks of the human metabolic syndrome with extensive adipose tissue inflammation and adipocyte necrosis reported for the first time. DIO-GM may be used for evaluating novel treatments of obesity and associated comorbidities. They may help to identify triggers and mechanisms of fat tissue inflammation and mechanisms preventing complete metabolic decompensation despite morbid obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2018.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157610PMC
October 2018

[Unusual case of struvite urolithiasis in a dog. A case report].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 10 20;45(5):344-351. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Prof. Dr. Ellen Kienzle, Lehrstuhl für Tierernährung und Diätetik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schönleutnerstraße 8, 85764 Oberschleißheim, E-Mail:

A dog was referred for nutrition consultation after surgical removal of struvite uroliths from the bladder. Inspection of the dog's current ration revealed a pronounced vitamin-A deficiency together with a marked deficiency of protein, phosphorus and magnesium. Therefore, a supersaturation of the urine with ammonium, magnesium and phosphate, the three constituents of struvite, as a cause of struvite calculi formation appears rather unlikely. Vitamin-A deficiency can promote urinary infections and consequently struvite stone formation because of the lack of the protective effect of vitamin A on the epithelia of the urinary tract. Not only common causes for struvite urolith formation, including urinary supersaturation with stone-forming constituents and urinary tract infection, but also less common causes, including vitamin-A deficiency, which was the presumed trigger in the present case study, have to be taken into consideration. Dietetic measures appear to be a useful tool in such cases to prevent uroliths from reoccurring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15654/TPK-160993DOI Listing
October 2017

Impact of faecal DM excretion on faecal calcium losses in dogs eating complete moist and dry pet foods - food digestibility is a major determinant of calcium requirements.

J Nutr Sci 2017 24;6:e13. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, LMU München, Oberschleißheim, Germany.

The recommendations for the Ca supply for maintenance of dogs have been reduced by about 75 % in the last decades. An important factor for Ca requirements is faecal Ca losses. In previous studies with experimental diets faecal Ca losses depended on Ca intake and on faecal DM excretion. A predictive equation for faecal Ca losses in mg/kg body weight (BW) developed in a fibre model is: faecal losses = -33·8 + (13·6 faecal DM excretion (g/kg BW)) + (0·78 Ca intake (mg/kg BW)). The present study aimed at testing this equation in pet food with material from trials carried out for other purposes. Digestion trials with twenty-five dry and fifteen moist foods (326 observations in total) were evaluated retrospectively. Faecal DM excretion and faecal Ca losses were significantly correlated ( 0·86;  < 0·001). There was a highly significant correlation ( 0·87;  < 0·001) between the experimentally determined faecal Ca excretion and the faecal Ca excretion predicted by the equation of Kienzle . The data from the previous fibre model study could be transferred to prepared moist and dry dog food. Faecal DM excretion has a considerable impact on faecal Ca losses in a practical feeding situation. In conclusion, Ca requirements for maintenance may vary with food DM intake and digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2017.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465851PMC
April 2017

Effect of a high phosphorus diet on indicators of renal health in cats.

J Feline Med Surg 2018 04 1;20(4):339-343. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Oberschleißheim, Germany.

Objectives High phosphorus intake may further impair renal health in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The hypothesis that a high phosphorus (HP) diet might be nephrotoxic for healthy animals was tested in cats, a species with a high incidence of naturally occurring CKD. Methods Thirteen healthy adult cats were fed a phosphorus excess diet (about five times maintenance requirements), and this HP group was compared with cats on a balanced control diet (CON). The trial lasted for 29 days (10 days of faeces and urine collection). Endogenous creatinine clearance was determined towards the end of the trial. Fresh urine was tested for glucose and proteins. Results Glucosuria and microalbuminuria were observed exclusively in the HP group in 9/13 cats. Creatinine clearance was significantly decreased after feeding HP. In the HP group phosphorus was highly available (apparent digestibility around 60%). Renal phosphorus excretion was significantly increased in the HP group (115 mg/kg body weight/d vs 16 mg/kg body weight/d in the CON group). Conclusions and relevance The intake of a diet with an excessive content of highly available phosphorus may have adverse effects on parameters of kidney function in healthy cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X17710589DOI Listing
April 2018

Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0168325. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Institute of Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany.

The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05). This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168325PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5207637PMC
August 2017

[Inadequate nutrient supply in "BARF" feeding plans for a litter of Bernese Mountain Dog-puppies. A case report].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2016 Oct 6;44(5):341-347. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Prof. Dr. Ellen Kienzle, Lehrstuhl für Tierernährung und Diätetik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schönleutnerstraße 8, 85764 Oberschleißheim, E-Mail:

Anamnesis: A litter of Bernese Mountain Dog-puppies (6 weeks of age) was meant to be fed a "BARF" (bones and raw food) diet. The breeder asked for advice regarding the nutritional adequacy of the feeding plans that she had compiled for the different growth stages. The anamnesis showed the puppies to be underweight for their age and expected adult body mass at the time of request for a ration check. The bitch had almost stopped lactating. Ration check: The review of the feeding plans for the different growth stages revealed a deficient energy supply for all stages and at times an inadequate protein supply. A highly inappropriate supply with calcium and phosphorus was found in almost all feeding plans. Sodium and potassium as well as the trace elements copper, zinc, manganese and iodine and several vitamins were deficient in some if not all of the feeding plans.

Clinical Relevance: Inadequate supply with such nutrients during the growth phase can lead to severe developmental disorders, especially in large breed puppies. Therefore, a thorough review of self-made rations for puppies carried out by specialised veterinarians appears to be of utmost importance to avoid permanent damage during growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15654/TPK-151091DOI Listing
October 2016

Digestive physiology of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus): A large herbivorous hystricomorph rodent.

Zoo Biol 2015 Jul-Aug;34(4):345-59

Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus) are large South American, fossorial rodents susceptible to diabetic cataracts. Various aspects of their digestive physiology were studied in three different experiments with nine male and seven female adult animals and six different diets (total n of feeding trials = 35). Viscachas achieved mean retention times of 23–31 hr, which is of a magnitude also recorded in horses; these did not differ for solute or small particle (<2 mm) markers. Secondary marker excretion peaks indicated coprophagy, and were rarer on high-protein as compared to grass hay-only diets. Mean resting metabolic rate was, at 229 kJ/kg0.75/day, lower than expected for a mammal of this size. Digestible energy requirement for maintenance was 445 kJ/kg0.75/day. At 1.6–2.7 L/day, viscachas produced more methane than expected for a hindgut fermenter of their size. On diets that included concentrate feeds, viscachas excreted glucose in their urine, corroborating reports on the susceptibility of this species for diabetes when kept on energy-dense food. Viscachas had a similar apparent digestibility of protein, lipids, and macrominerals as other rodents, rabbits, or domestic horses. This suggests that whether or not a species practices coprophagy does not have a major influence on these measures. Viscachas resemble other hindgut fermenters in their high apparent calcium digestibility. With respect to a digestibility-reducing effect of dietary fiber, viscachas differed from rabbits and guinea pigs but were similar to horses, suggesting that small body size needs not necessarily be linked to lower digestive efficiency on high-fiber diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21216DOI Listing
December 2015

A new protein evaluation system for horse feed from literature data.

J Nutr Sci 2015 4;4:e4. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Chair for Animal Nutrition and Dietetics , Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich , Munich , Germany.

Few data on apparent pre-caecal digestibility (APCD) of crude protein (CP) and particularly amino acids (AA) are available from studies with horses. Protein bound in cell walls (i.e. neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP)) is unlikely to be decomposed by digestive enzymes in the small intestine. In contrast the corresponding analytical fraction of neutral detergent soluble CP (NDSCP) (NDSCP = CP-NDICP) is likely to be available for auto-enzymatic digestion. A literature analysis on the relationship between NDICP/NDSCP and pre-caecal indigestible/digestible CP was carried out. There was a strong positive relationship between NDICP and pre-caecal indigestible CP, which suggests that NDICP can be used to estimate the part of protein that is not available for digestion in the small intestine. There was also a correlation between NDSCP and pre-caecal digestible protein. The slope of the linear regression line between NDICP and pre-caecal digestible CP was 0·9, suggesting an APCD of NDSCP of 90 %. Thus pre-caecal digestible CP may be predicted by multiplying NDSCP by 0·9. Because the literature identifies a similar AA profile in NDICP and NDSCP within a given feed the presented concept may preliminarily be transferred to AA. The proposed system can at any time be adapted to the scientific progress without altering its structure. Such adaptations would be necessary particularly when new knowledge exist on the distribution of AA onto NDICP/NDSCP, the APCD of individual AA from NDSCP, and the impact of feed processing and chewing on particle sizes and protein digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2014.66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463936PMC
June 2015

Effects of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets on apparent digestibility of minerals and trace elements in rats.

Nutrition 2014 Jul-Aug;30(7-8):869-75. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Chair of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Ketogenic low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets reduce growth and bone mineral density in children with epilepsy and in rats. Part of this effect might be due to a reduced availability of calcium in high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to determine mineral digestibility by total collection method in LCHF diets compared with a chow diet and a standard high-fat diet (HFD, high in fat and carbohydrates).

Methods: Twelve-wk-old male Wistar rats were pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of either six different LCHF diets based on tallow and casein (crude fat 75%-50%, crude protein 10%-35%), with chow or with a HFD diet. Mineral-to-energy ratio was matched in all diets. Circulating parathyroid hormone was measured by immunoassay.

Results: The apparent digestibility of calcium was reduced in all HFDs (high-fat diets, LCHF diets and the HFD diet) by at least 30% compared with the chow diet (P < 0.001). Fecal calcium excretion correlated positively with fecal fat excretion, presumably because of formation of calcium soaps. Apparent digestibility of phosphorous was higher in all HFDs. This resulted in a decrease of the ratio of apparently digested calcium to apparently digested phosphorous in all HFDs below a ratio of 1:1. Plasma parathyroid hormone was not affected by any diet.

Conclusion: The alteration of apparent calcium and phosphorus digestibility may affect the impact of HFDs on bone metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2013.11.017DOI Listing
February 2015

Effects of low carbohydrate diets on energy and nitrogen balance and body composition in rats depend on dietary protein-to-energy ratio.

Nutrition 2014 Jul-Aug;30(7-8):863-8. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Animal Nutrition, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: Truly ketogenic rodent diets are low in carbohydrates but also low in protein. The aim of this study was to differentiate effects of ketosis, low carbohydrate (LC) and/or low-protein intake on energy and nitrogen metabolism.

Methods: We studied the nitrogen balance of rats fed LC diets with varying protein contents: LC diets consisted of 75/10, 65/20 and 55/30 percent of fat to protein (dry matter), respectively, and were iso-energetically pair-fed to a control (chow) diet to 12-wk-old male Wistar rats (n = 6 per diet). Previous studies demonstrated only LC75/10 was truly ketogenic. Food, fecal, and urine samples, as well as carcasses were collected and analyzed for heat of combustion and nitrogen (Kjeldahl method). Blood samples were analyzed for plasma protein, albumin, and triacylglycerol.

Results: All LC groups displayed less body weight gain, and the degree of reduction was inversely related to digestible crude protein intake (daily weight gain compared with chow: LC75/10: -50%; LC55/30: -20%). Nitrogen excretion by urine was related to digestible protein intake (chow: 0.23 ± 0.02 g nitrogen/d; LC75/10: 0.05 ± 0.01 g nitrogen/d). Renal energy excretion was closely associated with intake of digestible crude protein (r = 0.697) and renal nitrogen excretion (r = 0.769). Energy-to-nitrogen ratio in urine was nearly doubled with LC75/10 compared with all other groups. Total body protein was highest with chow and lowest with LC75/10. Rats fed with LC75/10 displayed features of protein deficiency (reduced growth and nitrogen balance, hypoproteinemia, depletion of body protein, and increased body and liver fat), whereas the effects with the non-ketogenic diets LC65/20 and LC55/30 were less pronounced.

Conclusion: These results suggest that truly ketogenic LC diets in growing rats are LC diets that are also deficient in protein for growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2013.11.009DOI Listing
February 2015

Low-carbohydrate high-fat diets in combination with daily exercise in rats: effects on body weight regulation, body composition and exercise capacity.

Physiol Behav 2012 May 9;106(2):185-92. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Endocrine Research Unit, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der LMU, Munich, Germany.

Background: The aim of the current investigation was to examine the effects of consuming a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LC-HFD) in combination with daily exercise on body weight, body composition, endocrine control of the energy balance system and exercise capacity in adolescent and mature rats.

Method: Adolescent (n=23) and mature rats (n=16) were maintained on either a standard chow diet (CH) or a LC-HFD for a period of ten days prior to daily exercise training for 21 days in forced running wheel system. At the end of the 21 day training sessions all rats took part in an exercise performance test where time to exhaustion was measured.

Results: Rats maintained on the LC-HFD demonstrated a significant lack of body weight gain (p<0.05) compared to CH maintained rats, despite equicaloric intake and performing identical amounts of daily exercise. Body composition was significantly altered in the LC-HFD rats (p<0.05) with increased body fat (p<0.01). Leptin concentrations were higher (p<0.05) and IGF-I concentrations were lower (p<0.01) in the LC-HFD fed rats. Exercise performance was not diminished in the LC-HFD group despite the higher fat mass. Both groups irrespective of age performed equally as well in the time to exhaustion test (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Maintenance on the LC-HFD in combination with forced daily exercise did not impact exercise capacity (total distance and meters per minute). Additionally consumption of an extreme LC-HFD in combination with daily exercise resulted in significantly less body weight gain but increased fat mass. When combined with daily exercise this diet clearly had a negative impact on body composition, but did not affect exercise capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.02.003DOI Listing
May 2012

Use of deferiprone for the treatment of hepatic iron storage disease in three hornbills.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012 Jan;240(1):75-81

Kleintier- und Vogelpraxis, Tafernstrasse 11b, 5405 Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland.

Case Description: 3 hornbills (2 Papua hornbills [Aceros plicatus] and 1 longtailed hornbill [Tockus albocristatus]) were evaluated because of general listlessness and loss of feather glossiness.

Clinical Findings: Because hepatic iron storage disease was suspected, liver biopsy was performed and formalin-fixed liver samples were submitted for histologic examination and quantitative image analysis (QIA). Additional frozen liver samples were submitted for chemical analysis. Birds also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under general anesthesia for noninvasive measurement of liver iron content. Serum biochemical analysis and analysis of feed were also performed. Results of diagnostic testing indicated that all 3 hornbills were affected with hepatic iron storage disease.

Treatment And Outcome: The iron chelator deferiprone was administered (75 mg/kg [34.1 mg/lb], PO, once daily for 90 days). During the treatment period, liver biopsy samples were obtained at regular intervals for QIA and chemical analysis of the liver iron content and follow-up MRI was performed. In all 3 hornbills, a rapid and large decrease in liver iron content was observed. All 3 methods for quantifying the liver iron content were able to verify the decrease in liver iron content.

Clinical Relevance: Orally administered deferiprone was found to effectively reduce the liver iron content in these 3 hornbills with iron storage disease. All 3 methods used to monitor the liver iron content (QIA, chemical analysis of liver biopsy samples, and MRI) had similar results, indicating that all of these methods should be considered for the diagnosis of iron storage disease and monitoring of liver iron content during treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.240.1.75DOI Listing
January 2012

Intake of minerals, trace elements and vitamins in bone and raw food rations in adult dogs.

Br J Nutr 2011 Oct;106 Suppl 1:S53-6

Fachtierärztin für Tierernährung und Diätetik, Futtermedicus, Dachauerstraße 47, 82256 Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vitamin and mineral content of bone and raw food rations fed to adult dogs in Germany. Pet owners completed a standardised feeding questionnaire. The composition of 95 rations was calculated from mean data for foodstuffs using nutrition balancing software. Typical ration ingredients were meats, fish, offal, dairy products, eggs, oil, nuts, cod liver oil and natural and commercial supplements. The supply of nutrients was compared with the recommended allowance (RA). Of the rations that were used, 10 % supplied < 25 % of the RA of Ca. In these rations, Ca:P was below 0.6:1, and vitamin D was below RA. About half of the rations supplied less iodine than the minimum requirement. Many of the rations had low Zn and Cu supply, and 25 % of the rations supplied only 70 % of RA for vitamin A or less. A total of 60 % of the rations had one or more of the above-mentioned imbalance. The remaining 40 % of rations either had minor problems like Ca excess from bones or they were balanced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511002765DOI Listing
October 2011

Birth weight and postnatal growth of pure-bred kittens.

Br J Nutr 2011 Oct;106 Suppl 1:S32-4

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schönleutner Str 8, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany.

Data on body weight of pure-bred kittens (Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Birman, Persian, Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cat) from birth (n 245) to 12 weeks of age (n 135) were obtained from breeders. Absolute birth weight (in g) was higher in larger breeds than in smaller breeds, whereas relative birth weight (in % of mature female weight) tended to be higher in smaller breeds (Maine Coon 115 g, 2.3 %; Norwegian Forest Cat 106 g, 2.7 %; Birman 97 g, 2.8 %; Siamese 92 g, 2.8 %; Persian 82 g, 3.2 %). Relative birth weight was lower than that described in the literature for colony cats. Relative litter weight was highest in Norwegian Forest Cats (14.6 (SD 1.8) %; n 10) and lowest in Birmans (8.8 (SD 3.1) %, n 7; P < 0.05); the other breeds were in-between (11.9 (SD 2.0) %; n 19). Absolute growth was faster in larger breeds than in smaller breeds. In relation to expected mature weight, there was good agreement with data from colony cats but no clear-cut effect of breed size. There appeared to be a trend to an earlier onset of sexual dimorphism in larger breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511003333DOI Listing
October 2011

A pilot study of the body weight of pure-bred client-owned adult cats.

Br J Nutr 2011 Oct;106 Suppl 1:S113-5

Animal Nutrition and Dietetics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schönleutner Strasse 8, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany.

A total of 539 pure-bred and seventy-five cats without a pedigree were weighed and scored at cat shows or in veterinary surgeries. Data from normal-weight cats with a body condition score (BCS) of 5 (ideal) were only used. Breeds were grouped into five classes. For female cats, the mean weight for these groups were as follows: very light (2.8 kg); light (3.2 kg); medium (3.5 kg); large (4.0 kg); giant (4.9) kg. For male cats, the corresponding values were 3.6, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1 and 6.1 kg. Siamese/Oriental Shorthair were identified as a very light breed, the Norwegian Forest and the Siberian Cat as a large breed and the Maine Coon as a giant breed. Males and females of the same breed did not always belong to the same class. In some breeds, individuals of the same sex were found in two different classes. The percentage of intact overweight cats (BCS >5) was low (7 % of intact males, 3 % of intact females). Incidence of overweight in neutered cats was 50 % in males and 38 % in females. Among pedigreed cats, there were differences in the incidence of overweight in neutered cats: high in Norwegian Forest Cats (males 75 %, females 50 %) and low in Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cats (males 25 %, females 1 %). Cats with a BCS of 6, 7 and 8 had on average 120, 154 and 214 % of the normal weight of their breed, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511001802DOI Listing
October 2011

Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2011 Jan 13;300(1):E65-76. Epub 2010 Oct 13.

Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Endocrine Research Unit, Ziemssenstrasse 1 80336, Munich, Germany.

Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of β-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P < 0.001). In contrast, rats fed with LC-55/30 were not ketotic. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21, hepatic mRNA expression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-lyase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β were increased with LC-75/10 only. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase was downregulated by 50-70% in LC-HF groups. Furthermore, EE and LA were significantly decreased in all groups fed with LC-HFDs after 3 wk on the diets. In rats, the absence of dietary carbohydrates per se does not induce ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat, but also low in protein contents to be clearly ketogenic. Independent of the macronutrient composition, LC-HFD-induced weight loss is not due to increased EE and LA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00478.2010DOI Listing
January 2011

The development of a metabolizable energy system for horses.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2010 Dec;94(6):e231-40

Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Oberschleissheim, Germany.

The development of a metabolizable energy (ME) system for horses is described. Predictive equations for gross energy and digestible energy (DE) are revisited. The relationship between feed protein content and renal energy losses and the relationship between feed fibre content and methane energy losses were analysed in a literature review to develop predictive equations for ME. In horses, renal energy losses are much higher than losses by methane energy. Renal energy losses were correlated more strictly to protein intake than to digestible protein intake. The reason probably is that per gram of digestible crude protein energy losses are higher for roughage than for concentrates presumably because phenolic acids of forage cell walls contribute to higher urinary energy losses. However, digestibility of protein is lower in forages than in concentrates. The net result is a rather constant urinary energy loss of 0.008 MJ/g of crude protein in the feed. Methane losses in horses are smaller than in ruminants, presumably because of reductive acidogenesis in hind gut fermentation. Methane energy losses in equines are closely related to crude fibre intake. The mean methane energy losses amount to 0.002 MJ ME/g of crude fibre which can be used to correct for methane losses. Both corrections can be made for any predictive equation for DE. Metabolizable energy is then calculated as follows: ME MJ/kg = DE MJ/kg - 0.008 MJ/g crude protein - 0.002 MJ/g crude fibre. The equation of Zeyner and Kienzle (2002) to predict DE was adapted as mentioned above to predict ME: ME (MJ/kg dry matter) = -3.54 + 0.0129 crude protein+0.0420 crude fat-0.0019 crude fibre+0.0185 N-free extract (crude nutrients in g/kg dry matter).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01015.xDOI Listing
December 2010

To chew or not to chew: fecal particle size in herbivorous reptiles and mammals.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 2010 Nov;313(9):579-86

Institute of Physiology, Physiological Chemistry and Animal Nutrition, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

A major difference between reptile and mammalian herbivores is that the former do not masticate their food. Actually, food particle size reduction by chewing is usually considered one of the adaptations facilitating the higher metabolic rates of mammals. However, quantitative comparisons of ingesta particle size between the clades have, to our knowledge, not been performed so far. We measured mean fecal particle size (MPS) in 79 captive individuals of 14 reptile herbivore species (tortoises, lizards, and Corucia zebrata) by wet sieving and compared the results with a mammalian dataset. MPS increased with body mass in both clades, but at a significantly higher level in reptiles. Limited evidence in free-ranging and captive individuals of Testudo hermanni indicates that in reptiles, the ability to crop food and food particle size significantly influence fecal particle size. The opportunistic observation of a drastic particle size difference between stomach and intestinal contents corroborates findings that in reptiles, in contrast to terrestrial mammals, significant ingesta particle size reduction does occur in the gastrointestinal tract, most likely owing to microbial action during very long ingesta retention. Whether behavioral adaptations to controlling ingesta particle size, such as deliberate small bite sizes, are adaptive strategies in reptiles remains to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.629DOI Listing
November 2010