Publications by authors named "Elizabeth S Miller"

15 Publications

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The role of bone marrow microRNA (miR) in erythropoietic dysfunction after severe trauma.

Surgery 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Surgery and Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL. Electronic address:

Background: Previous data has shown that severe traumatic injury is associated with bone marrow dysfunction, which manifests as persistent injury-associated anemia. This study sought to identify whether the expression of erythropoiesis-related microRNAs were altered in the bone marrow of trauma patients to determine if these microRNAs play a role in persistent injury-associated anemia.

Methods: Bone marrow was collected from severely injured trauma patients who underwent fracture fixation as well as patients who underwent elective hip replacement. There were 27 trauma patients and 10 controls analyzed. Total RNA and microRNA were isolated from CD34-positive cells using the RNeasy Plus Mini kit, and genome-wide microRNA expression patterns were assayed. Genes with significant expression differences were found using BRB-ArrayTools with a significance of P < .01.

Results: There were marked differences in expression of 108 microRNAs in the trauma group when compared with hip replacement patients. Four of these microRNAs play a role in regulating erythropoiesis: microRNA-150, microRNA-223, microRNA15a, and microRNA-24. These microRNAs were all upregulated significantly, with trauma/hip replacement fold changes of 1.7, 1.8, 1.2, and 1.2 respectively, and all act to suppress or regulate erythropoiesis.

Conclusion: Assessment of the bone marrow microRNA profile in trauma patients compared to those undergoing elective hip replacement revealed the differential expression of microRNA-150, microRNA-223, microRNA-15a, and microRNA-24. These microRNAs all play a role in decreased erythroid progenitor cell growth and provide important insight to the erythropoietic dysfunction seen after trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.11.029DOI Listing
January 2021

Mediators of Prolonged Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Mobilization After Severe Trauma.

J Surg Res 2020 Dec 26;260:315-324. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Surgery, Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: This study investigated the molecular mediators of prolonged hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization a trauma and chronic stress and the role of propranolol in modifying this response.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to lung contusion (LC), LC plus hemorrhagic shock (LCHS), or LCHS with daily restraint stress (LCHS/CS). Propranolol was administered daily. Bone marrow (BM) and lung expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), neutrophil elastase, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)/CXR4, and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1)/very late antigen-4 were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Bone marrow HMGB1, G-CSF, and neutrophil elastase expression were significantly elevated two- to four-fold after LCHS/CS, and all were decreased with the use of propranolol. SDF-1 and VCAM-1 were both significantly decreased after LCHS/CS.

Conclusions: The increased expression of HMGB1 and G-CSF and decreased expression of BM anchoring molecules, SDF-1 and VCAM-1, after LCHS/CS, likely mediates prolonged hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization. Propranolol's ability to reduce HMGB1, G-CSF, and neutrophil elastase expression suggests that the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells was driven by persistent hypercatecholaminemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.11.084DOI Listing
December 2020

Vitamin D status is associated with hepcidin and hemoglobin concentrations in patients with severe traumatic injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 12;89(6):1124-1130

From the Department of Surgery and Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center (C.G.A., E.S.M., K.B.K., J.A.S., M.C., T.J.L., S.B., P.A.E., A.M.M.), University of Florida Health; and Department of Orthopedic Surgery (H.K.P., M.P., J.E.H.), University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Background: Severe traumatic injury leads to persistent injury-associated anemia that is associated with hypercatecholaminemia, systemic inflammation, increased hepcidin, and a functional iron deficiency. Vitamin D has been shown to reduce proinflammatory cytokines and hepcidin concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the association of vitamin D status with inflammation, iron biomarkers, and anemia following blunt trauma.

Methods: A prospective observational cohort study comparing blunt trauma patients (n = 45) with elective hip replacement patients (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 8) was performed. Bone marrow ferroportin, transferrin receptor, and erythroferrone expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasma was assessed for systemic inflammation, erythropoietin (EPO), iron regulation, and vitamin D (25-OH) concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hemoglobin was measured on the day of discharge.

Results: Compared with hip replacement, trauma patients had higher plasma interleukin-6 (90.1 vs. 3.8 pg/mL), C-reactive protein (6,223 vs. 2,612 ng/mL), and hepcidin (79.3 vs. 21.2 ng/mL) concentrations. Trauma patients had lower vitamin D (25-OH) (12.8 vs. 18.1 ng/mL) and iron (23.5 vs. 59.9 μg/mL) levels compared with hip replacement patients. Despite the higher hepcidin EPO levels, bone marrow erythroferrone expression was increased 69% following trauma.

Conclusion: Following elective hip replacement, patients did have anemia and impaired iron homeostasis without a significant change in inflammatory biomarkers, EPO, and vitamin D status. Vitamin D status did correlate with systemic inflammation, iron dysfunction, and persistent injury-associated anemia following severe blunt trauma. Further research is needed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin D in the trauma population could improve the persistent injury-associated anemia.

Level Of Evidence: Prospective study, prognostic, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731614PMC
December 2020

The effects of selective beta-adrenergic blockade on bone marrow dysfunction following severe trauma and chronic stress.

Am J Surg 2020 11 25;220(5):1312-1318. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

University of Florida Health, Department of Surgery and Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Propranolol has been shown to improve erythroid progenitor cell growth and anemia following trauma and this study sought to investigate the mechanisms involved by evaluating the effects of selective beta blockade.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock and chronic stress (LCHS/CS) ± daily selective beta-1, beta-2, or beta-3 blockade (B1B, B2B, B3B). Bone marrow cellularity and growth of erythroid progenitor colonies, hemoglobin, plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization, and daily weight were assessed.

Results: Selective beta-2 and beta-3 blockade improved bone marrow cellularity, erythroid progenitor colony growth and hemoglobin levels, while decreasing plasma G-CSF, progenitor cell mobilization and weight loss following LCHS/CS.

Conclusions: Attenuating the neuroendocrine stress response with the use of selective beta-2 and 3 adrenergic blockade may be an alternative to improve bone marrow erythroid function following trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.06.058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680292PMC
November 2020

Feasibility and acceptability of testing a menstrual-cycle timed smoking cessation intervention for women of reproductive age (): Protocol of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Jun 23;18:100569. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Background: Compared to men, women have unique barriers to smoking cessation and are less likely to utilize quitline services. While current clinical recommendations have called for sex/gender-specific smoking cessation protocols, quitlines have not been expanded protocols to address the unique needs of women. Menstrual cycles (and/or ovarian hormones) influence quit outcomes in women. This paper presents the study design and protocol for a randomized control trial () designed to test the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing menstrual cycle timing to improve quit outcomes in women of reproductive age.

Methods/design: Participants include treatment-seeking women (n = 116), between the ages of 18-40 with regular and naturally-occurring menstrual cycles. Eligible participants are randomized to either the mid-Follicular Phase (FP) or Standard Care (SC-control) group. Counseling includes six weekly telephone sessions with four weeks of nicotine replacement therapy. The timing and frequency of sessions is identical to both conditions, with the exception of the quit day (week 3 of counseling). In addition to providing education on menstrual cycle and quitting, quit day for FP participants is set within 6-8 days post onset of menses; the SC group quit day is set for Week 3 of counseling regardless of their menstrual cycle phase. Dried blood spots will be used to bioverify menstrual cycle phase and smoking status.

Discussion: If feasible and acceptable, our behavioral counseling intervention that times the quit day to the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual may increase quit outcomes among women of reproductive age and has potential for dissemination across quitlines nationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2020.100569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229486PMC
June 2020

Patterns of relapse after successful completion of initial therapy in primary central nervous system lymphoma: a case series.

J Neurooncol 2020 Apr 5;147(2):477-483. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that involves the brain, spinal cord, or leptomeninges, without evidence of systemic disease. This rare disease accounts for ~ 3% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methotrexate-based regimens are the standard of care for this disease with overall survival rates ranging from 14 to 55 months. Relapse after apparent complete remission can occur. We sought to understand the outcomes of patients who relapsed.

Methods: This is an IRB-approved investigation of patients treated at our institution between 12/31/2004 and 10/12/2016. We retrospectively identified all cases of PCNSL as part of a database registry and evaluated these cases for demographic information, absence or presence of relapse, location of relapse, treatment regimens, and median relapse-free survival.

Results: This analysis identified 44 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of PCNSL. Mean age at diagnosis was 63.1 years (range 20-86, SD = 13.2 years). Of the 44 patients, 28 patients successfully completed an initial treatment regimen without recurrence or toxicity that required a change in therapy. Relapse occurred in 11 patients with the location of relapse being in the CNS only (n = 5), vitreous fluid only (n = 1), outside CNS only (n = 3), or a combination of CNS and outside of the CNS (n = 2). Sites of relapse outside of the CNS included testes (n = 1), lung (n = 1), adrenal gland (n = 1), kidney/adrenal gland (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). Median relapse-free survival after successful completion of therapy was 6.7 years (95% CI 1.1, 12.6).

Conclusion: After successful initial treatment, PCNSL has a propensity to relapse, and this relapse can occur both inside and outside of the CNS. Vigilant monitoring of off-treatment patients with a history of PCNSL is necessary to guide early diagnosis of relapse and to initiate aggressive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03446-3DOI Listing
April 2020

Impact of Injury Severity on the Inflammatory State and Severe Anemia.

J Surg Res 2020 04 24;248:109-116. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Surgery and Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: Severe traumatic injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Our goal was to analyze blunt traumatic injury by injury severity score (ISS) and compare with elective hip repair, as a transient injury, and healthy control with the hypothesis that more severe injury would lead to an increase in neuroendocrine activation, systemic inflammation, and worse anemia.

Materials And Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed at a level 1 trauma center, comparing blunt trauma patients (n = 37), elective hip replacement patients (n = 26), and healthy controls (n = 8). Bone marrow and plasma were assessed for hyperadrenergic state, erythropoiesis, and systemic inflammation. Trauma patient's ISS ranged from 4 to 41 and were broken down into quartiles for analysis. The ISS quartiles were 4-13, 14-20, 21-26, and 27-41.

Results: Plasma norepinephrine, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and hepcidin increased progressively as ISS increased. Hemoglobin significantly decreased as ISS increased and packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion increased as ISS increased. Elective hip replacement patients had an appropriate increase in the bone marrow expression of erythropoietin and the erythropoietin receptor, which was absent in all trauma patient groups.

Conclusions: Increased neuroendocrine activation, systemic inflammation, and anemia correlated with worsening injury severity, lower age, and increased pRBC transfusions. Elective hip replacement patients have only minimal systemic inflammation with an appropriate bone marrow response to anemia. This study demonstrates a link between injury severity, neuroendocrine activation, systemic inflammation, and the bone marrow response to anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.10.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054167PMC
April 2020

Effect of Beta-Blockade on the Expression of Regulatory MicroRNA after Severe Trauma and Chronic Stress.

J Am Coll Surg 2020 01 28;230(1):121-129. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Department of Surgery and Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL. Electronic address:

Background: Beta-blockade administration after lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock, and chronic stress has been shown to improve bone marrow function, decrease hypercatecholaminemia, and reduce inflammation. MicroRNAs (miR) are critical biologic regulators that can downregulate gene expression by causing messenger RNA degradation or inhibition of translation. This study sought to expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced inflammatory response after the administration of beta-blockade (BB) in our rodent trauma model.

Study Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 to 9 weeks were randomized to lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock with daily restraint stress (LCHS/CS) or LCHS/CS plus propranolol (LCHS/CS+BB). Restraint stress occurred 2 hours daily after LCHS. Propranolol (10 mg/kg) was given daily until day 7. Total RNA and miR were isolated from bone marrow and genome-wide miR expression patterns were assayed. Bone marrow cytokine expression was determined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: LCHS/CS led to significantly increased bone marrow expression of interleukin (IL) 1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, nitric oxide, and plasma C-reactive protein. There were marked differences in expression of 45 miRs in the LCHS/CS+BB group compared with the LCHS/CS group when using a p value <0.001. Rno-miR-27a and miR-25 were upregulated 7- to 8-fold in the rodents who underwent LCHS/CS+BB compared with LCHS/CS alone, and this correlated with reduced bone marrow expression of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, nitric oxide, and reduced plasma C-reactive protein in the LCHS/CS+BB group.

Conclusions: The genomic and miR expression patterns in bone marrow after LCHS/CS differed significantly compared with rodents that received propranolol after LCHS/CS. The use of BB after severe trauma can help mitigate persistent inflammation by upregulating Rno-miR-27a and miR-25 and reducing inflammatory cytokines in those who remain critically ill.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2019.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934900PMC
January 2020

Chronic stress induces persistent low-grade inflammation.

Am J Surg 2019 10 30;218(4):677-683. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

University of Florida Health, Department of Surgery and Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, Gainesville, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study sought to determine if the systemic cytokine profile of rodents subjected to chronic restraint stress leads to persistent low-grade inflammation.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to restraint stress for a total of seven or fourteen days. Urine norepinephrine (NE), plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed with ELISA. Liver expression of IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed with real time PCR.

Results: Chronic stress at 7 and 14 days sequentially increased plasma acute phase reactants (NE, IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP), liver IL-6 expression, hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization, and decreased erythroid progenitor colony growth. Weight gain was reduced by chronic stress compared to each models' naïve counterpart.

Conclusions: Combining this model with trauma and sepsis models will allow evaluation of the contribution of persistent inflammation in disease progression and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768696PMC
October 2019

Systemic Regulation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cytokines After Severe Trauma.

J Surg Res 2019 11 14;243:220-228. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Surgery, Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: Traumatic injury generates a prolonged hypercatecholamine state that is associated with reduced growth of bone marrow erythroid progenitors mediated by the bone marrow stroma. The bone marrow stroma is made up of many cells including fibroblasts, which respond to inflammatory stimuli and alter the cytokine profile. We hypothesized that trauma plasma would increase bone marrow stromal fibroblast expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), erythropoietin (EPO), stem cell factor (SCF), and activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and correlate with injury severity and anemia.

Materials And Methods: Plasma from 15 trauma patients was cultured with bone marrow fibroblast cells and compared with that from healthy volunteers. At 6, 24, and 48 h, the expression of IL-6, G-CSF, EPO, SCF, and the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The influence of trauma plasma on cytokine expression was further stratified by injury severity score (ISS).

Results: The average hemoglobin significantly decreased from admission to discharge (10.7 ± 2.5 to 9.2 ± 1.1 g/dL, P < 0.04). The discharge hemoglobin significantly decreased by 14% from the admission hemoglobin. After 48 h, trauma plasma significantly increased IL-6, G-CSF, and EPO bone marrow fibroblast expression when compared with normal plasma. When stratified by ISS, IL-6, G-CSF, and EPO, bone marrow fibroblast expression was highest in the trauma plasma ISS 27-41 group and was significantly elevated compared with normal plasma. When SCF expression was stratified by ISS, there was a significant increase in expression in ISS 27-41. Higher ISS was also associated with a larger decrease in hemoglobin despite no difference in total blood transfusions.

Conclusions: Severe trauma can systemically increase IL-6, G-CSF, and EPO expression in bone marrow stroma. Increased hematopoietic cytokine expression after traumatic injury correlated with a hypercatecholamine state, anemia, and injury severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.05.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773485PMC
November 2019

The effects of propranolol and clonidine on bone marrow expression of hematopoietic cytokines following trauma and chronic stress.

Am J Surg 2019 11 21;218(5):858-863. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

University of Florida, Department of Surgery and Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Attenuating post-injury neuroendocrine stress abrogates persistent injury-associated anemia. Our objective was to examine the mechanisms by which propranolol and clonidine modulate this process. We hypothesized that propranolol and clonidine would decrease bone marrow expression of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and increase expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL).

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to naïve control, lung contusion followed by hemorrhagic shock (LCHS), or LCHS plus daily chronic restraint stress (LCHS/CS) ±propranolol, ±clonidine. Day seven bone marrow expression of HMGB1, SCF, and Bcl-xL was assessed by polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Following LCHS, HMGB1 was decreased by propranolol (49% decrease, p = 0.012) and clonidine (54% decrease, p < 0.010). SCF was decreased following LCHS/CS, and was increased by propranolol (629% increase, p < 0.001) and clonidine (468% increase, p < 0.001). Bcl-xL was decreased following LCHS/CS, and was increased by propranolol (59% increase, p = 0.006) and clonidine (77% increase, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Following severe trauma, propranolol and clonidine abrogate persistent injury-associated anemia by modulating bone marrow cytokines, favoring effective erythropoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.02.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703959PMC
November 2019

The Postinjury Inflammatory State and the Bone Marrow Response to Anemia.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 09;198(5):629-638

1 Department of Surgery.

Rationale: The pathophysiology of persistent injury-associated anemia is incompletely understood, and human data are sparse.

Objectives: To characterize persistent injury-associated anemia among critically ill trauma patients with the hypothesis that severe trauma would be associated with neuroendocrine activation, erythropoietin dysfunction, iron dysregulation, and decreased erythropoiesis.

Methods: A translational prospective observational cohort study comparing severely injured, blunt trauma patients who had operative fixation of a hip or femur fracture (n = 17) with elective hip repair patients (n = 22). Bone marrow and plasma obtained at the index operation were assessed for circulating catecholamines, systemic inflammation, erythropoietin, iron trafficking pathways, and erythroid progenitor growth. Bone marrow was also obtained from healthy donors from a commercial source (n = 8).

Measurements And Main Results: During admission, trauma patients had a median of 625 ml operative blood loss and 5 units of red blood cell transfusions, and Hb decreased from 10.5 to 9.3 g/dl. Compared with hip repair, trauma patients had higher median plasma norepinephrine (21.9 vs. 8.9 ng/ml) and hepcidin (56.3 vs. 12.2 ng/ml) concentrations (both P < 0.05). Bone marrow erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression were significantly increased among patients undergoing hip repair (23% and 14% increases, respectively; both P < 0.05), but not in trauma patients (3% and 5% increases, respectively), compared with healthy control subjects. Trauma patients had lower bone marrow transferrin receptor expression than did hip repair patients (57% decrease; P < 0.05). Erythroid progenitor growth was decreased in trauma patients (39.0 colonies per plate; P < 0.05) compared with those with hip repair (57.0 colonies per plate; P < 0.05 compared with healthy control subjects) and healthy control subjects (66.5 colonies per plate).

Conclusions: Severe blunt trauma was associated with neuroendocrine activation, erythropoietin dysfunction, iron dysregulation, erythroid progenitor growth suppression, and persistent injury-associated anemia. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02577731).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201712-2536OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6118010PMC
September 2018

Innate Immunity in the Persistent Inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome and Its Implications for Therapy.

Front Immunol 2018 4;9:595. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Clinical and technological advances promoting early hemorrhage control and physiologic resuscitation as well as early diagnosis and optimal treatment of sepsis have significantly decreased in-hospital mortality for many critically ill patient populations. However, a substantial proportion of severe trauma and sepsis survivors will develop protracted organ dysfunction termed chronic critical illness (CCI), defined as ≥14 days requiring intensive care unit (ICU) resources with ongoing organ dysfunction. A subset of CCI patients will develop the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS), and these individuals are predisposed to a poor quality of life and indolent death. We propose that CCI and PICS after trauma or sepsis are the result of an inappropriate bone marrow response characterized by the generation of dysfunctional myeloid populations at the expense of lympho- and erythropoiesis. This review describes similarities among CCI/PICS phenotypes in sepsis, cancer, and aging and reviews the role of aberrant myelopoiesis in the pathophysiology of CCI and PICS. In addition, we characterize pathogen recognition, the interface between innate and adaptive immune systems, and therapeutic approaches including immune modulators, gut microbiota support, and nutritional and exercise therapy. Finally, we discuss the future of diagnostic and prognostic approaches guided by machine and deep-learning models trained and validated on big data to identify patients for whom these approaches will yield the greatest benefits. A deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of CCI and PICS and continued investigation into novel therapies harbor the potential to improve the current dismal long-term outcomes for critically ill post-injury and post-infection patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893931PMC
May 2019

Characterization of CD133 Antibody-Directed Recellularized Heart Valves.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2015 Oct 4;8(7):411-20. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

CD133mAb conjugation (CD133-C) hastens in vivo recellularization of decellularized porcine heart valve scaffolds when placed in the pulmonary position of sheep. We now characterize this early cellularization process 4 h, 3, 7, 14, 30, or 90 days post-implantation. Quantitative immunohistochemistry identified cell types as well as changes in cell markers and developmental cues. CD133(+)/CD31(-) cells adhered to the leaflet surface of CD133-C leaflets by 3 days and transitioned to native leaflet-like CD133(-)/CD31(+) cells by 30 days. Leaflet interstitium became increasingly populated with both alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and vimentin(+) cells from 14 to 90 days post-implantation. Wnt3a, and beta-catenin proteins were expressed at early (3-14 days) but not later (30-90 days) time points. In contrast, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and periostin proteins were increasingly expressed over 90 days. Thus, early development of CD133-C constructs includes a fairly rapid transition from a precursor cell adhesion/migration/transdifferentiation phenotype to a more mature cell/native valve-like matrix metabolism phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-015-9651-3DOI Listing
October 2015

Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism: a review of recent epidemiologic studies.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2010 Jul;15(3):173-81

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Although epidemiologic evidence has not supported the hypothesis of a causal relationship between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism, concerns continue about pediatric exposure to mercury through vaccine administration. A statement issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Public Health Service in 1999 prompted the removal of thimerosal from many vaccines. In 2004, the Immunization Safety Review Committee of the Institute of Medicine rejected the hypothesis of a causal relationship between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.In a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE, we identified articles that address the potential association between thimerosal and neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism. In this article, we review recent pharmacokinetic and epidemiologic studies published between 2003 and 2008 regarding the proposed link between thimerosal and autism.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018252PMC
July 2010