Publications by authors named "Elizabeth A Holland"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Birth cohort-specific trends of sun-related behaviors among individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 23;21(1):692. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Individuals from melanoma-prone families have similar or reduced sun-protective behaviors compared to the general population. Studies on trends in sun-related behaviors have been temporally and geographically limited.

Methods: Individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families (GenoMEL) were retrospectively asked about sunscreen use, sun exposure (time spent outside), sunburns, and sunbed use at several timepoints over their lifetime. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association between these outcomes and birth cohort defined by decade spans, after adjusting for covariates.

Results: A total of 2407 participants from 547 families across 17 centers were analyzed. Sunscreen use increased across subsequent birth cohorts, and although the likelihood of sunburns increased until the 1950s birth cohort, it decreased thereafter. Average sun exposure did not change across the birth cohorts, and the likelihood of sunbed use increased in more recent birth cohorts. We generally did not find any differences in sun-related behavior when comparing melanoma cases to non-cases. Melanoma cases had increased sunscreen use, decreased sun exposure, and decreased odds of sunburn and sunbed use after melanoma diagnosis compared to before diagnosis.

Conclusions: Although sunscreen use has increased and the likelihood of sunburns has decreased in more recent birth cohorts, individuals in melanoma-prone families have not reduced their overall sun exposure and had an increased likelihood of sunbed use in more recent birth cohorts. These observations demonstrate partial improvements in melanoma prevention and suggest that additional intervention strategies may be needed to achieve optimal sun-protective behavior in melanoma-prone families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10424-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063451PMC
April 2021

FRAMe: Familial Risk Assessment of Melanoma-a risk prediction tool to guide CDKN2A germline mutation testing in Australian familial melanoma.

Fam Cancer 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Centre for Cancer Research, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Germline mutations in CDKN2A greatly increase risk of developing cutaneous melanoma. We have constructed a risk prediction model, Familial Risk Assessment of Melanoma (FRAMe), for estimating the likelihood of carrying a heritable CDKN2A mutation among Australian families, where the prevalence of these mutations is low. Using logistic regression, we analysed characteristics of 299 Australian families recruited through the Sydney site of GenoMEL (international melanoma genetics consortium) with at least three cases of cutaneous melanoma (in situ and invasive) among first-degree blood relatives, for predictors of the presence of a pathogenic CDKN2A mutation. The final multivariable prediction model was externally validated in an independent cohort of 61 melanoma kindreds recruited through GenoMEL Queensland. Family variables independently associated with the presence of a CDKN2A mutation in a multivariable model were number of individuals diagnosed with melanoma under 40 years of age, number of individuals diagnosed with more than one primary melanoma, and number of individuals blood related to a melanoma case in the first degree diagnosed with any cancer excluding melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. The number of individuals diagnosed with pancreatic cancer was not independently associated with mutation status. The risk prediction model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.851 (95% CI 0.793, 0.909) in the training dataset, and 0.745 (95%CI 0.612, 0.877) in the validation dataset. This model is the first to be developed and validated using only Australian data, which is important given the higher rate of melanoma in the population. This model will help to effectively identify families suitable for genetic counselling and testing in areas of high ambient ultraviolet radiation. A user-friendly electronic nomogram is available at www.melanomarisk.org.au .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-020-00209-xDOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of the contribution of germline variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 to uveal and cutaneous melanoma.

Melanoma Res 2019 10;29(5):483-490

Oncogenomics Group.

Germline mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose individuals to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and elevated risk of other cancers, including those of the pancreas and prostate. BRCA2 mutation carriers may have increased risk of uveal melanoma (UM) and cutaneous melanoma (CM), but associations with these cancers in BRCA1 mutation carriers have been mixed. Here, we further assessed whether UM and CM are associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 by assessing the presence, segregation and reported/predicted pathogenicity of rare germline mutations (variant allele frequency < 0.01) in families with multiple members affected by these cancers. Whole-genome or exome sequencing was performed on 160 CM and/or UM families from Australia, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. Between one and five cases were sequenced from each family, totalling 307 individuals. Sanger sequencing was performed to validate BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline variants and to assess carrier status in other available family members. A nonsense and a frameshift mutation were identified in BRCA1, both resulting in premature truncation of the protein (the first at p.Q516 and the second at codon 91, after the introduction of seven amino acids due to a frameshift deletion). These variants co-segregated with CM in individuals who consented for testing and were present in individuals with pancreatic, prostate and breast cancer in the respective families. In addition, 33 rare missense mutations (variant allele frequency ranging from 0.00782 to 0.000001 in the aggregated ExAC data) were identified in 34 families. Examining the previously reported evidence of functional consequence of these variants revealed all had been classified as either benign or of unknown consequence. Seeking further evidence of an association between BRCA1 variants and melanoma, we examined two whole-genome/exome sequenced collections of sporadic CM patients (total N = 763). We identified one individual with a deleterious BRCA1 variant, however, this allele was lost (with the wild-type allele remaining) in the corresponding CM, indicating that defective BRCA1 was not a driver of tumorigenesis in this instance. Although this is the first time that deleterious BRCA1 mutations have been described in high-density CM families, we conclude that there is an insufficient burden of evidence to state that the increased familial CM or UM susceptibility is because of these variants. In addition, in conjunction with other studies, we conclude that the previously described association between BRCA2 mutations and UM susceptibility represents a rare source of increased risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716616PMC
October 2019

Estimating CDKN2A mutation carrier probability among global familial melanoma cases using GenoMELPREDICT.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Aug 5;81(2):386-394. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital Lund, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Although rare in the general population, highly penetrant germline mutations in CDKN2A are responsible for 5%-40% of melanoma cases reported in melanoma-prone families. We sought to determine whether MELPREDICT was generalizable to a global series of families with melanoma and whether performance improvements can be achieved.

Methods: In total, 2116 familial melanoma cases were ascertained by the international GenoMEL Consortium. We recapitulated the MELPREDICT model within our data (GenoMELPREDICT) to assess performance improvements by adding phenotypic risk factors and history of pancreatic cancer. We report areas under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) along with net reclassification indices (NRIs) as performance metrics.

Results: MELPREDICT performed well (AUC 0.752, 95% CI 0.730-0.775), and GenoMELPREDICT performance was similar (AUC 0.748, 95% CI 0.726-0.771). Adding a reported history of pancreatic cancer yielded discriminatory improvement (P < .0001) in GenoMELPREDICT (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.750-0.793, NRI 0.40). Including phenotypic risk factors did not improve performance.

Conclusion: The MELPREDICT model functioned well in a global data set of familial melanoma cases. Adding pancreatic cancer history improved model prediction. GenoMELPREDICT is a simple tool for predicting CDKN2A mutational status among melanoma patients from melanoma-prone families and can aid in directing these patients to receive genetic testing or cancer risk counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.01.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6634996PMC
August 2019

Rare Variant, Gene-Based Association Study of Hereditary Melanoma Using Whole-Exome Sequencing.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 12;109(12)

Melanoma Genetics Program, MGH Cancer Center, MGH, Boston, MA.

Background: Extraordinary progress has been made in our understanding of common variants in many diseases, including melanoma. Because the contribution of rare coding variants is not as well characterized, we performed an exome-wide, gene-based association study of familial cutaneous melanoma (CM) and ocular melanoma (OM).

Methods: Using 11 990 jointly processed individual DNA samples, whole-exome sequencing was performed, followed by large-scale joint variant calling using GATK (Genome Analysis ToolKit). PLINK/SEQ was used for statistical analysis of genetic variation. Four models were used to estimate the association among different types of variants. In vitro functional validation was performed using three human melanoma cell lines in 2D and 3D proliferation assays. In vivo tumor growth was assessed using xenografts of human melanoma A375 melanoma cells in nude mice (eight mice per group). All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Strong signals were detected for CDKN2A (Pmin = 6.16 × 10-8) in the CM cohort (n = 273) and BAP1 (Pmin = 3.83 × 10-6) in the OM (n = 99) cohort. Eleven genes that exhibited borderline association (P < 10-4) were independently validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas melanoma cohort (379 CM, 47 OM) and a matched set of 3563 European controls with CDKN2A (P = .009), BAP1 (P = .03), and EBF3 (P = 4.75 × 10-4), a candidate risk locus, all showing evidence of replication. EBF3 was then evaluated using germline data from a set of 132 familial melanoma cases and 4769 controls of UK origin (joint P = 1.37 × 10-5). Somatically, loss of EBF3 expression correlated with progression, poorer outcome, and high MITF tumors. Functionally, induction of EBF3 in melanoma cells reduced cell growth in vitro, retarded tumor formation in vivo, and reduced MITF levels.

Conclusions: The results of this large rare variant germline association study further define the mutational landscape of hereditary melanoma and implicate EBF3 as a possible CM predisposition gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5939858PMC
December 2017

Nonsense mutations in the shelterin complex genes ACD and TERF2IP in familial melanoma.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2015 Feb 13;107(2). Epub 2014 Dec 13.

Affiliations of authors: QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia (LGA, ALP, MG, PJ, JMP, JS, VB, SW, KDR, MSS, GWM, NGM, NKH); Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK (CDRE, TMK, DJA); Department of Clinical Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark (KW, AMG); Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK (MH, HSn, DTB, JANB); Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (JC, KMB); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias (IUOPA) Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain (VQ, AJR, CLO); Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, NCI Frederick, SAIC-Frederick Inc., Frederick MD (XZ, KJ); Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands (RvD, NAG); Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Oncology and Pathology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden (HO, CI, ÅB, GJ); Translational Genomics Institute, Phoenix, AZ (JMT); University of Sydney at Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia (EAH, HSc, GJM); Melanoma Institute Australia, North Sydney, NSW, Australia (EAH, HSc, GJM).

Background: The shelterin complex protects chromosomal ends by regulating how the telomerase complex interacts with telomeres. Following the recent finding in familial melanoma of inactivating germline mutations in POT1, encoding a member of the shelterin complex, we searched for mutations in the other five components of the shelterin complex in melanoma families.

Methods: Next-generation sequencing techniques were used to screen 510 melanoma families (with unknown genetic etiology) and control cohorts for mutations in shelterin complex encoding genes: ACD, TERF2IP, TERF1, TERF2, and TINF 2. Maximum likelihood and LOD [logarithm (base 10) of odds] analyses were used. Mutation clustering was assessed with χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests. P values under .05 were considered statistically significant (one-tailed with Yates' correction).

Results: Six families had mutations in ACD and four families carried TERF2IP variants, which included nonsense mutations in both genes (p.Q320X and p.R364X, respectively) and point mutations that cosegregated with melanoma. Of five distinct mutations in ACD, four clustered in the POT1 binding domain, including p.Q320X. This clustering of novel mutations in the POT1 binding domain of ACD was statistically higher (P = .005) in melanoma probands compared with population control individuals (n = 6785), as were all novel and rare variants in both ACD (P = .040) and TERF2IP (P = .022). Families carrying ACD and TERF2IP mutations were also enriched with other cancer types, suggesting that these variants also predispose to a broader spectrum of cancers than just melanoma. Novel mutations were also observed in TERF1, TERF2, and TINF2, but these were not convincingly associated with melanoma.

Conclusions: Our findings add to the growing support for telomere dysregulation as a key process associated with melanoma susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dju408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4334787PMC
February 2015

Prevalence and predictors of germline CDKN2A mutations for melanoma cases from Australia, Spain and the United Kingdom.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2014 20;12(1):20. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Westmead Institute for Cancer Research and Melanoma Institute, Australia, University of Sydney at Westmead Millennium Institute, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Mutations in the CDKN2A and CDK4 genes predispose to melanoma. From three case-control studies of cutaneous melanoma, we estimated the prevalence and predictors of these mutations for people from regions with widely differing latitudes and melanoma incidence.

Methods: Population-based cases and controls from the United Kingdom (1586 cases, 499 controls) and Australia (596 early-onset cases, 476 controls), and a hospital-based series from Spain (747 cases, 109 controls), were screened for variants in all exons of CDKN2A and the p16INK4A binding domain of CDK4.

Results: The prevalence of mutations for people with melanoma was similar across regions: 2.3%, 2.5% and 2.0% for Australia, Spain and the United Kingdom respectively. The strongest predictors of carrying a mutation were having multiple primaries (odds ratio (OR) = 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5, 11.6) for 2 primaries and OR = 32.4 (95% CI: 14.7, 71.2) for 3 or more compared with 1 primary only); and family history (OR = 3.8; 95% CI:1.89, 7.5) for 1 affected first- or second-degree relative and OR = 23.2 (95% CI: 11.3, 47.6) for 2 or more compared with no affected relatives). Only 1.1% of melanoma cases with neither a family history nor multiple primaries had mutations.

Conclusions: There is a low probability (<2%) of detecting a germline CDKN2A mutation in people with melanoma except for those with a strong family history of melanoma (≥2 affected relatives, 25%), three or more primary melanomas (29%), or more than one primary melanoma who also have other affected relatives (27%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1897-4287-12-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361137PMC
March 2015

MC1R genotype as a predictor of early-onset melanoma, compared with self-reported and physician-measured traditional risk factors: an Australian case-control-family study.

BMC Cancer 2013 Sep 4;13:406. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Background: Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are very common and are associated with melanoma risk, but their contribution to melanoma risk prediction compared with traditional risk factors is unknown. We aimed to 1) evaluate the separate and incremental contribution of MC1R genotype to prediction of early-onset melanoma, and compare this with the contributions of physician-measured and self-reported traditional risk factors, and 2) develop risk prediction models that include MC1R, and externally validate these models using an independent dataset from a genetically similar melanoma population.

Methods: Using data from an Australian population-based, case-control-family study, we included 413 case and 263 control participants with sequenced MC1R genotype, clinical skin examination and detailed questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate predicted probabilities of melanoma. Results were externally validated using data from a similar study in England.

Results: When added to a base multivariate model containing only demographic factors, MC1R genotype improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) by 6% (from 0.67 to 0.73; P < 0.001) and improved the quartile classification by a net 26% of participants. In a more extensive multivariate model, the factors that contributed significantly to the AUC were MC1R genotype, number of nevi and previous non-melanoma skin cancer; the AUC was 0.78 (95% CI 0.75-0.82) for the model with self-reported nevi and 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.86) for the model with physician-counted nevi. Factors that did not further contribute were sun and sunbed exposure and pigmentation characteristics. Adding MC1R to a model containing pigmentation characteristics and other self-reported risk factors increased the AUC by 2.1% (P = 0.01) and improved the quartile classification by a net 10% (95% CI 1-18%, P = 0.03).

Conclusions: Although MC1R genotype is strongly associated with skin and hair phenotype, it was a better predictor of early-onset melanoma than was pigmentation characteristics. Physician-measured nevi and previous non-melanoma skin cancer were also strong predictors. There might be modest benefit to measuring MC1R genotype for risk prediction even if information about traditional self-reported or clinically measured pigmentation characteristics and nevi is already available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766240PMC
September 2013

MC1R genotypes and risk of melanoma before age 40 years: a population-based case-control-family study.

Int J Cancer 2012 Aug 30;131(3):E269-81. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Australia.

The contribution of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants to the development of early-onset melanoma is unknown. Using an Australian population-based, case-control-family study, we sequenced MC1R for 565 cases with invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between ages 18 and 39 years, 409 unrelated controls and 518 sibling controls. Variants were classified a priori into "R" variants (D84E, R142H, R151C, I155T, R160W, D294H) and "r" variants (all other nonsynonymous variants). We estimated odds ratios (OR) for melanoma using unconditional (unrelated controls) and conditional (sibling controls) logistic regression. The prevalence of having at least one R or r variant was 86% for cases, 73% for unrelated controls and 81% for sibling controls. R151C conferred the highest risk (per allele OR 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.86-3.56 for the case-unrelated-control analysis and 1.70 (1.12-2.60) for the case-sibling-control analysis). When mutually adjusted, the ORs per R allele were 2.23 (1.77-2.80) and 2.06 (1.47-2.88), respectively, from the two types of analysis, and the ORs per r allele were 1.69 (1.33-2.13) and 1.25 (0.88-1.79), respectively. The associations were stronger for men and those with none or few nevi or with high childhood sun exposure. Adjustment for phenotype, nevi and sun exposure attenuated the overall log OR for R variants by approximately 18% but had lesser influence on r variant risk estimates. MC1R variants explained about 21% of the familial aggregation of melanoma. Some MC1R variants are important determinants of early-onset melanoma. The strength of association with melanoma differs according to the type and number of variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330189PMC
August 2012

A novel recurrent mutation in MITF predisposes to familial and sporadic melanoma.

Nature 2011 Nov 13;480(7375):99-103. Epub 2011 Nov 13.

Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

So far, two genes associated with familial melanoma have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, which we performed in order to identify other genes associated with familial melanoma. We identify one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log of odds (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case-control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case-control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266855PMC
November 2011

Genome-wide association study identifies a new melanoma susceptibility locus at 1q21.3.

Nat Genet 2011 Oct 9;43(11):1114-8. Epub 2011 Oct 9.

Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

We performed a genome-wide association study of melanoma in a discovery cohort of 2,168 Australian individuals with melanoma and 4,387 control individuals. In this discovery phase, we confirm several previously characterized melanoma-associated loci at MC1R, ASIP and MTAP-CDKN2A. We selected variants at nine loci for replication in three independent case-control studies (Europe: 2,804 subjects with melanoma, 7,618 control subjects; United States 1: 1,804 subjects with melanoma, 1,026 control subjects; United States 2: 585 subjects with melanoma, 6,500 control subjects). The combined meta-analysis of all case-control studies identified a new susceptibility locus at 1q21.3 (rs7412746, P = 9.0 × 10(-11), OR in combined replication cohorts of 0.89 (95% CI 0.85-0.95)). We also show evidence suggesting that melanoma associates with 1q42.12 (rs3219090, P = 9.3 × 10(-8)). The associated variants at the 1q21.3 locus span a region with ten genes, and plausible candidate genes for melanoma susceptibility include ARNT and SETDB1. Variants at the 1q21.3 locus do not seem to be associated with human pigmentation or measures of nevus density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227560PMC
October 2011

Melanoma risk for CDKN2A mutation carriers who are relatives of population-based case carriers in Australia and the UK.

J Med Genet 2011 Apr 15;48(4):266-72. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

Center for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, Melbourne School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: CDKN2A mutations confer a substantial risk of cutaneous melanoma; however, the magnitude of risk is uncertain.

Methods: The study estimated the hazard ratio (HR) and the average age specific cumulative risk (ie, penetrance) of reported melanoma for CDKN2A mutation carriers in case families using a modified segregation analysis of the first and higher degree relatives of 35 population-based cases. The study sample included 223 relatives of 13 melanoma cases diagnosed when aged 18-39 years from Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane, Australia, and 322 relatives of 22 melanoma cases diagnosed at any age from Yorkshire, UK.

Results: The estimated HR for melanoma for mutation carriers relative to the general population decreased with regions of increasing ambient ultraviolet (UV) irradiance, being higher for the UK than Australia (87, 95% CI 50 to 153 vs 31, 95% CI 20 to 50, p=0.008), and across Australia, 49 (95% CI 24 to 98) for Melbourne, 44 (95% CI 22 to 88) for Sydney, and 9 (95% CI 2 to 33) for Brisbane (p=0.02). Penetrance did not differ by geographic region. It is estimated that 16% (95% CI 10% to 27%) of UK and 20% (95% CI 13% to 30%) of Australian CDKN2A mutation carriers would be diagnosed with melanoma by age 50 years, and 45% (95% CI 29% to 65%) and 52% (95% CI 37% to 69%), respectively, by age 80 years.

Conclusions: Contrary to the strong association between UV radiation exposure and melanoma risk for the general population, CDKN2A mutation carriers appear to have the same cumulative risk of melanoma irrespective of the ambient UV irradiance of the region in which they live.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2010.086538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432952PMC
April 2011

Population-based, case-control-family design to investigate genetic and environmental influences on melanoma risk: Australian Melanoma Family Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2009 Dec 3;170(12):1541-54. Epub 2009 Nov 3.

Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Level 1, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Discovering and understanding genetic risk factors for melanoma and their interactions with phenotype, sun exposure, and other risk factors could lead to new strategies for melanoma control. This paper describes the Australian Melanoma Family Study, which uses a multicenter, population-based, case-control-family design. From 2001 to 2005, the authors recruited 1,164 probands including 629 cases with histopathologically confirmed, first-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed before age 40 years, 240 population-based controls frequency matched for age, and 295 spouse/friend controls. Information on lifetime sun exposure, phenotype, and residence history was collected for probands and nearly 4,000 living relatives. More than 3,000 subjects donated a blood sample. Proxy-reported information was collected for childhood sun exposure and deceased relatives. Important features of this study include the population-based, family-based design; a focus on early onset disease; probands from 3 major cities differing substantially in solar ultraviolet exposure and melanoma incidence; a population at high risk because of high ultraviolet exposure and susceptible pigmentation phenotypes; population-based, spouse/friend, and sibling controls; systematic recruitment of relatives of case and control probands; self and parent reports of childhood sun exposure; and objective clinical skin examinations. The authors discuss methodological and analytical issues related to the study design and conduct, as well as the potentially novel insights the study can deliver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2800270PMC
December 2009

Common sequence variants on 20q11.22 confer melanoma susceptibility.

Nat Genet 2008 Jul 18;40(7):838-40. Epub 2008 May 18.

Integrated Cancer Genomics Division, The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85028, USA.

We conducted a genome-wide association pooling study for cutaneous melanoma and performed validation in samples totaling 2,019 cases and 2,105 controls. Using pooling, we identified a new melanoma risk locus on chromosome 20 (rs910873 and rs1885120), with replication in two further samples (combined P < 1 x 10(-15)). The per allele odds ratio was 1.75 (1.53, 2.01), with evidence for stronger association in early-onset cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755512PMC
July 2008

A comparison of CDKN2A mutation detection within the Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL).

Eur J Cancer 2008 Jun 3;44(9):1269-74. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Cancer Research UK Cancer Centre at Leeds, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.

CDKN2A is the major melanoma susceptibility gene so far identified, but only 40% of three or more case families have identified mutations. A comparison of mutation detection rates was carried out by "blind" exchange of samples across GenoMEL, the Melanoma Genetics Consortium, to establish the false negative detection rates. Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) screening results from 451 samples were compared to screening data from nine research groups in which the initial mutation screen had been done predominantly by sequencing. Three samples with mutations identified at the local centres were not detected by the DHPLC screen. No additional mutations were detected by DHPLC. Mutation detection across groups within GenoMEL is carried out to a consistently high standard. The relatively low rate of CDKN2A mutation detection is not due to failure to detect mutations and implies the existence of other high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2494985PMC
June 2008

High-risk melanoma susceptibility genes and pancreatic cancer, neural system tumors, and uveal melanoma across GenoMEL.

Cancer Res 2006 Oct;66(20):9818-28

Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7236, USA.

GenoMEL, comprising major familial melanoma research groups from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia has created the largest familial melanoma sample yet available to characterize mutations in the high-risk melanoma susceptibility genes CDKN2A/alternate reading frames (ARF), which encodes p16 and p14ARF, and CDK4 and to evaluate their relationship with pancreatic cancer (PC), neural system tumors (NST), and uveal melanoma (UM). This study included 466 families (2,137 patients) with at least three melanoma patients from 17 GenoMEL centers. Overall, 41% (n = 190) of families had mutations; most involved p16 (n = 178). Mutations in CDK4 (n = 5) and ARF (n = 7) occurred at similar frequencies (2-3%). There were striking differences in mutations across geographic locales. The proportion of families with the most frequent founder mutation(s) of each locale differed significantly across the seven regions (P = 0.0009). Single founder CDKN2A mutations were predominant in Sweden (p.R112_L113insR, 92% of family's mutations) and the Netherlands (c.225_243del19, 90% of family's mutations). France, Spain, and Italy had the same most frequent mutation (p.G101W). Similarly, Australia and United Kingdom had the same most common mutations (p.M53I, c.IVS2-105A>G, p.R24P, and p.L32P). As reported previously, there was a strong association between PC and CDKN2A mutations (P < 0.0001). This relationship differed by mutation. In contrast, there was little evidence for an association between CDKN2A mutations and NST (P = 0.52) or UM (P = 0.25). There was a marginally significant association between NST and ARF (P = 0.05). However, this particular evaluation had low power and requires confirmation. This GenoMEL study provides the most extensive characterization of mutations in high-risk melanoma susceptibility genes in families with three or more melanoma patients yet available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0494DOI Listing
October 2006

Features associated with germline CDKN2A mutations: a GenoMEL study of melanoma-prone families from three continents.

J Med Genet 2007 Feb 11;44(2):99-106. Epub 2006 Aug 11.

Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7236, USA.

Background: The major factors individually reported to be associated with an increased frequency of CDKN2A mutations are increased number of patients with melanoma in a family, early age at melanoma diagnosis, and family members with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) or pancreatic cancer.

Methods: These four features were examined in 385 families with > or =3 patients with melanoma pooled by 17 GenoMEL groups, and these attributes were compared across continents.

Results: Overall, 39% of families had CDKN2A mutations ranging from 20% (32/162) in Australia to 45% (29/65) in North America to 57% (89/157) in Europe. All four features in each group, except pancreatic cancer in Australia (p = 0.38), individually showed significant associations with CDKN2A mutations, but the effects varied widely across continents. Multivariate examination also showed different predictors of mutation risk across continents. In Australian families, > or =2 patients with MPM, median age at melanoma diagnosis < or =40 years and > or =6 patients with melanoma in a family jointly predicted the mutation risk. In European families, all four factors concurrently predicted the risk, but with less stringent criteria than in Australia. In North American families, only > or =1 patient with MPM and age at diagnosis < or =40 years simultaneously predicted the mutation risk.

Conclusions: The variation in CDKN2A mutations for the four features across continents is consistent with the lower melanoma incidence rates in Europe and higher rates of sporadic melanoma in Australia. The lack of a pancreatic cancer-CDKN2A mutation relationship in Australia probably reflects the divergent spectrum of mutations in families from Australia versus those from North America and Europe. GenoMEL is exploring candidate host, genetic and/or environmental risk factors to better understand the variation observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2006.043802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2598064PMC
February 2007

Intronic sequence variants of the CDKN2A gene in melanoma pedigrees.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2005 Jun;43(2):128-36

Genetic Epidemiology Division, Cancer Research UK Clinical Centre, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, England.

Germ-line mutations of the tumor-suppressor gene CDKN2A predispose individuals to melanoma in families worldwide. However, coding mutations of CDKN2A have not been detected in a significant proportion of those affected. The identification of a disease-associated intronic mutation of CDKN2A in UK families, which has proved to be the most common CDKN2A mutation as yet identified in this population, has highlighted the possibility that additional causal mutations may lie within the intronic sequence of the gene. In this article, we describe the comprehensive screening of 109 English and 26 Australian melanoma pedigrees for intronic mutations of CDKN2A. In total, 24 sequence variants were identified across the two introns of the gene. We show evidence that two of the CDKN2A intronic variants (IVS1 + 1104 C > A and IVS1 - 1104 C > G) predispose to melanoma. IVS1 + 1104 was shown to result in the aberrant splicing of both p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF) mRNA. Overall, however, the proportion of English melanoma families with these variants is small.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.20177DOI Listing
June 2005

Deletion mapping suggests that the 1p22 melanoma susceptibility gene is a tumor suppressor localized to a 9-Mb interval.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2004 Sep;41(1):56-64

Human Genetics Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 is frequently observed in many tumor types, including melanoma. We recently localized a third melanoma susceptibility locus to chromosome band 1p22. Critical recombinants in linked families localized the gene to a 15-Mb region between D1S430 and D1S2664. To map the locus more finely we have performed studies to assess allelic loss across the region in a panel of melanomas from 1p22-linked families, sporadic melanomas, and melanoma cell lines. Eighty percent of familial melanomas exhibited loss of heterozygosity (LOH) within the region, with a smallest region of overlapping deletions (SRO) of 9 Mb between D1S207 and D1S435. This high frequency of LOH makes it very likely that the susceptibility locus is a tumor suppressor. In sporadic tumors, four SROs were defined. SRO1 and SRO2 map within the critical recombinant and familial tumor region, indicating that one or the other is likely to harbor the susceptibility gene. However, SRO3 may also be significant because it overlaps with the markers with the highest 2-point LOD score (D1S2776), part of the linkage recombinant region, and the critical region defined in mesothelioma. The candidate genes PRKCL2 and GTF2B, within SRO2, and TGFBR3, CDC7, and EVI5, in a broad region encompassing SRO3, were screened in 1p22-linked melanoma kindreds, but no coding mutations were detected. Allelic loss in melanoma cell lines was significantly less frequent than in fresh tumors, indicating that this gene may not be involved late in progression, such as in overriding cellular senescence, necessary for the propagation of melanoma cells in culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.20056DOI Listing
September 2004

Localization of a novel melanoma susceptibility locus to 1p22.

Am J Hum Genet 2003 Aug 3;73(2):301-13. Epub 2003 Jul 3.

Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD.

Over the past 20 years, the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has increased dramatically worldwide. A positive family history of the disease is among the most established risk factors for CMM; it is estimated that 10% of CMM cases result from an inherited predisposition. Although mutations in two genes, CDKN2A and CDK4, have been shown to confer an increased risk of CMM, they account for only 20%-25% of families with multiple cases of CMM. Therefore, to localize additional loci involved in melanoma susceptibility, we have performed a genomewide scan for linkage in 49 Australian pedigrees containing at least three CMM cases, in which CDKN2A and CDK4 involvement has been excluded. The highest two-point parametric LOD score (1.82; recombination fraction [theta] 0.2) was obtained at D1S2726, which maps to the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p22). A parametric LOD score of 4.65 (theta=0) and a nonparametric LOD score of 4.19 were found at D1S2779 in nine families selected for early age at onset. Additional typing yielded seven adjacent markers with LOD scores >3 in this subset, with the highest parametric LOD score, 4.95 (theta=0) (nonparametric LOD score 5.37), at D1S2776. Analysis of 33 additional multiplex families with CMM from several continents provided further evidence for linkage to the 1p22 region, again strongest in families with the earliest mean age at diagnosis. A nonparametric ordered sequential analysis was used, based on the average age at diagnosis in each family. The highest LOD score, 6.43, was obtained at D1S2779 and occurred when the 15 families with the earliest ages at onset were included. These data provide significant evidence of a novel susceptibility gene for CMM located within chromosome band 1p22.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1180369PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/377140DOI Listing
August 2003

eMelanoBase: an online locus-specific variant database for familial melanoma.

Hum Mutat 2003 Jan;21(1):2-7

Westmead Institute for Cancer Research, University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

A proportion of melanoma-prone individuals in both familial and non-familial contexts has been shown to carry inactivating mutations in either CDKN2A or, rarely, CDK4. CDKN2A is a complex locus that encodes two unrelated proteins from alternately spliced transcripts that are read in different frames. The alpha transcript (exons 1alpha, 2, and 3) produces the p16INK4A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, while the beta transcript (exons 1beta and 2) is translated as p14ARF, a stabilizing factor of p53 levels through binding to MDM2. Mutations in exon 2 can impair both polypeptides and insertions and deletions in exons 1alpha, 1beta, and 2, which can theoretically generate p16INK4A-p14ARF fusion proteins. No online database currently takes into account all the consequences of these genotypes, a situation compounded by some problematic previous annotations of CDKN2A-related sequences and descriptions of their mutations. As an initiative of the international Melanoma Genetics Consortium, we have therefore established a database of germline variants observed in all loci implicated in familial melanoma susceptibility. Such a comprehensive, publicly accessible database is an essential foundation for research on melanoma susceptibility and its clinical application. Our database serves two types of data as defined by HUGO. The core dataset includes the nucleotide variants on the genomic and transcript levels, amino acid variants, and citation. The ancillary dataset includes keyword description of events at the transcription and translation levels and epidemiological data. The application that handles users' queries was designed in the model-view-controller architecture and was implemented in Java. The object-relational database schema was deduced using functional dependency analysis. We hereby present our first functional prototype of eMelanoBase. The service is accessible via the URL www.wmi.usyd.edu.au:8080/melanoma.html.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.10149DOI Listing
January 2003

Geographical variation in the penetrance of CDKN2A mutations for melanoma.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2002 Jun;94(12):894-903

Genetic Epidemiology Division, Cancer Research UK Clinical Centre, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.

Background: Germline mutations in the CDKN2A gene, which encodes two proteins (p16INK4A and p14ARF), are the most common cause of inherited susceptibility to melanoma. We examined the penetrance of such mutations using data from eight groups from Europe, Australia and the United States that are part of The Melanoma Genetics Consortium.

Methods: We analyzed 80 families with documented CDKN2A mutations and multiple cases of cutaneous melanoma. We modeled penetrance for melanoma using a logistic regression model incorporating survival analysis. Hypothesis testing was based on likelihood ratio tests. Covariates included gender, alterations in p14ARF protein, and population melanoma incidence rates. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: The 80 analyzed families contained 402 melanoma patients, 320 of whom were tested for mutations and 291 were mutation carriers. We also tested 713 unaffected family members for mutations and 194 were carriers. Overall, CDKN2A mutation penetrance was estimated to be 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12 to 0.62) by age 50 years and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.31 to 0.96) by age 80 years. Penetrance was not statistically significantly modified by gender or by whether the CDKN2A mutation altered p14ARF protein. However, there was a statistically significant effect of residing in a location with a high population incidence rate of melanoma (P =.003). By age 50 years CDKN2A mutation penetrance reached 0.13 in Europe, 0.50 in the United States, and 0.32 in Australia; by age 80 years it was 0.58 in Europe, 0.76 in the United States, and 0.91 in Australia.

Conclusions: This study, which gives the most informed estimates of CDKN2A mutation penetrance available, indicates that the penetrance varies with melanoma population incidence rates. Thus, the same factors that affect population incidence of melanoma may also mediate CDKN2A penetrance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.12.894DOI Listing
June 2002