Publications by authors named "Ella M van den Berg-Loonen"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pre-kidney-transplant blood transfusions do not improve transplantation outcome: a Dutch national study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009 Aug 27;24(8):2559-66. Epub 2009 May 27.

Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Radboud, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Female renal transplant candidates are prone to be sensitized by prior pregnancies, and undetected historical sensitization might decrease transplantation outcome. Hypothesis of our study was that pre-transplant blood transfusions (PTFs) can elucidate historical sensitization and that the avoidance of the associated antigens can improve transplantation outcome.

Methods: Data from all female non-immunized renal transplant candidates who received a random PTF (rPTF) (n = 620), matched PTF (mPTF) (one HLA-A and B and one HLA-DR match) (n = 86) or donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) (n = 100) between 1996 and 2006 were collected. Complement-dependent cytoxicity was used to detect anti-HLA antibodies. Sensitization and transplantation outcomes after a PTF were analyzed. Non-immunized female renal transplant recipients who did not receive a PTF were used as the control group.

Results: In 165 patients, anti-HLA antibodies (IgG) were detected after the PTF. Both historical and primary sensitizations were found. A DST induced donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies in 25% of the DST recipients. Our policy did not improve transplantation outcome in recipients of a kidney from a deceased donor (n = 368) or in recipients of a living donor [DST (n = 49) and mPTF (n = 66)].

Conclusions: A PTF did elucidate historical sensitization but induce primary sensitization as well. No beneficial effect of PTFs on transplantation outcome was found, and PTFs with the intention to detect historical sensitization are therefore not suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfp233DOI Listing
August 2009

Donor-directed HLA antibodies before and after transplantectomy detected by the luminex single antigen assay.

Transplantation 2009 Feb;87(4):563-9

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Donor-directed antibodies (DDA) have been shown to result in poor graft survival. This study was designed to analyze antibody appearance and patient and graft characteristics related to antibody formation in patients who lost their graft at different time points after transplantation.

Methods: Pre- and posttransplant sera of 56 DDA-negative first transplant patients were screened for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II DDA by the Luminex single antigen assay (LSA). All patients were treated with calcineurine inhibitor-based immunosuppression.

Results: Three of 56 patients proved DDA positive by LSA before transplantation. Eighty-one percent of the remaining 53 patients became DDA class I or II positive or both; 16% before and 84% after transplantectomy. Class I antibodies were produced in 84% and class II in 77% of the recipients. Based on time of transplantectomy, three groups were created as follows: less than or equal to 1 month, 1 to 6 months, and more than 6 months. The groups proved to be significantly different for HLA class II mismatch and acute rejection. All recipients in group 1 to 6 months proved to be DDA positive. Logistic regression analysis showed that DDA positivity for class I was related to higher donor age and donor type (nonheart beating), class II to higher donor age and class II mismatch.

Conclusions: Donor-directed HLA antibodies after transplantation were demonstrated in 81% of first transplant recipients, all of whom were DDA negative by LSA before transplantation. The majority of the antibodies was found after transplantectomy. These findings may have to be taken into consideration in the allocation of organs of marginal donors such as older or nonheart beating kidneys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e3181949e37DOI Listing
February 2009

Clinical relevance of pretransplant donor-directed antibodies detected by single antigen beads in highly sensitized renal transplant patients.

Transplantation 2008 Apr;85(8):1086-90

University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Highly sensitized (HS) patients (>85% panel-reactive antibodies) have a lower chance of receiving a donor kidney. Within Eurotransplant the Acceptable Mismatch (AM) program was developed to increase the chances of HS patients to receive a crossmatch-negative donor kidney. The standard crossmatch in the AM program is based on complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

Methods: In this study we wanted to determine the clinical relevance of human leukocyte antigen donor-directed antibodies (DDA) detected by the single antigen (SA) bead technique, in the pretransplant sera of HS patients transplanted in our center through the Eurotransplant AM program.

Results: From 34 AM patients, 27 were transplanted with 1 to 5 mismatches and 7 received a 0-mismatched graft. From the mismatched patients, retrospectively, 13 proved to possess pretransplant DDA by SA whereas 14 did not. No antibodies were found in the 0-mismatched group. Comparison of the DDA+ and DDA- patients in the human leukocyte antigen-mismatched donor/recipient combinations revealed a trend to an earlier and higher number of rejection episodes in DDA+ patients (P=0.08). No detrimental effect of DDA on graft survival was observed.

Conclusions: This single-center study showed that in the AM program DDA detected by SA, and not by less-sensitive methods, may be related to acute rejection episodes but is not detrimental to long-term graft outcome. These findings question the increasing use of more-sensitive screening techniques for the allocation of organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e31816b3ed1DOI Listing
April 2008

Longitudinal testing of seventy-six renal allograft patients for HLA antibodies: Maastricht experience.

Clin Transpl 2006 :305-22

University Hospital Maastricht, Netherlands.

Retrospective testing of serially collected and stored sera from 76 kidney transplant patients showed that HLA antibodies appeared before failure in 7 patients, but 6 patients failed without demonstrable antibody. 1. No antibodies were found in the sera of 44 patients with continued good function of transplants. There was 148 patient-years of good function in the absence of antibodies. 2. 20 patients showed presence of HLA antibodies but with functional transplants, 12 of them had de novo HLA antibodies with increasing strength during follow up. These are possibly patients at risk for failure. 3. There were 8 patients in whom HLA antibodies appeared within the first few months after transplantation, but then disappeared. It is postulated that responding B cell clones may have been deleted or reduced by immunosuppression. 4. Statistical analysis of association of antibody with failure by patients had a p value of 0.07. When the patients who had transient antibodies were counted as not having antibodies, the p value became 0.003.
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May 2008

Relevance of posttransplant flow cytometric T- and B-cell crossmatches in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients.

Transplantation 2006 Nov;82(9):1142-7

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: De novo development of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies after transplantation is associated with increased rejection and decreased graft survival. In this study, the effect of posttransplant HLA antibodies on clinical outcome was evaluated in patients treated with tacrolimus by means of flow cytometric crossmatches (FCXm).

Methods: T- and B-cell FCXm were performed retrospectively on posttransplant sera of patients who received a graft between 1997 and 1999. Ninety-four kidney-only recipients were tested and all FCXm positive sera were investigated for the presence of HLA class I and II antibodies by Flow panel reactive antibodies.

Results: From 94 patients with a negative pretransplant complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch, seven (7%) showed a positive pretransplant FCXm. After transplantation the FCXm became positive in five patients (6%). The predictive value of a positive FCXm after transplantation, and the log-transformed relative change in fluorescence ratio between pretransplant and posttransplant serum, were not significant to rejection within six months, nor to graft survival censored for death.

Conclusions: The presence of HLA antibodies before rejection or graft failure could only be shown in a minority of patients; most antibodies were detected after graft failure, especially after transplantectomy. Monitoring through antibody testing after transplantation on the basis of our results has no added value with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000236032.28751.a0DOI Listing
November 2006

Sequence-based typing of the complete coding sequence of DQA1 and phenotype frequencies in the Dutch Caucasian population.

Hum Immunol 2006 Sep 23;67(9):756-63. Epub 2006 Jun 23.

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Typing of DQA1 by sequencing has been a challenge because of a 3-nucleotide deletion in exon 2 in half of the alleles. Furthermore, 19 of the 28 alleles cannot be identified on basis of exon 2 alone, but need additional exon information. With the sequencing strategy presented here the complete exons 1-4 are sequenced heterozygously, enabling identification of all DQA1 alleles by sequence-based typing (SBT). Exons 1-4 were amplified and sequenced separately, the combined sequences were used for automated allele assignment. The method was validated by typing 21 individuals with all possible different allele group combinations. In addition 26 quality control samples were correctly typed by this method. To determine the phenotype frequencies 155 unrelated Dutch Caucasian individuals were DQA1 typed. In total 15 known and two new DQA1 alleles were identified. DQA1*0103 and *0505 were the most frequent alleles with phenotype frequencies of 30% and 29%, respectively. The SBT method presented here is an improvement compared to already existing protocols in that the complete exon sequence is obtained for all coding exons, using identical polymerase chain reaction conditions. Furthermore, all exons are sequenced heterozygously, facilitating allele assignment and reducing the number of amplification reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2006.01.002DOI Listing
September 2006

Outcome of nonheart-beating donor kidneys with prolonged delayed graft function after transplantation.

Am J Transplant 2005 Nov;5(11):2704-9

Department of Surgery, University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Nonheart-beating donor (NHBD) kidneys are frequently associated with delayed graft function (DGF), with a deleterious effect on kidney function and allograft survival. The influence and the duration of DGF on the outcome of NHBD kidneys are assessed. All recipients of an NHBD kidney in the period 1993-2003 were reviewed. Excluded from analysis were patients with primary nonfunction (PNF). One hundred and five patients with a functioning NHBD graft were reviewed: 23 (22%) had immediate function (group 1), 40 (38%) had DGF < or = 2 weeks (group 2), 31 (30%) had DGF 15 days to 4 weeks (group 3) and 11 (10%) had DGF for > 4 weeks (group 4). Creatinine clearance at 3 months was higher in groups 1 and 2 versus group 4 (p = 0.015 and p = 0.006, respectively) and was higher in group 2 versus group 4, at 1 year (p = 0.01). Graft survival was 95%, 98%, 97% and 89%, respectively, at 1 year and 95%, 85%, 77% and 89%, respectively, at 5 years, which was not significantly different. The duration of DGF in NHB kidneys has a negative effect on creatinine clearance, but no effect on graft survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2005.01072.xDOI Listing
November 2005

Severe pulmonary sarcoidosis is strongly associated with the haplotype HLA-DQB1*0602-DRB1*150101.

Hum Immunol 2005 Jul;66(7):826-35

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Several lines of evidence suggest a genetic predisposition and associations have been demonstrated with HLA antigens. HLA-DQB1 has been proposed as one of the candidate genes. To investigate the relationship between DQB1 and sarcoidosis at the allele level, we typed 149 Dutch Caucasian sarcoidosis patients for DQB1 by sequence-based typing as the ultimate technique to identify all DQB1 alleles. Phenotype frequencies were compared with controls. Both groups were also typed for HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 at the low-resolution level. To decide on the possible linkage with DR, all DRB1*15-positive patients were subsequently sequence-based typed. Results showed a statistically significant increase of DQB1*0602 in sarcoidosis patients. The increase was also proven for DRB1*150101. Because of the high linkage disequilibrium between DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 in Caucasians, it could not be decided which one was the primary association. The increase was most pronounced in patients with severe pulmonary sarcoidosis indicated by radiographic stages II-IV. Although not statistically significant, DRB1*03 and DQB1*0201 were increased in radiographic stage I compared with II-IV. This study provides evidence that the combination DQB1*0602/DRB1*150101 is a strong positive marker for severe pulmonary sarcoidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2005.04.003DOI Listing
July 2005

Association of HLA DQB1 0602 in sarcoidosis patients with small fiber neuropathy.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2005 Jun;22(2):129-32

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background And Aim: Sarcoidosis has been reported to be associated with the HLA genes, in particular DQB1.

Methods: High resolution DQB 1 of 103 sarcoidosis patients was obtained by sequence-based typing; low resolution HLA-A/B/DRB 1 typing was performed by serological and molecular methods. Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) was established by thermal threshold testing.

Results: Sixty-seven patients suffered from SFN (SFN+), in 36 patients SFN was absent (SFN-). Comparing HLA DQB 1 typings of SFN+ patients, SFN- patients and control individuals revealed a significant increase of the allele DQB 1 0602 in SFN+ patients compared to controls.

Conclusion: This association might be correlated with a severe course of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11083-005-9013-xDOI Listing
June 2005

Elucidation of exon 1, 4, and 5 sequences of 39 infrequent HLA-B alleles.

Hum Immunol 2005 May 19;66(5):543-53. Epub 2005 Feb 19.

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

More than 590 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B alleles have been identified by sequence analysis. Although the polymorphic exon 2 and 3 sequences of all HLA-B alleles are described, the sequences of the other exons of a number of infrequent B-alleles are unknown. In this study, the exon 1, 4, and 5 sequences of 39 different HLA-B alleles were elucidated by allele-specific sequencing. Overall, these exon sequences showed identity with the majority of the known sequences from the corresponding allele groups, except for four alleles B*4010, B*4415, B*4416, and B*5606. The exon 1 sequence of B*4010 had nucleotide differences with all B*40 alleles, but was identical to the B*54, *55, *56, and *59 allele groups. B*4416 differed from B*440201 at position 988, which was previously considered a conserved position. B*4415 showed exon 1, 4, and 5 sequences deviating from the other B*44 alleles, but identical to B*4501. The exon 1 and 4 sequences of B*5606 differed from other B*56 alleles, but were in complete agreement with B*7801. The deviating exon sequences of B*4415 and B*5606 confirmed the evolutionary origin of these alleles suggested by the sequences of exons 2 and 3. The polymorphism observed in exons 1, 4, and 5 merely reflects the lineage-specificity of HLA-B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2005.01.006DOI Listing
May 2005

Sequence-based typing of the HLA-A10/A19 group and confirmation of a pseudogene coamplified with A*3401.

Hum Immunol 2005 May 12;66(5):535-42. Epub 2005 Feb 12.

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The strategy for sequencing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A was based on separate amplification of exons 2 and 3, followed by forward and reverse heterozygous sequencing of the alleles. Validation of the method was obtained by sequencing 11 individuals carrying alleles from all different HLA-A allele groups, except *43. All alleles could be correctly identified except A*3401. Unexpected polymorphic positions were identified in exon 3, even in individuals homozygous for A*3401. In addition, the pseudogene HLA-COQ or HLA-DEL linked to A*3401 was coamplified and sequenced. The problem was solved by using different amplification primers for exon 3 with mismatches for the two pseudogenes. A total of 252 unrelated individuals with at least one allele belonging to the A10 or A19 group were typed for HLA-A by this strategy. Ten different alleles were identified in the A10 group and 14 in the A19 group. As second allele a further 30 different subtypes from all different groups were sequenced. In 21 individuals, sequencing exon 1 was necessary to distinguish A*7401 from A*7402. The sequencing strategy, with separate amplification of the exons, has proven to be a robust method, resulting in reliable and efficient high-resolution HLA-A typing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2005.01.005DOI Listing
May 2005

No HLA-A gene detectable on one of the haplotypes in a Caucasian family.

Hum Immunol 2005 Feb;66(2):155-63

Tissue Typing Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

An unusual haplotype was detected in a family of a caucasian transplant patient. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis of the family demonstrated the absence of HLA-A on one of the haplotypes present in two family members. One was serologically typed A24, the other A2. Because they had one haplotype in common, the HLA-A allele of the shared haplotype was supposed to be a null allele. Different molecular typing methods identified only one allele in both individuals. The results suggest a deletion of the complete HLA-A gene or a major part of it. For confirmation, microsatellite analysis of the HLA-A region was performed with six microsatellite markers. Both family members were heterozygous for all markers, and a deletion of HLA-A could not be proven. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with cosmid and PAC probes encompassing the HLA-A gene. Both probes demonstrated an identical normal distribution pattern for diploid results. The absence of any serologic and molecular reaction with the results of the microsatellite and FISH analysis make a deletion of a narrow region, encompassing the HLA-A gene, the most plausible explanation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2004.10.009DOI Listing
February 2005
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