Publications by authors named "Elizabeth A Lax"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Point Blank: A Retrospective Review of Self-inflicted Gunshot Wounds to the Hand.

Hand (N Y) 2021 Jun 10:15589447211014603. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH, USA.

Background: A paucity of literature exists specifically examining self-inflicted (SI) gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the hand and wrist, which impart greater energy and have a higher risk of adverse events than non-self-inflicted (NSI) GSWs.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients who presented to our plastic surgery service after sustaining acute GSWs involving the hand and wrist between 2016 and 2018.

Results: We identified 60 patients who sustained GSWs involving the hand and wrist; 17 (28%) were SI, and 43 (72%) were NSI. Within the SI group, 100% of patients were Caucasian, with an average age of 54 years. Within the NSI cohort, 77% of patients were Black, 19% were Caucasian, and 4% identified as other. While not statistically significant, we noted a substantial increase in patients requiring operative intervention in the SI cohort (65% SI vs 37% NSI, = .08). There was a statistically significant increase in patients requiring more than 1 operation in SI patients (24% SI vs 5% NSI, = .04). Patients who sustained SI injuries were also more likely to present with acute carpal tunnel syndrome requiring urgent surgical release and to develop wound infections (12% vs 0%, = .08).

Conclusions: Self-inflicted GSWs involving the hand and wrist are associated with greater morbidity than their low-energy NSI counterparts. Individuals presenting with SI GSWs are more likely to be older, to require multiple operations, to develop infections, and to present with acute carpal tunnel syndrome requiring urgent surgical decompression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15589447211014603DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of Therapeutic Benefit of Bupivacaine HCl Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block as Part of an Enhanced Recovery Pathway Traditional Oral and Intravenous Pain Control after Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial.

Am Surg 2019 Dec;85(12):1363-1368

From the *Department of Surgery, and the †Department of Colorectal Surgery, Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Southfield, Michigan.

Enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs), when combined with transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks, have been proven to reduce the length of stay (LOS) and improve quality outcomes. Nonopioid pain management is an essential component of this pathway, leading to a reduction in immobility, postoperative ileus, and an increase in patient satisfaction. TAP block variations have been studied in general and gynecologic surgery. This study evaluates the effectiveness of laparoscopic TAP blocks in conjunction with the benefit of an ERP. One hundred thirty-seven consecutive laparoscopic and robotic-assisted Colorectal Surgery patients received TAP blocks under laparoscopic guidance while under anesthesia, randomized to a placebo, bupivacaine TAP block, or bupivacaine TAP block with an ERP arm of the trial. Patient demographics, operative techniques, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed using statistical analysis software. Our main objective was to determine short-term benefits of TAP blocks on reducing total narcotic consumption. Secondary objectives included effects of TAP blocks on time to ambulation, time to bowel function, and LOS. To isolate the effect of the TAP blocks, no efforts were made to control nursing or patient education in patients managed without an ERP. Of 137 patients, 14 were withdrawn. All cases were elective, with the main diagnosis colon cancer or dysplastic polyps (47.1%). The median age in each group was comparable ( = 0.12), with female majority in both groups (58.5%). Most procedures were segmental colon resections (74.7%). Thirty-one patients received a placebo, 41 bupivacaine TAP, and 51 bupivacaine TAP plus ERP. In terms of primary endpoints, the bupivacaine plus ERP arm used statistically significant less IV narcotics on postoperative day 1 and in total ( = 0.001, 0.008). All patients ambulated on average within the first 24 hours postoperatively, with the TAP plus ERP group approximately 0.5 days sooner ( = 0.001). The TAP plus ERP group also had a return of bowel function and LOS approximately 24 hours early ( = 0.001 and = 0.001). This study shows that a laparoscopically placed bupivacaine TAP block when used as part of an ERP can reduce LOS, postoperative narcotics, time to ambulation and bowel function, and LOS. Defined pain regimens with auxiliary staff teaching can add to the improvement in quality outcomes in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and, with the addition of the TAP block, can add to patient satisfaction and lower hospital costs.
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December 2019

Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocks in Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: Better Pain Control and Patient Outcomes with Liposomal Bupivacaine than Bupivacaine.

Am Surg 2019 Sep;85(9):1013-1016

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks are a safe and effective way to provide immediate postoperative pain relief in surgical patients, and have been shown to decrease narcotic requirements. Concerns about complications of narcotics, increase in hospital length of stay (LOS), and health-care costs make this of particular interest. We compared standard bupivacaine TAP blocks with those carried out using liposomal bupivacaine to evaluate postoperative outcomes. Fifty patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colectomy received laparoscopic liposomal bupivacaine TAP blocks using 80 cc of local anesthetic, and data were collected prospectively during hospitalization. Data collected included amount of narcotic medication used during hospitalization, number of days to ambulation, number of days to bowel function, and LOS. These patients were compared with the last 50 patients recruited to the control/bupivacaine TAP block arm of the study. The same data parameters were collected and all patients were on an enhanced recovery protocol, which included scheduled acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and gabapentin by mouth, as well as clear liquid diet starting on postoperative day zero. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's test and Fisher's exact test; < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Patients treated with liposomal bupivacaine needed less narcotics (5.06 18.75 mg, = 0.0002), had earlier bowel function (1.7 2.4 days, = 0.0002), and shorter LOS (2.7 3.4 days, = 0.0146). Patients undergoing laparoscopic colon resections seem to require fewer narcotics and have better patient outcomes with liposomal bupivacaine TAP blocks. Based on our data, liposomal bupivacaine seems to be superior to bupivacaine for TAP blocks.
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September 2019

The vertebral nerve: A comprehensive review of its form and function.

J Clin Neurosci 2017 Jul 27;41:1-5. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Seattle Science Foundation, Seattle, WA, United States.

The literature is littered with variable and scant reports of the vertebral nerve. The present paper reviews the literature regarding this nervous structure of the neck and attempts to clarify a number of issues surrounding its form, function, and implications of surgical manipulation. The nerve may arise from the stellate ganglion or the ansa subclavia, amongst a number of other structures. Additionally, the terminal insertion of the vertebral nerve varies in the reported literature, with authors observing various terminations. Animal models of the vertebral nerve have limited value, as variations between species and with species have been observed. This review also indicates that contradictory evidence exists regarding the clinical implications of vertebral nerve damage. Although irritation may result in ocular disturbance, hearing loss, headaches, and dizziness, a high degree of incongruity exists around whether or not any clinical findings will actually be observed. Based on our review of the available literature and recent cadaveric research, it appears it may be more logical to classify the vertebral nerve as a variable ramus communicans that connects the stellate or inferior cervical ganglia to the lower cervical spinal nerves and not a structure that ascends entirely with the vertebral artery to enter the cranium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017.04.008DOI Listing
July 2017

Hurdles in US Surgical Training for International Medical Graduates.

Indian J Surg 2016 Aug 1;78(4):257-8. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Department of Surgery, Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Southfield, MI USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12262-016-1517-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4987571PMC
August 2016

Role of Community Program Graduates in the Surgical Workforce: Can Recruitment Efforts Be Focused to Fulfill Future Demands for General Surgeons?

Am Surg 2015 Sep;81(9):e342-4

Department of Surgery, Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Southfield, Michigan, USA.

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September 2015

Bronchoscopic retrieval of a bullet using a Dormia basket: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2014 Nov 3;8:358. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Department of Surgery, Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, 10061 West Nine Mile Road, Southfield, MI 48075, USA.

Introduction: Penetrating bullet injury to the trachea is a rarity, and therefore standardized procedure for injury management and foreign body removal has not been established. This is a case report describing retrieval of a bullet from the bronchus intermedius using flexible bronchoscopy and a Dormia basket.

Case Presentation: A 19-year-old African American woman presented with a gunshot wound to her right neck just lateral to the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and just superior to the clavicle. Imaging showed a bullet lodged within her right bronchus with no evidence of vascular injury. Fiberoptic flexible bronchoscopy in combination with biopsy forceps and a Dormia basket were used for bullet removal.

Conclusions: Removal of foreign bodies from the airway is essential in order to avoid complications such as tracheal stenosis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis and foreign body migration. To the best of our knowledge, this case is one of only several cases reporting the use of flexible bronchoscopy for bullet removal, and this is the only case to describe the use of a Dormia basket. This case demonstrates bronchoscopy as a safe and effective means of minimally invasive removal of a bullet fragment from the bronchus in a trauma setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-8-358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4234521PMC
November 2014

Enlarging breast mass in a 55-year-old woman.

JAMA Surg 2014 Mar;149(3):305-6

Department of Surgery, Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Southfield, Michigan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2013.1249DOI Listing
March 2014

Genotoxicity of benzene and its metabolites.

Mutat Res 2004 Mar;566(2):99-130

Division of Pathology and Toxicology, American Heath Foundation, 1 Dana Road, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.

The potential role of genotoxicity in human leukemias associated with benzene (BZ) exposures was investigated by a systematic review of over 1400 genotoxicity test results for BZ and its metabolites. Studies of rodents exposed to radiolabeled BZ found a low level of radiolabel in isolated DNA with no preferential binding in target tissues of neoplasia. Adducts were not identified by 32P-postlabeling (equivalent to a covalent binding index <0.002) under the dosage conditions producing neoplasia in the rodent bioassays, and this method would have detected adducts at 1/10,000th the levels reported in the DNA-binding studies. Adducts were detected by 32P-postlabeling in vitro and following high acute BZ doses in vivo, but levels were about 100-fold less than those found by DNA binding. These findings suggest that DNA-adduct formation may not be a significant mechanism for BZ-induced neoplasia in rodents. The evaluation of other genotoxicity test results revealed that BZ and its metabolites did not produce reverse mutations in Salmonella typhimurium but were clastogenic and aneugenic, producing micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and DNA strand breaks. Rodent and human data were compared, and BZ genotoxicity results in both were similar for the available tests. Also, the biotransformation of BZ was qualitatively similar in rodents, humans and non-human primates, further indicating that rodent and human genotoxicity data were compatible. The genotoxicity test results for BZ and its metabolites were the most similar to those of topoisomerase II inhibitors and provided less support for proposed mechanisms involving DNA reactivity, mitotic spindle poisoning or oxidative DNA damage as genotoxic mechanisms; all of which have been demonstrated experimentally for BZ or its metabolites. Studies of the chromosomal translocations found in BZ-exposed persons and secondary human leukemias produced by topoisomerase II inhibitors provide some additional support for this mechanism being potentially operative in BZ-induced leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1383-5742(03)00053-xDOI Listing
March 2004
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