Publications by authors named "Elizabeth Gilchrist"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ADVANCE integrated group intervention to address both substance use and intimate partner abuse perpetration by men in substance use treatment: a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 25;21(1):980. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Background: Substance use is a risk factor for intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration. Delivering perpetrator interventions concurrently with substance use treatment shows promise.

Methods: The feasibility of conducting an efficacy and cost-effectiveness trial of the ADVANCE 16-week intervention to reduce IPA by men in substance use treatment was explored. A multicentre, parallel group individually randomised controlled feasibility trial and formative evaluation was conducted. Over three temporal cycles, 104 men who had perpetrated IPA towards a female (ex) partner in the past year were randomly allocated to receive the ADVANCE intervention + substance use treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 54) or TAU only (n = 50) and assessed 16-weeks post-randomisation. Participants' (ex) partners were offered support and 27 provided outcome data. Thirty-one staff and 12 men who attended the intervention participated in focus groups or interviews that were analysed using the framework approach. Pre-specified criteria assessed the feasibility of progression to a definitive trial: 1) ≥ 60% of eligible male participants recruited; 2) intervention acceptable to staff and male participants; 3) ≥ 70% of participants followed-up and 4) levels of substance use and 5) IPA perpetrated by men in the intervention arm did not increase from average baseline level at 16-weeks post-randomisation.

Results: 70.7% (104/147) of eligible men were recruited. The formative evaluation confirmed the intervention's acceptability. Therapeutic alliance and session satisfaction were rated highly. The overall median rate of intervention session attendance (of 14 compulsory sessions) was 28.6% (range 14.3-64.3% by the third cycle). 49.0% (51/104) of men and 63.0% (17/27) of their (ex) partners were followed-up 16-weeks post-randomisation. This increased to 100% of men and women by cycle three. At follow-up, neither substance use nor IPA perpetration had worsened for men in the intervention arm.

Conclusions: It was feasible to deliver the ADVANCE intervention in substance use treatment services, although it proved difficult to collect data from female (ex)partners. While some progression criteria were met, others were not, although improvements were demonstrated by the third cycle. Lessons learned will be implemented into the study design for a definitive trial of the ADVANCE intervention.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN79435190 prospectively registered 22nd May 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11012-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147906PMC
May 2021

The Challenges of Conducting Qualitative Research on "couples" in Abusive Intimate Partner Relationships Involving Substance Use.

Qual Health Res 2021 03 8;31(4):767-777. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Undertaking qualitative dyad or couple interviews involving intimate partner abuse and substance use presents considerable ethical, safeguarding, and theoretical challenges throughout the research process from recruitment to conducting interviews and analysis. These challenges and how they were managed are outlined using the experience from a qualitative study of 14 heterosexual "couples" that explored the complex interplay between intimate partner abuse and substance use. Managing these challenges for participants, their families, and researchers included the use of safeguarding protocols and procedures to manage risk and the provision of clinical support for experienced researchers. Researchers often felt drawn into the conflicts and complex dynamics of opposing accounts from the male and females' relationship which could be emotionally and methodologically taxing. Researchers discussing their analysis and felt experiences with each other provided a reflexive space to manage emotions and stay close to the theoretical underpinnings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732320975722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885088PMC
March 2021

Allelic Variation and Selection in Effector Genes of (Mont.) de Bary.

Pathogens 2020 Jul 9;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Group and Laboratory of Fitotecnia Tropical, Departamento de Ciencias Agronómicas, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín, Medellín, 050034 Antioquia, Colombia.

is a devastating plant pathogen in several crops such as potato (), tomato () and Andean fruits such as tree tomato (), lulo (), uchuva () and wild species in the genus sp. Despite intense research performed around the world, populations from Colombia, South America, are poorly understood. Of particular importance is knowledge about pathogen effector proteins, which are responsible for virulence. The present work was performed with the objective to analyze gene sequences coding for effector proteins of from isolates collected from different hosts and geographical regions. Several genetic parameters, phylogenetic analyses and neutrality tests for non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions were calculated. Non-synonymous substitutions were identified for all genes that exhibited polymorphisms at the DNA level. Significant negative selection values were found for two genes ( and ) suggesting active coevolution with the corresponding host resistance proteins. Implications for pathogen virulence mechanisms and disease management are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400436PMC
July 2020

A study protocol to assess the feasibility of conducting an evaluation trial of the ADVANCE integrated intervention to address both substance use and intimate partner abuse perpetration to men in substance use treatment.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2020 11;6:62. Epub 2020 May 11.

9School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, 8-9 Hope Park Square, Edinburgh, 8HQ 9NW UK.

Background: Strong evidence exists that substance use is a contributory risk factor for intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration. Men in substance use treatment are more likely to perpetrate IPA than men from the general population. Despite this, referral pathways are lacking for this group. This trial will assess the feasibility of conducting an evaluation trial of a tailored integrated intervention to address substance use and IPA perpetration to men in substance use treatment.

Methods/design: ADVANCE is a multicentre, parallel-group individually randomised controlled feasibility trial, with a nested formative evaluation, comparing an integrated intervention to reduce IPA + substance use treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU only. One hundred and eight men who have perpetrated IPA in the past 12 months from community substance use treatment in London, the West Midlands, and the South West will be recruited. ADVANCE is a manualised intervention comprising 2-4 individual sessions (2 compulsory) with a keyworker to set goals, develop a personal safety plan and increase motivation and readiness, followed by a 12-session weekly group intervention delivered in substance use services. Men will be randomly allocated (ratio 1:1) to receive the ADVANCE intervention + TAU or TAU only. Men's female (ex) partners will be invited to provide outcome data and offered support from integrated safety services (ISS). Regular case management meetings between substance use and ISS will manage risk. Outcome measures will be obtained at the end of the intervention (approximately 4 months post-randomisation) for all male and female participants. The main objective of this feasibility trial is to estimate parameters required for planning a definitive trial including rates of consent, recruitment, and follow-up by site and group allocation. Nested formative evaluation including focus groups and in-depth interviews will explore the intervention's acceptability to participants, group facilitators, keyworkers and ISS workers. Secondary outcomes include substance use, IPA, mental health, self-management, health and social care service use, criminal justice contacts, and quality of life.

Discussion: Findings from this feasibility trial will inform the design of a multicentre randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the ADVANCE intervention for reducing IPA and improving the well-being of female (ex)partners.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN79435190.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-020-00580-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212681PMC
May 2020

Interventions to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Men Who Use Substances: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Efficacy.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2019 Nov 11:1524838019882357. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration by men who use substances, limited evidence exists about how best to reduce IPV among this group.

Method: A systematic narrative review with meta-analysis determined the effectiveness of interventions to reduce IPV by men who use substances. Inclusion criteria were randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials; adult heterosexual male IPV perpetrators where at least 60% of participants were alcohol and/or drug users; the intervention targeted IPV with or without targeting substance use (SU); outcomes included perpetrator and/or victim reports of IPV, SU, or both. Methodological quality was assessed.

Results: Nine trials ( = 1,014 men) were identified. Interventions were grouped into (1) integrated IPV and SU interventions ( = 5), (2) IPV interventions with adjunct SU interventions ( = 2), and (3) stand-alone IPV interventions ( = 2). Cognitive behavioral and motivational interviewing therapies were the most common approaches. Data from individual trials showed a reduction in SU outcomes in the short term (≤3months; = 2 trials) and IPV perpetration at different time points ( = 3 trials) for interventions compared with treatment as usual (TAU). Meta-analysis with integrated IPV and SU interventions showed no difference in SU ( = 3 trials) or IPV outcomes ( = 4 trials) versus SU TAU.

Conclusions: Little evidence exists for effective interventions for male IPV perpetrators who use substances. Outcomes in integrated interventions were not superior to TAU in meta-analysis. Future trials should consider the nature of the relationship between IPV and SU in intervention design, duration of intervention, and type and timing of outcome measures. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524838019882357DOI Listing
November 2019

Profiling of phenolic flavorings using core-shell reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection at a boron-doped diamond electrode.

J Chromatogr A 2020 Feb 23;1612:460649. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Innovative Chromatography Group, Irish Separation Science Cluster (ISSC) Ireland, School of Chemistry and the Analytical & Biological Chemistry Research Facility (ABCRF), University College Cork, Western Road, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was established for the simultaneous determination of phenol, 4-ethylphenol (4-EP), guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), eugenol, and o-, m- and p-cresol. The separation was performed on a reversed-phase HALO C core-shell column (3.0 × 50 mm, 2.7 µm) with a mobile phase comprising 10 mM formate, pH 3, and 15% acetonitrile (ACN) (v/v), a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, corresponding to a total run time of 9 min. The electrochemical detection (ECD) was set at +1.5 V vs. Pd/H in oxidative mode. Under optimized operating conditions, good linearity was obtained for the nine phenolics with corresponding coefficients of determination (R) above 0.998. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 10 nM-1 µM, with an 80-fold increase in sensitivity for guaiacol achieved with ECD over ultraviolet (UV) detection. The sensitive and selective HPLC-ECD method was successfully applied for the identification and quantification of the nine phenolics in Islay, Irish, Scotch, and Highland whiskey samples, with significantly higher concentrations of the flavorings determined in Islay whiskey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460649DOI Listing
February 2020

What Role Does Substance Use Play in Intimate Partner Violence? A Narrative Analysis of In-Depth Interviews With Men in Substance Use Treatment and Their Current or Former Female Partner.

J Interpers Violence 2019 Oct 3:886260519879259. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

King's College London, UK.

Few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in relationships where one or both partners are in treatment for substance use, from the perspectives of both members of a couple. This study used thematic and narrative analysis of the accounts of 14 men recruited from substance use services and 14 women who were their current or former intimate partners. Separate researchers interviewed men and women from the same dyad pair. The psychopharmacological effects of substance use (including intoxication, craving, and withdrawal) were rarely the only explanation offered for IPV. Violence was reported to be primed and entangled with sexual jealousy, with perceptions of female impropriety and with women's opposition to male authority. Both partners reported adversities and psychological vulnerabilities that they considered relevant to conflict and abuse. Male participants were more likely to describe IPV as uncharacteristic isolated events that arose from specific disputes-either aggravated by intoxication or withdrawal or about substance use and its resourcing-whereas women described enduring patterns of abusive behavior often linked to intoxication, craving, withdrawal, and to disputes linked to raising funds for substances. In relationships where both partners used substances, men described the need to protect their partners from addiction and from unscrupulous others while women described highly controlling behavior. In relationships where women were not dependent substance users, they reported the combined effects of psychological and financial abuse often linked to recurring patterns of substance use and relapse. These findings highlight the challenges faced by practitioners working with male perpetrators who use substances as well as the need of those working with women who have been abused to engage with the ways in which hesitance to leave male abusers can be complicated by shared drug dependency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519879259DOI Listing
October 2019

Reporting Harassment and Stalking to the Police: A Qualitative Study of Victims' Experiences.

J Interpers Violence 2021 06 15;36(11-12):NP5965-NP5992. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

University of Worcester, St Johns, UK.

To date, there have been few studies with victims of stalking in the United Kingdom, and this is the first to have been conducted following the clarification of stalking as a criminal offense in 2012. In 2016, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary Fire and Rescue Services (HMICFRS) and Her Majesty's Crown Prosecution Inspectorate (HMCPSI) announced the first ever inspection into harassment and stalking in England and Wales. This article presents research commissioned by HMICFRS as part of the inspection. In particular, we explore how victims described the response of the police and situate this within the context of changing legislation and previous research in the field. In total, 35 people shared their experiences of reporting harassment and stalking, 14 people completed an online survey, and 21 participants were interviewed. Responses were analyzed thematically and a series of themes were identified. The analysis suggests that despite the clarification of stalking as a criminal office in 2012, the majority of participants described poor responses from the police-with many describing police inaction, or inappropriate action-in addition to feeling blamed and not being taken seriously. The article considers possible explanations for these issues and concludes by calling for harassment and stalking legislation in England and Wales to be clarified, and for police training to shift the focus of the investigation from the behavior of the offender, to the emotional impact on the victim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260518811423DOI Listing
June 2021

The Feasibility, Appropriateness, Meaningfulness, and Effectiveness of Parenting and Family Support Programs Delivered in the Criminal Justice System: A Systematic Review.

J Child Fam Stud 2018 1;27(6):1732-1747. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

3University of Worcester, Worcester, UK.

Children whose parents are involved in the criminal justice system (CJS) are at increased risk of developing social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties and are more likely than their peers to become involved in the CJS themselves. Parenting behaviour and parent-child relationships have the potential to affect children's outcomes with positive parenting practices having the potential to moderate some of the negative outcomes associated with parental involvement in the CJS. However, many parents in the CJS may lack appropriate role models to support the development of positive parenting beliefs and practices. Parenting programs offer an opportunity for parents to enhance their parenting knowledge and behaviours and improve relationships with children. Quantitative and qualitative evidence pertaining to the implementation and effectiveness of parenting programs delivered in the CJS was included. Five databases were searched and a total of 1145 articles were identified of which 29 met the review inclusion criteria. Overall, programs were found to significantly improve parenting attitudes; however, evidence of wider effects is limited. Additionally, the findings indicate that parenting programs can be meaningful for parents. Despite this, a number of challenges for implementation were found including the transient nature of the prison population and a lack of parent-child contact. Based on these findings, recommendations for the future development and delivery of programs are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1034-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932092PMC
March 2018

Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2017 01;36(1):20-23

Institute for Applied Health Research, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.

Introduction And Aims: Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams.

Design And Methods: Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2).

Results: There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA.

Discussion And Conclusions: Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12505DOI Listing
January 2017

Progressing the analysis of Improvised Explosive Devices: Comparative study for trace detection of explosive residues in handprints by Raman spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

Talanta 2016 Dec 2;161:219-227. Epub 2016 Aug 2.

Inquifor Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and University Institute of Research in Police Sciences (IUICP), University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona km 33.600, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Concerning the dreadful global threat of terrorist attacks, the detection of explosive residues in biological traces and marks is a current need in both forensics and homeland security. This study examines the potential of Raman microscopy in comparison to liquid chromatography (ion chromatography (IC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)) to detect, identify and quantify residues in human handmarks of explosives and energetic salts commonly used to manufacture Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) including dynamite, ammonium nitrate, single- and double-smokeless gunpowders and black powder. Dynamite, ammonium nitrate and black powder were detected through the identification of the energetic salts by Raman spectroscopy, their respective anions by IC, and organic components by RP-HPLC. Smokeless gunpowders were not detected, either by Raman spectroscopy or the two liquid chromatography techniques. Several aspects of handprint collection, sample treatment and a critical comparison of the identification of compounds by both techniques are discussed. Raman microscopy and liquid chromatography were shown to be complementary to one another offering more comprehensive information for trace explosives analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.05.057DOI Listing
December 2016

A review of oxyhalide disinfection by-products determination in water by ion chromatography and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Anal Chim Acta 2016 Oct 14;942:12-22. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

Irish Separation Science Cluster, Department of Chemistry, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

This paper is a review of ion chromatographic (IC) separations of inorganic oxyhalide disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water and beverages. The review outlines the chemical mechanisms of formation, regulation of maximum allowable levels, chromatographic column selection and speciation. In addition, this review highlights the application of IC coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) for trace and elemental composition analysis of oxyhalides, along with the analytical considerations associated to enable sensitive analysis. Furthermore, a review of literature concerning IC determination of inorganic oxyhalide DBPs in environmental matrices, including water, published since 2005 is presented, with a focus on MS detection, and a discussion on the relative performance of the methods. Finally some prospective areas for future research, including fast, selective, multi-analyte analysis, for this application are highlighted and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.09.006DOI Listing
October 2016

Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Mood, Cognition and Fatigue Following Stroke practice guidelines, update 2015.

Int J Stroke 2015 Oct 29;10(7):1130-40. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada.

Every year, approximately 62 000 people with stroke and transient ischemic attack are treated in Canadian hospitals, and the evidence suggests one-third or more will experience vascular-cognitive impairment, and/or intractable fatigue, either alone or in combination. The 2015 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Mood, Cognition and Fatigue Module guideline is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for clinicians in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. The three consequences of stroke that are the focus of the this guideline (poststroke depression, vascular cognitive impairment, and fatigue) have high incidence rates and significant impact on the lives of people who have had a stroke, impede recovery, and result in worse long-term outcomes. Significant practice variations and gaps in the research evidence have been reported for initial screening and in-depth assessment of stroke patients for these conditions. Also of concern, an increased number of family members and informal caregivers may also experience depressive symptoms in the poststroke recovery phase which further impact patient recovery. These factors emphasize the need for a system of care that ensures screening occurs as a standard and consistent component of clinical practice across settings as stroke patients transition from acute care to active rehabilitation and reintegration into their community. Additionally, building system capacity to ensure access to appropriate specialists for treatment and ongoing management of stroke survivors with these conditions is another great challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijs.12557DOI Listing
October 2015

Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions.

Anal Chim Acta 2015 Mar 1;865:83-91. Epub 2015 Feb 1.

Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Science, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5-50 mM hydroxide with 0-80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20-45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30-40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.01.031DOI Listing
March 2015

Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry: a review of recent technologies and applications in forensic and environmental explosives analysis.

Anal Chim Acta 2014 Jan 5;806:27-54. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Analytical & Environmental Sciences Division, Dept. Forensic & Analytical Science, School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom.

The development and application of ion chromatography (IC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed herein for the quantitative determination of low-order explosives-related ionic species in environmental and forensic sample types. Issues relating to environmental explosives contamination and the need for more confirmatory IC-MS based applications in forensic science are examined. In particular, the compatibility of a range of IC separation modes with MS detection is summarised along with the analytical challenges that have been overcome to facilitate determinations at the ng-μg L(-1) level. Observed trends in coupling IC to inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry form a particular focus. This review also includes a discussion of the relative performance of reported IC-MS methods in comparison to orthogonal ion separation-based, spectrometric and spectroscopic approaches to confirmatory detection of low-order explosives. Finally, some promising areas for future research are highlighted and discussed with respect to potential IC-MS applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2013.10.047DOI Listing
January 2014

Residues from low-order energetic materials: the comparative performance of a range of sampling approaches prior to analysis by ion chromatography.

Forensic Sci Int 2013 Dec 28;233(1-3):55-62. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Analytical & Environmental Sciences Division, School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom.

A quantitative study of common forensic evidence collection devices for the recovery of low-explosive residues from non-porous glass and plastic is presented herein. Swabbing materials including cotton, rayon, Nomex(®) (poly(isophthaloylchloride/m-phenylenediamine)), Teflon/Teflon-coated fibreglass (polytetrafluoroethylene) and adhesive-coated tapes were used to collect known quantities of up to 14 forensically relevant inorganic and organic anion and cation species from both surfaces. Analysis was performed using two validated ion chromatography methods. This study revealed that all swabs and surfaces contributed highly variable levels of interfering ionic species and that swabbing materials showed variance in the quantities and total number of analytes recovered from both surfaces. Teflon and Nomex(®) materials demonstrated the most promise due to their ability to collect and release analytes into simple extraction solvents as well as displaying relatively low endogenous interference. In parallel, the ability to extract residue directly from both surfaces via the addition of a suitable extraction solvent was investigated instead of swabbing. This work highlights that direct solvent extraction from a surface should be considered as an alternative approach, especially for small areas or objects. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the most comprehensive study of the efficiencies of sample collection technologies for low-explosive residues prior to analysis by ion chromatography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.08.018DOI Listing
December 2013

Detection of anionic energetic material residues in enhanced fingermarks on porous and non-porous surfaces using ion chromatography.

Forensic Sci Int 2013 Sep 21;231(1-3):150-6. Epub 2013 May 21.

Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom.

The ability to link criminal activity and identity using validated analytical approaches can be of great value to forensic scientists. Herein, the factors affecting the recovery and detection of inorganic and organic energetic material residues within chemically or physically enhanced fingermarks on paper and glass substrates are presented using micro-bore anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Fingermarks on both surfaces were enhanced using aluminium powder or ninhydrin after spiking with model test mixtures or through contact with black-powder substitutes. A quantitative study of the effects of environmental/method interferences, the sweat matrix, the surface and the enhancement technique on the relative anion recovery of forensically relevant species is presented. It is shown that the analytical method could detect target analytes at the nanogram level even within excesses of enhancement reagents and their reaction products when using solid phase extraction and/or microfiltration. To our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time that ion chromatography can detect anions in energetic materials within fingermarks on two very different surfaces, after operational enhancement techniques commonly used by forensic scientists and police have been applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.04.017DOI Listing
September 2013

Characterisation of gunshot residue from three ammunition types using suppressed anion exchange chromatography.

Forensic Sci Int 2012 Sep 12;221(1-3):50-6. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH, United Kingdom.

Gunshot residue (GSR) is commonly analysed in forensic casework using either scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Relatively little work has been reported on the post-discharge GSR content of non-metallic inorganic or low molecular weight organic anions to distinguish between different ammunition types. The development of an analytical method using suppressed micro-bore anion exchange chromatography (IC) is presented for the analysis of GSR. A hydroxide gradient was optimised for the separation of 19 forensically relevant organic and inorganic anions in <23min and sensitivities of the order of 0.12-3.52ng of anion detected for all species were achieved. Along with an optimised extraction procedure, this method was applied to the analysis of post-ignition residues from three selected ammunition types. By profiling and comparing the anionic content in each ammunition residue, the possibility to distinguish between each type using their anionic profiles and absolute weight is presented. The potential for interference is also discussed with respect to sample types which are typically problematic in the analysis of GSR using SEM-EDX and GC-MS. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first study on the analysis of inorganic anions in GSR using suppressed ion chromatography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.03.024DOI Listing
September 2012

Probing gunshot residue, sweat and latent human fingerprints with capillary-scale ion chromatography and suppressed conductivity detection.

Analyst 2012 Apr 12;137(7):1576-83. Epub 2012 Jan 12.

Analytical & Environmental Sciences Division, Dept. of Forensic Science & Drug Monitoring, School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH, United Kingdom.

An investigation into capillary-scale ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is presented for the identification of low molecular weight anions in samples of limited size. Both particle-packed and polymer monolith capillary ion exchange resins were compared with respect to their chromatographic efficiencies, operating back-pressures and thermal selectivities. Using a multistep hydroxide gradient, it was possible to separate a large selection of inorganic and organic anions in <23 mins using both phases with an injection volume of only 0.4 μL. Method performance was tested with respect to linearity, range, reproducibility and sensitivity and compared to a micro-bore (2 mm) IC method. Limits of mass sensitivity improved by factors up to 1,800-fold using the capillary IC system and lay in the range 0.3-26.2 pg. The finalised analytical method was applied to the determination of both endogenous and exogenous species in sweat and fingermark deposits. It was possible to determine presence of elevated levels of thiocyanate and benzoate in the sweat of three moderate smokers (5-10 cigarettes/day) in comparison to non-smokers. A controlled firing experiment was also conducted to assess the transfer of gunshot residue into fingerprints of a firer. Similarly, identification of direct contact with a black powder substitute is presented via analysis of latent fingermarks. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study of sweat and fingerprints using capillary-scale suppressed ion chromatography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2an16126eDOI Listing
April 2012

A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2010 Apr 15;54(2):236-49. Epub 2008 Nov 15.

University of Kent, United Kingdom.

A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X08325350DOI Listing
April 2010

Change in treatment has no relationship with subsequent re-offending in U.K. domestic violence sample: a preliminary study.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2008 Oct 27;52(5):598-614. Epub 2008 May 27.

Coventry University, UK.

In this study, data is presented from a sample of 52 male domestic violence offenders who were court mandated to attend a profeminist psycho-educational rehabilitation program in the West Midlands. The extent of both statistically and clinically significant psychological change achieved across a variety of measures (pro-domestic-violence attitudes, anger, locus of control, interpersonal dependency) assessed pre- and post-treatment, and their association with post-treatment re-offending within an 11-month follow-up period is examined. The results indicate that program completers achieved limited significant psychological change. However, the level of psychological change achieved had no association with re-offending.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X08319419DOI Listing
October 2008

A psychometric typology of U.K. domestic violence offenders.

J Interpers Violence 2006 Oct;21(10):1270-85

Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, University of Birmingham.

A number of studies have described subtypes of domestically violent men, and the heterogeneity of domestically violent men is well established. The aim of the current study was to investigate the distribution of subtypes using psychometric measures in convicted domestically violent offenders in England. Four subtypes of offenders were identified: low pathology, borderline, narcissistic, and antisocial. These subtypes were broadly comparable with the family-only, dysphoric/borderline, and generally violent/antisocial types proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart. The majority of the sample (60%) best fit the generally violent/antisocial profile. However, the reliance on psychometric measurement and lack of corroborative evidence from partners means that further research is necessary to test these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260506291655DOI Listing
October 2006

Comprehensive evaluation: a holistic approach to evaluating domestic violence offender programmes.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2004 Apr;48(2):215-34

Department of Community-based Medicine, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, England.

This article argues that the focus on behavioural outcomes in evaluations of domestic violence offender programmes has been too narrow, and that a more holistic approach incorporating investigation of the psychological characteristics of offenders and treatment characteristics may be required to determine what works, for whom, and under what circumstances. To this end, one interpretation of a comprehensive evaluation framework is outlined. The article hypothesises the insights to be gained by assessing the contribution of several potential mediating variables of the treatment process in the evaluation of these programmes. These variables are the heterogeneity of treatment targets in the target population; motivation to change; programme integrity variables; and therapeutic factors. The article concludes that only by implementing theoretically informed, multifaceted evaluations will we move closer to understanding the process of successful rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X03259471DOI Listing
April 2004

The Relation of the Peripheral Lymphatic System to the Spinal Cord.

Edinb Med J 1934 Jun;41(6):359-362

Laboratory of the Scottish Asylums Board.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5314268PMC
June 1934
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