Publications by authors named "Elizabeth A Mumford"

49 Publications

Outcomes of Sexual Assault Victimization in Early Adulthood: National Estimates for University and Nonuniversity Students.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Aug 3:8862605211035858. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

University of Chicago, IL, USA.

Across the United States, 20% of women ages 18 and over are victims of penetrative sexual assault, with the highest rates occurring in early adulthood (i.e., ages 18-24). Despite the high prevalence and severe mental and physical health problems resulting from sexual assault, with few exceptions, little is known about how victims of sexual assault attribute subsequent academic and career outcomes. Approximately 901 adult participants were recruited from a probability-based nationally representative sample to examine the prevalence of and outcomes attributed to sexual assault victimization experienced during early adulthood. Of the 36% of female participants who reported sexual assault perpetrated against them between the ages of 18 and 24, 69.5% attributed at least one negative academic or career outcome to the sexual assault. Participants who identified as White and who were over the age of 30 at the time of the survey were more likely to attribute negative academic and career outcomes as a result of a sexual assault perpetrated against them during early adulthood than women of color and younger women (i.e., ages 25-29). Our findings expand the knowledge on negative outcomes attributed to sexual assault and yields more questions about the larger societal impacts. More research is needed to understand the intersection between an assault during young adulthood and the demographic characteristics of survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08862605211035858DOI Listing
August 2021

A nationally representative study of law enforcement shiftwork and health outcomes.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2021 Apr-May;18(4-5):192-202. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Public Health, NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of past and current rotating shift assignments on U.S. law enforcement officers' health outcomes. In a nationally representative sample of 2,867 officers, with an oversample of female officers, we estimated models of sleep quality and fatigue, physical health outcomes, and psychological health outcomes. Further, we examined individual and agency-level factors associated with officers who reported currently working a rotating shift, to investigate what patterns there may be in shift assignments. A history of rotating shift assignments was positively associated with lower sleep quality, and with hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol, but not with gastrointestinal disorders, perceived stress, emotional well-being, or suicidality. The associations of shiftwork with health outcomes did not vary by gender. Demographic characteristics did not predict current rotating shift assignments, but a longer history of shiftwork and more working hours did predict a current shift assignment. Attention to mitigating shift system designs as well as the effect of cumulative years of working a rotating shift for the benefit of officer health outcomes is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2021.1876876DOI Listing
February 2021

Profiles of US Law Enforcement Officers' Diagnosed Health Conditions: Results From a Probability-Based Sample of Officers.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 05;63(5):422-431

National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, Maryland (Dr Mumford, Dr Liu, Dr Taylor); University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (Dr Ramey).

Objective: To assess comorbidity across five common health conditions.

Methods: Surveys were collected from a probability-based sample of US law enforcement officers, and latent class models estimated for hypertension (HTN), high blood cholesterol (LDL), diabetes (DM), a gastrointestinal disorder (GI), and sleep apnea (SA).

Results: The majority of officers (69.4%) were classified in a Healthy profile. One in four officers (23.7%) were classified in a LDL-HTN-DM profile. About 7% of officers were classified in a GI-SA-HTN profile. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), exercise, and working a rotating shift assignment distinguished class membership.

Conclusion: Most officers reported good health. Law enforcement administrative or clinical assessments using readily accessible measures might be informative in identifying risk categories of need for more targeted prevention and treatment support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002162DOI Listing
May 2021

The Psychometric Properties of the Measure of Adolescent Relationship Harassment and Abuse (MARSHA) With a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Youth.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jan 5:886260520985480. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, MD, USA.

This article describes a new instrument that assesses adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization and perpetration. The Measure of Adolescent Relationship Harassment and Abuse (MARSHA) is a comprehensive instrument that includes items on physical, sexual, and psychological ADA, as well as cyber dating abuse, social control, and invasion of privacy. Data for this study came from a population-based, nationally representative sample of adolescents ages 11 to 21 years old ( = 1,257). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the victimization and perpetration versions of the MARSHA, and convergent and divergent validity were assessed using the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI) and the juvenile victimization questionnaire (JVQ), respectively. Results suggest that the MARSHA has good reliability and validity, and that each subscale had good internal consistency. The authors propose that the MARSHA may be a strong alternative to the CADRI or the conflict tactics scale (CTS) because it reflects contemporary forms of abuse, such as online harassment and pressure to send nude selfies, and the nonconsensual dissemination of sexually explicit images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520985480DOI Listing
January 2021

How should we define "rural" when investigating rural tobacco use in the United States?

Subst Abus 2020 Dec 15:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

The College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Investigations into rural tobacco-related disparities in the U.S. are hampered by the lack of a standardized approach for identifying the rurality-and, consequently, the urbanicity-of an area. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the most common urban/rural definitions (Census Bureau, OMB, RUCA, and Isolation) and determine which is preferable for explaining the geographic distribution of several tobacco-related outcomes (behavior, receiving a doctor's advice to quit, and support for secondhand smoke policies). : Data came from The Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement. For each tobacco-related outcome, one logistic regression was conducted for each urban/rural measure. Models were then ranked according to their ability to explain the data using Akaike information criterion (AIC). : Each definition provided very different estimates for the prevalence of the U.S. population that is considered "rural" (e.g., 5.9% for the OMB, 17.0% for the Census Bureau). The OMB definition was most sensitive at detecting urban/rural differences, followed by the Isolation scale. Both these measures use strict, less-inclusive criteria for what constitutes "rural." : Overall, results demonstrate the heterogeneity across urban/rural measures. Although findings do not provide a definitive answer for which urban/rural definition is the best for examining rural tobacco use, they do suggest that the OMB and Isolation measures may be most sensitive to detecting many types of urban/rural tobacco-related disparities. Caveats and implications of these findings for rural tobacco use disparities research are discussed. Efforts such as these to better understand which rural measure is appropriate for which situation can improve the precision of rural substance use research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2020.1856292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203749PMC
December 2020

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Early Adulthood: National Estimates for College and Non-College Students.

Public Health Rep 2020 Sep/Oct;135(5):555-559. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

3067 Prevention Innovations Research Center, Women's and Gender Studies, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA.

Young adults are at high risk for sexual harassment and sexual assault. Although attention has been given to prevention on college campuses, the need for prevention may be at least as high for young adults who do not attend college as for young adults who do. In October 2019, we administered a nationally representative survey of 893 adults to measure sexual harassment and sexual assault victimization during a recall period defined as "during college years" for respondents who had enrolled in college at any time or "ages 18-24" for respondents not in college. Reported rates of sexual harassment (32.7%) and sexual assault (24.6%) during early adulthood were similar for respondents who reported having ever enrolled in college and for respondents who reported never attending college. Women were more likely than men to report both sexual harassment (37.4% vs 22.4%) and sexual assault (36.0% vs 16.0%) during early adulthood. Compared with respondents aged ≥30, respondents aged 18-29 were 105% more likely to report sexual harassment and 65% more likely to report sexual assault. Moreover, sexual harassment experiences predicted sexual assault victimization (adjusted odds ratio = 18.1). This study highlights the importance of attending to sexual harassment and sexual assault risks for young adults through research, policy, and criminal justice structures beyond institutions of higher education. Evidence that sexual harassment is strongly associated with sexual assault victimization of young adults highlights the importance of naming and stemming early behavioral transgressions across the US population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354920946014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485046PMC
September 2020

The Campus Sexual Assault Policy and Prevention Initiative: Findings From Key Informant Interviews.

Health Educ Behav 2020 06;47(1_suppl):75S-84S

NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Addressing the widespread problem of sexual assault in college environments requires both prevention programming and policies addressing sexual misconduct in institutions of higher education. Through the Campus Sexual Assault Policy and Prevention Initiative, nine programs funded by the Office on Women's Health approached this problem within a network of eight to 13 campuses apiece, supported by national organizations and local task forces. Near the close of the 3-year project period (June 2016-June 2019), key informant interviews were conducted with project directors and campus representatives. Contextual factors elucidating the project approaches, challenges, and successes were investigated through 31 interviews (nine grantee interviews and 22 campus representative interviews). Analyses across all interview content contributed to the development of several key themes related to staffing efforts to strengthen campus policies and prevention programs, working within institutions of varying structural characteristics, infusing efforts with trauma-informed perspectives, attending to cultural differences across campuses, and seeking to follow recommended guidelines in the context of campus-specific factors. Overall, the interviewees reported specific progress toward the program goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090198120922120DOI Listing
June 2020

Neighborhood Income Inequality and Adolescent Relationship Aggression: Results of a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Study.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Mar 31:886260520908024. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Adolescent relationship aggression (ARA) is a prevalent public health issue with myriad adverse health outcomes. Experts suggest that a research focus on individual- and family-level risk factors for ARA has been too limited, proposing that research on the "outer layers" of the social-ecological model, including community-level risk factors, may hold promise for the development of interventions targeting ARA. This study assessed the longitudinal association between one community-level risk factor-income inequality-and ARA victimization and perpetration. The study also examined variations of this association by race/ethnicity, income, and/or sex. This study is based on 723 participants (351 male and 372 female participants) from the Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV). We assessed data across two waves (2013 and 2016). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between neighborhood income inequality and both ARA victimization and perpetration. We included interaction terms to assess whether these associations varied by race/ethnicity and/or income, and we stratified analyses by sex. We did not detect associations between income inequality and ARA victimization or perpetration in the overall sample. However, for female participants from families with more income, living in a neighborhood with more income inequality was associated with increased risk of ARA victimization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.163; < .05). More affluent, compared with less affluent, adolescent girls in mixed-income neighborhoods may be at increased risk of ARA victimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520908024DOI Listing
March 2020

Profiles of Adolescent Relationship Abuse and Sexual Harassment: a Latent Class Analysis.

Prev Sci 2020 04;21(3):377-387

Department of Public Health Research, NORC at the University of Chicago, 4350 E-West Hwy 8th Floor, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.

This study aims to identify homogeneous groups of individuals based on self-reported victimization and perpetration of three subtypes of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA; physical, psychological, and sexual) and sexual harassment (SH). Study sample consists of 645 current or past-year daters aged 12-21, drawn from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV). Latent class analysis was used to classify individuals, and a three-class model was selected (Low ARA-Low SH, High ARA-High SH, and Psychological ARA-Medium SH). Results provide evidence for three latent classes with varying patterns of ARA and SH. A number of exogenous variables were significantly associated with these patterns, e.g., youth who were previously exposed to any general violence were three times as likely to be in the High ARA-High SH class as those not previously exposed to violence. Adolescent relationship abuse prevention efforts should include activities to address sexual harassment, and vice versa. Results call for universal preventive intervention programs targeting adolescent relationship abuse and sexual harassment to start as early as adolescence, and the existence of the High ARA-High SH group supports the need for more targeted effort to interrupt such patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01075-5DOI Listing
April 2020

Neighborhood violent crime and adolescent relationship aggression.

Aggress Behav 2020 01 17;46(1):25-36. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Research has shown that neighborhoods play a role in the etiology of violence. However, few adolescent relationship aggression (ARA) studies have objective measures of violent neighborhoods. Drawing on a nationally representative sample of youth, this study examines the association between ARA and local levels of violent crime (measured using geocoded Uniform Crime Report data from each of the youths' residential neighborhoods). Study analyses are based on survey data from 723 youth (ages 10-18) in current or recent dating relationships (351 males and 372 females) in the Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV), a national representative household panel survey exploring interpersonal violence and related aggression among adolescents. About 19% of the sample reported ARA victimization in their most recent dating relationship (ARA perpetration was 17%). Neighborhood violent crime in the study (males living in 86.9 and females 99.8) was slightly lower than the national average of 100. With a broad national sample, 40% non-Whites, hypotheses guided by theories of neighborhood influence were tested. The study did not find an association between neighborhood violent crime and ARA victimization and perpetration, controlling for key demographic factors. The results, for a broad range of high- and low-crime neighborhoods, suggest that neighborhood violence does not seem to affect individual rates of ARA. The results suggest the ARA victimization and perpetration are perhaps ubiquitous and found both in low and high violent crime neighborhoods, suggesting that addressing local violent crime rates alone does not seem to be a path to also reducing ARA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21875DOI Listing
January 2020

Young Men's Attitudes and Neighborhood Risk Factors for Sexual Harassment Perpetration in the United States.

J Community Health 2020 04;45(2):245-251

School of Public Health, Boston University, 801 Massachusetts Ave, Crosstown Center 3rd Floor, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Sexual harassment is a pervasive problem predominantly perpetrated by men. Creating cultural shifts to prevent men's sexual harassment perpetration requires attention to community as well as individual factors. Study data were collected from a cohort of 768 youth and young adult males ages 10-18 at baseline (2013), with follow-up 3 years later. Multivariable regression was applied to assess the role of neighborhood characteristics, including crime rates, gender equality, and concentrated disadvantage, adjusting for individual sociodemographics and views on traditional gender stereotypes. The self-reported prevalence of sexual harassment perpetration was 8.8%. In neighborhoods characterized by greater concentrated disadvantage, the likelihood of male sexual harassment perpetration was significantly lower than in neighborhoods characterized by greater advantages. Relative neighborhood advantage was associated with sexual harassment perpetration even controlling for the significant positive association between espousing traditional gender stereotypes and perpetration of sexual harassment. The relative rates of neighborhood crime and gender equality did not predict young males' sexual harassment perpetration. In sum, young men's perpetration of sexual harassment behaviors is more common in more advantaged communities, underscoring the importance of awareness that, beyond individual attitudes, there is a collective social influence on individual behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-019-00738-2DOI Listing
April 2020

An RCT of Dating Matters: Effects on Teen Dating Violence and Relationship Behaviors.

Am J Prev Med 2019 07 22;57(1):13-23. Epub 2019 May 22.

Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Introduction: Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem with few effective prevention strategies. This study examines whether the Dating Matters comprehensive prevention model, compared with a standard of care intervention, prevented negative relationship behaviors and promoted positive relationship behaviors.

Study Design: This longitudinal, cluster-RCT compared the effectiveness of Dating Matters with standard of care across middle school. Standard of care was an evidence-based teen dating violence prevention curriculum (Safe Dates) implemented in eighth grade.

Setting/participants: Forty-six middle schools in high-risk urban neighborhoods in four U.S. cities were randomized. Schools lost to follow-up were replaced with new schools, which were independently randomized (71% school retention). Students were surveyed in fall and spring of sixth, seventh, and eighth grades (2012-2016). The analysis sample includes students from schools implementing Dating Matters or standard of care for >2 years who started sixth grade in the fall of 2012 or 2013 and had dated (N=2,349 students, mean age 12 years, 49% female, and 55% black, non-Hispanic, 28% Hispanic, 17% other).

Intervention: Dating Matters is a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention model including classroom-delivered programs for sixth to eighth graders, training for parents of sixth to eighth graders, educator training, a youth communications program, and local health department activities to assess capacity and track teen dating violence-related policy and data.

Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported teen dating violence perpetration and victimization, use of negative conflict resolution strategies, and positive relationship skills were examined as outcomes. Imputation and analyses were conducted in 2017.

Results: Latent panel models demonstrated significant program effects for three of four outcomes; Dating Matters students reported 8.43% lower teen dating violence perpetration, 9.78% lower teen dating violence victimization, and 5.52% lower use of negative conflict resolution strategies, on average across time points and cohorts, than standard of care students. There were no significant effects on positive relationship behaviors.

Conclusions: Dating Matters demonstrates comparative effectiveness, through middle school, for reducing unhealthy relationship behaviors, such as teen dating violence and use of negative conflict resolution strategies, relative to the standard of care intervention.

Trial Registration: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01672541.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.02.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953384PMC
July 2019

The interpersonal context of depression and violent behavior: A social psychological interpretation.

Aggress Behav 2019 07 25;45(4):437-449. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, Maryland.

Depression is a particularly prevalent form of psychopathology affecting millions of individuals worldwide. It is associated with a variety of adverse social and behavioral outcomes. Numerous observational studies have found that depressed individuals have significantly elevated rates of interpersonal violence. As of now, the social mechanisms that explain the association between depression and violence remain understudied and not well understood. Drawing on the aggression and social psychology literatures, we argue that depressed actors suffer skills deficits and exhibit hostile communication styles that provoke grievances and disputes. We suggest that, because of these interpersonal tendencies, depression increases involvement in verbal disputes, and that frequent participation in verbal disputes foments social contexts where interpersonal violence is more common. Findings from a series of regression models based on a nationally representative sample of 2171 respondents offer support for our assumptions. The study suggests a consideration of interpersonal dynamics, particularly verbal disputes, might unlock clues about the association between depression and violence involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21832DOI Listing
July 2019

Youth and young adult dating relationship dynamics and subsequent abusive outcomes.

J Adolesc 2019 04 15;72:112-123. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

NORC at the University of Chicago, 4350 East West Highway, Room 733, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: In order to prevent youth and young adult partner abuse, it is necessary to have a better understanding of dating relationship dynamics as the context for potential abusive interactions.

Methods: Youth and young adults (ages 10-18 at baseline) were surveyed along with a matched parent/caregiver. Data, including parent and youth responses (n = 437 youth/parent dyads), are drawn from the nationally representative Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV).

Results: Applying latent class analytic techniques with seven different positive and problematic descriptors of dating relationships, this study found four classes of relationship dynamics representing healthy, unhealthy, intense, and disengaged relationships. The intense relationship dynamic class exhibits the strongest associations with reports of any youth and young adult partner abuse, as well as distinctly with the subtypes of psychological, physical, and sexual victimization and perpetration.

Conclusions: Results demonstrate the importance of clinicians, parents and other responsible adults attending to an array of youth and young adult dating relationship dynamics rather than single indicators, to assess youth and young adult risk for involvement in abusive relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.02.013DOI Listing
April 2019

Longitudinal trajectories of perpetration of adolescent dating abuse in a national sample.

Aggress Behav 2019 05 30;45(3):327-336. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Public Health Department, NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, Maryland.

Despite extensive research regarding patterns and outcomes of victimization in dating relationships, there has been limited investigation of the developmental profiles of the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse (ADA). We estimated longitudinal latent growth models of ADA perpetration in a sample of 2,269 U.S. adolescents/young adults ages 12-18 at baseline, drawing on four waves (2013-2017) of data from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Model results revealed three classes representing "nondaters," respondents showing "increasing dating/ADA," and respondents with "high/stable dating/ADA." Results support prior research finding heightened patterns of ADA perpetration by older youth, and distinguish individual and family characteristics associated with adolescent/young adults' ADA perpetration for the purpose of informing individual and programmatic prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21822DOI Listing
May 2019

Profiles of Youth In-Person and Online Sexual Harassment Victimization.

J Interpers Violence 2021 07 2;36(13-14):6769-6796. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, MD, USA.

This study examines whether online sexual harassment (SH) is a unique form of behavior, separate and apart from in-person SH. Data were drawn from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV), a national representative household survey focused on youth interpersonal aggression. A weighted sample of 1,184 youth (12-21 years old) completed a baseline and a follow-up survey 1 year later. Through latent class analysis (LCA), we investigate our first research question of whether there are distinct classes/profiles of mutually exclusive online or in-person SH victims or whether they mostly overlap. Second, does there exist a high-rate group of SH victims who experience most of the SH behaviors both in-person and online? Third, what individual characteristics and behaviors, based on past research, are associated with these identified profiles of SH? LCA did not reveal an in-person-only or online-only SH class. The majority of the sample (78.5%) were represented in a Low/Near Zero SH class; 15.3% in a Sexual Orientation Harassment class suffering sexual orientation-related verbal harassment online and in-person; 4.2% in a Verbal SH class suffering verbal sexual comments, being forced to talk about sex, and being shown sexual pictures in-person and online; and 1.9% in a High SH class featured by a high probability of experiencing all online and in-person forms of SH. Biological sex, attitudes, anger, previous violence exposure, and gender stereotyping each predicted at least one latent class. The findings can help inform the design of more effective interventions to prevent SH, highlighting the overlapping nature of in-person and online SH. Prevention efforts designed to address in-person SH need to also consider online SH and vice versa. Clinicians should also consider the risk factors of SH identified in this study in their work identifying at-risk youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260518820673DOI Listing
July 2021

Financial Behaviors, Couple-Level Conflict, and Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Longitudinal Results From a Nationally Representative Sample.

J Res Adolesc 2020 01 19;30 Suppl 1:255-269. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

NORC at the University of Chicago.

Financial disagreements have been identified as a severe source of discord in adult relationships, yet limited work has considered whether financial considerations contribute to conflict among younger samples. Drawing on longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, the current investigation examined the extent to which money lending practices, feelings of financial resentment, and exposure to economic control contribute to couple-level interactions, and in turn, to conflict that escalates to the point of violence. Findings provide evidence of an association between adolescent financial behaviors and concurrent conflict due to economic considerations. Moreover, conflict due to economic considerations was an important predictor of future adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention/prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439211PMC
January 2020

The social anatomy of adverse childhood experiences and aggression in a representative sample of young adults in the U.S.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 02 12;88:15-27. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

NORC at the University of Chicago, 4350 East-West Highway, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States.

Objective The current study assesses the effect of adverse childhood experiences on later aggression and violence across young adult relationships contexts, including intimate partners, friends, or strangers. Method Surveys were conducted with a nationally representative sample of young adults ages 18-32, drawn from the AmeriSpeak panel, a probability-based panel with coverage of 97% of U.S. households. The weighted study sample is 2284 young adult respondents, of whom 1561 reported being in an intimate partnership. Results Rates of verbal aggression perpetrated by young adults declined with the intimacy of the relationship, such that aggression against a partner (72%) exceeded aggression directed at friends (43%) and strangers (34%). Similar rates of physical violence (about 9%) were reportedly perpetrated against partners, friends, and strangers. Adjusting for a range of personal characteristics, both adverse childhood experiences and recent stressors in these young adult lives exhibited direct associations with verbal and physically aggressive outcomes. Conclusions In models of verbal and physical aggression across relationship contexts, childhood adversity exhibits lasting effects unaccounted for by important proximal life circumstances, including recent life stressors, mental health, and substance use behaviors. These results provide empirical insights for clinical treatment of young adults prone to aggressive conflicts as well as input to positive youth development programming to foster healthy approaches to conflict.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.10.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Regional Rural-Urban Differences in E-Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use in the United States.

J Rural Health 2019 06 14;35(3):395-404. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Statistics and Methodology, NORC at The University of Chicago, Bethesda, Maryland.

Purpose: To determine whether there are rural/urban differences in e-cigarette use and reasons for use that vary across the 10 Health & Human Services (HHS) regions.

Methods: Age-adjusted bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted for n = 225,413 respondents to the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement-Current Population Survey to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use. Reasons for e-cigarette use were collected from n = 16,023 self-respondents who reported ever using e-cigarettes.

Findings: While nationally rural residents appeared more likely to use e-cigarettes, adjusted results indicated that current e-cigarette use was significantly less likely across the northern and western regions (New England, East North Central, Heartland, North Central Mountain, Northwest, and Southwest Pacific regions). Reasons for e-cigarette use differed by urban/rural status and region; for example, the rationale to use e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid was significantly more common among rural compared to urban adults in the New England and New York/New Jersey regions, but less common in the Southeast.

Conclusions: For several regions, there were no significant rural/urban differences in e-cigarette use and reasons for use. Yet those regions that present differences face the need to develop public health approaches to minimize urban/rural disparities in health education, services, and outcomes related to tobacco use, particularly where access to health care is limited. Public health campaigns and guidance for clinical care within HHS regions should be tailored to reflect regional differences in beliefs about e-cigarettes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699764PMC
June 2019

Variations in support for secondhand smoke restrictions across diverse rural regions of the United States.

Prev Med 2018 11 24;116:157-165. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Ohio State University, United States of America.

Significant disparities exist between rural-urban U.S.

Populations: Besides higher smoking rates, rural Americans are less likely to be protected from SHS. Few studies focus across all regions, obscuring regional-level differences. This study compares support for SHS restrictions across all HHS regions.

Data: 2014/15 TUS-CPS; respondents (n = 228,967): 47,805 were rural residents and 181,162 urban. We examined bi-variates across regions and urban-rural adjusted odds ratios within each. Smoking inside the home was assessed along with attitudes toward smoking in bars, casinos, playgrounds, cars, and cars with kids. Urban respondents were significantly more supportive of all SHS policies: (e.g. smoking in bars [57.9% vs. 51.4%]; support for kids in cars [94.8% vs. 92.5%]. Greatest difference between urban-rural residents was in Mid-Atlantic (bar restrictions) and Southeast (home bans): almost 10% less supportive. Logistic regression confirmed rural residents least likely, overall, to support SHS in homes (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.74, 0.81); in cars (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79, 0.95), on playgrounds (OR = 0.88, 95% CI.83, 0.94) and in bars OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.85, 0.92), when controlling for demographics and smoking status. South Central rural residents were significantly less likely to support SHS policies-home bans, smoking in cars with kids, on playgrounds, in bars and casinos; while Heartland rural residents were significantly more supportive of policies restricting smoking in cars, cars with kids and on playgrounds. Southeast and South Central had lowest policy score with no comprehensive state-level SHS policies. Understanding differences is important to target interventions to reduce exposure to SHS and related health disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.09.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6689396PMC
November 2018

Validation of a new continuous geographic isolation scale: A tool for rural health disparities research.

Soc Sci Med 2018 10 8;215:123-132. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

NORC at the University of Chicago, USA.

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new continuous measure for rural health disparities research that characterizes geographic areas according to a perspective of access to resources. We call the measure Isolation and anticipate it will be useful as an alternative to commonly used rural classification schemes (e.g., the Census Bureau's measure). Following the best known standards for measuring rurality, it captures the trade-off between access to resource-rich, high-population-density areas and the cost of travel to those areas; thus even intrinsically low-resource areas may have high access to nearby resources. Validity was tested with proxies such as distance to hospitals, physician availability, and access to high quality food. The Isolation scale demonstrated good construct validity (i.e., both convergent and criterion validity). Fit statistics indicated that, compared to other commonly-used urban/rural definitions, the Isolation scale was the best overall measure when predicting several proxies for rurality, even when categorized. We also show that the measure does a substantially better job at explaining national health outcome data at the state level. This new continuous Isolation scale shows considerable promise for improving our conceptualization, theorization, and measurement of the features of rurality that are pertinent to rural health disparities research, and can also be useful to policy makers who may find value in using isolation thresholds that are most relevant to their policy planning needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182768PMC
October 2018

Dating Relationship Dynamics, Mental Health, and Dating Victimization: A Longitudinal Path Analysis.

J Res Adolesc 2019 09 17;29(3):777-791. Epub 2018 Jun 17.

Bowling Green State University.

The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal association between adolescent dating relationship dynamics (measures of intimacy and problem dynamics), mental health, and physical and/or sexual victimization by a dating partner. Gender-stratified analyses were conducted in a sample of 261 adolescents, ages 10-18 at baseline, interviewed in three annual waves (2013-2015) of the nationally representative Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV). Among male daters, better mental health at baseline was negatively associated with problem dynamics at follow-up, and aspects of problem dynamics at baseline predicted worse mental health at follow-up. However, unexpectedly, aspects of relationship intimacy at baseline were also negatively associated with mental health at follow-up. Male daters' victimization did not mediate longitudinal measures of mental health or of relationship dynamics, but did predict worse mental health at follow-up. Among female daters, we found no longitudinal associations between mental health and intimacy or problem relationship dynamics, in either direction. However, victimization mediated aspects of female daters' reported relationship dynamics. Dating violence prevention efforts should reflect that adolescent females reporting controlling behaviors and feelings of passionate love may be at increased risk for victimization. Positive youth development efforts should attend to the bidirectional associations of mental health and dating relationship dynamics over time, particularly for male adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941487PMC
September 2019

Perpetration of Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: The Role of Conditional Tolerance for Violence and Friendship Factors.

J Interpers Violence 2020 03 1;35(5-6):1206-1228. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Bowling Green State University, OH, USA.

Research has pointed to the salience of friendships in predicting abuse in adolescent dating relationships. The current study investigates the perpetration of physical and sexual dating abuse as predicted by individual conditional tolerance for dating abuse within the context of friendship behaviors and group characteristics. Using two waves of the National Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV; = 511 daters aged 12-18 years), we investigated the effects of baseline individual tolerance for hitting dating partners and friendship factors on perpetration of physical and sexual adolescent dating abuse (ADA) approximately 1 year later. Conditional tolerance for hitting boyfriends was associated with ADA perpetration in the absence of friendship characteristics. Daters who reported recent discussion of a problem with friends and female daters who named all-girl friendship groups were more likely to report ADA perpetration. Close friendships are an avenue for preventing ADA perpetration. Furthermore, ADA perpetration may be reduced by targeting conditional tolerance for violence particularly against male partners within female friendship groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260517693002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298845PMC
March 2020

The Relationship Between Parents' Intimate Partner Victimization and Youths' Adolescent Relationship Abuse.

J Youth Adolesc 2018 02 12;47(2):321-333. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Public Health Research, NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Witnessing inter-parental intimate partner violence has been found to be associated with adolescents' own relationship abuse. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of inter-parental intimate partner verbal and physical violence victimization reported by parents and their children's reports of dating abuse experiences and behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on a sample of 610 parents (42% male and 67% white) and their dating adolescent children (ages 12-21 years; 52% male). Parents reported five types of victimization by their partners in the past year, while youth concurrently reported their own victimization and perpetration within their dating relationships. Three profiles of parents' intimate partner victimization were related to youth relationship abuse experiences and behaviors. Children of parents who experienced verbal abuse were more likely to experience similar patterns in their own relationships, whereas children of parents who report physical and verbal abuse were more likely to report psychological, physical and sexual abusive encounters in their partnerships. Findings indicate that parents' relationship quality and abusive behaviors may have a long lasting effect on their children as they enter mid and late adolescence. Parents should pay attention to their own relationship quality and behavior even as their teen-age children gain independence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0733-1DOI Listing
February 2018

Concurrent Trajectories of Female Drinking and Smoking Behaviors Throughout Transitions to Pregnancy and Early Parenthood.

Prev Sci 2017 05;18(4):416-427

NORC at the University of Chicago, 4350 E-West Hwy, 8th Floor, Bethesda, MD, 20910, USA.

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether there are distinct etiological processes explaining dual usage of alcohol and conventional cigarettes by mothers from preconception through the early parenting years. Data on 8800 biological mothers were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), representative of US births in 2001. A general growth mixture model (GGMM) was used to empirically identify developmental trajectories of maternal smoking and drinking over the 5-6-year study period. Six classes defined by alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were identified. These included a nonsmoking, low probability of drinking class (41%), and two drinking classes displaying no smoking with either moderate (26%) or escalating high (8%) probability drinking. Additionally, two predominantly smoking classes were identified, one displaying temporary reduction in smoking during pregnancy and low probability of drinking (11%) and one following a trajectory of persistent heavy smoking with a declining probability of drinking (9%). The sixth class was described by temporary reduction in smoking during pregnancy with high probability of drinking (6%). Covariates differentially predicted class membership, e.g., having a high school degree but not further education predicted concurrent drinking and smoking, and breastfeeding for more than 6 months is protective against concurrent use. Prior to conception, during prenatal care, and in post-natal clinical visits, whether for personal or pediatric care, screening women of reproductive age via characteristics that predict heterogeneity in smoking and drinking trajectories may help guide prevention and treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-017-0780-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478235PMC
May 2017

Postpartum Domestic Violence in Homes With Young Children: The Role of Maternal and Paternal Drinking.

Violence Against Women 2018 02 24;24(2):144-162. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

1 NORC at the University of Chicago, Bethesda, MD, USA.

There has been limited investigation of mothers' drinking patterns and their experience of domestic abuse while parenting young children, especially in the context of co-resident fathers' drinking. Using data representative of the 2001 U.S. birth cohort, the authors conducted longitudinal latent class analyses of maternal drinking over four perinatal time points as predictors of maternal victimization at 2 years postpartum due to intimate partner violence. Women classified as higher risk drinkers over the study period faced significantly increased risk of physical abuse while parenting a 2-year-old child. Among non-drinking mothers, paternal binge drinking signaled additional risk, with clinical and programmatic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801216678093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5441977PMC
February 2018

Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

J Youth Adolesc 2016 09 14;45(9):1902-16. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

NORC at the University of Chicago, 4350 East-West Highway 8th Floor, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.

Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0521-3DOI Listing
September 2016

Social Integration and Maternal Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis of a National Birth Cohort.

Matern Child Health J 2016 08;20(8):1586-97

Public Health Research, NORC at the University of Chicago, 4350 East-West Highway, 8th Floor, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.

Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with a general growth mixture model and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5-6 year period beginning 3 months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5 %), temporary quitters (9.4 %), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3 %), delayed initiators (5.1 %), and persistent smokers (11.7 %). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond 6 months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions for Practice Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers' emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, was a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-1958-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4958414PMC
August 2016

Parenting Profiles and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Attitudes and Experiences.

J Youth Adolesc 2016 May 23;45(5):959-72. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

NORC at the University of Chicago, 4350 East-West Highway, 8th Floor, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.

Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0448-8DOI Listing
May 2016

Maternal Alcohol Consumption During the Perinatal and Early Parenting Period: A Longitudinal Analysis.

Matern Child Health J 2016 Feb;20(2):376-85

American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC, USA.

Objectives: Despite potential health risks for women and children, one in five women report alcohol use during pregnancy and a significant proportion of those who quit during pregnancy return to drinking post-delivery. This study seeks to understand the longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption before, during pregnancy and post-delivery, and the role of maternal characteristics for purposes of informing prevention design.

Methods: General growth mixture models were used to describe the average developmental patterns of maternal weekly drinking quantity at six time points, from preconception through child entering kindergarten, as well as heterogeneity in these patterns among 9100 mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study representing the 2001 US national birth cohort.

Results: Four distinct classes of mothers were defined by their longitudinal alcohol consumption patterns: Low Probability Drinkers (50.3 %), Escalating Risk Drinkers (12.0 %), Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (27.4 %), and Early Parenting Quitters (10.2 %). Heterogeneous covariate associations were observed. For example, mothers who gave birth after age 36 were twice as likely to be Escalating Risk Drinkers and Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (vs Low Probability Drinkers), but not more likely to be Early Parenting Quitters, when compared to mothers who gave birth between the ages of 26 and 35.

Conclusions For Practice: There is significant heterogeneity in maternal longitudinal alcohol use patterns during the perinatal period. Baseline maternal characteristics and behavior associated with these heterogeneous patterns provide valuable tools to identify potential risky drinkers during this critical time period and may be synthesized to tailor pre- and postnatal clinical counseling protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-015-1836-5DOI Listing
February 2016
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