Publications by authors named "Elizabeth Dent"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Soil microbial legacies differ following drying-rewetting and freezing-thawing cycles.

ISME J 2021 04 6;15(4):1207-1221. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Climate change alters frequencies and intensities of soil drying-rewetting and freezing-thawing cycles. These fluctuations affect soil water availability, a crucial driver of soil microbial activity. While these fluctuations are leaving imprints on soil microbiome structures, the question remains if the legacy of one type of weather fluctuation (e.g., drying-rewetting) affects the community response to the other (e.g., freezing-thawing). As both phenomenons give similar water availability fluctuations, we hypothesized that freezing-thawing and drying-rewetting cycles have similar effects on the soil microbiome. We tested this hypothesis by establishing targeted microcosm experiments. We created a legacy by exposing soil samples to a freezing-thawing or drying-rewetting cycle (phase 1), followed by an additional drying-rewetting or freezing-thawing cycle (phase 2). We measured soil respiration and analyzed soil microbiome structures. Across experiments, larger CO pulses and changes in microbiome structures were observed after rewetting than thawing. Drying-rewetting legacy affected the microbiome and CO emissions upon the following freezing-thawing cycle. Conversely, freezing-thawing legacy did not affect the microbial response to the drying-rewetting cycle. Our results suggest that drying-rewetting cycles have stronger effects on soil microbial communities and CO production than freezing-thawing cycles and that this pattern is mediated by sustained changes in soil microbiome structures.
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April 2021

Incomplete protection against hepatitis B among remote Aboriginal adolescents despite full vaccination in infancy.

Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2010 Dec;34(4):435-9

Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory.

The objective of this study was to determine long-term immunity to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a cohort of adolescents who received plasma-derived HBV vaccine in 1989 and 1990 in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. This was done using a serological survey; primary outcome measures were cut-off titres of HBsAb, and the presence of HBcAb and/or HBsAg. Of 37 adolescents in the cohort, 4 (11%) had evidence of active infection, one with abnormal liver enzymes, 7 (19%) had evidence of past infection, 15 (41%) were HBsAb positive in low titre and 11 (30%) were classed as immune. It was concluded that there was relatively poor long-term serological immunity to HBV vaccination in this group; a finding which is in keeping with similar studies in Indigenous and remote populations elsewhere. This finding raises the concern that a significant proportion of Aboriginal adolescents in other remote communities (vaccinated in 1989 and 1990) were not adequately protected by the vaccine. If so, there will be an unexpected burden of chronic HBV infection in these settings and a substantial group who are non-immune, despite having received complete HBV vaccination courses as infants. The authors recommend followup serosurveys in remote Aboriginal communities to identify people with low HBsAb titres, especially those without an adequate anamnestic response to another dose of HBV vaccine. In addition, community-based active surveillance programs will be required to detect people with chronic HBV infection and provide access to monitoring and appropriate treatment.
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December 2010

The Cancode interaction analysis system in the oncological setting: reliability and validity of video and audio tape coding.

Patient Educ Couns 2005 Jan;56(1):35-44

Medical Psychology Research Unit, University of Sydney, Blackburn Building (D06), Sydney 2006, Australia.

Cancode is a computerized interaction analysis system developed for cancer consultations. This paper assesses its reliability and validity, and compares the use of audio versus video tape; by assessing 30 consultations between an actor and 10 oncologists. Weighted Kappa inter- and intra-rater scores ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 and 0.58-1.0, respectively, and use of video tape did not alter verbal coding. Factor analysis of verbal codes revealed two factors, 'verbal control' and 'verbal support'. Verbal and non-verbal doctor behavior differed by patient type ('verbal support' P = 0.007, 'verbal control' P = 0.004, 'Responsiveness' P = 0.000, and 'Immediacy' P = 0.000). Inter-doctor variation was noted for 'verbal support' (P = 0.000) and 'Relaxation' (P = 0.000). 'Responsiveness' was negatively correlated with 'verbal support' (-0.58) and 'verbal control' (-0.65). Cancode is reliable, valid and sensitive to doctors behavioral changes. For a more passive patient, the doctor may switch from a 'cure' to 'care' oriented consult, responding to psycho-social instead of informational needs.
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January 2005