Publications by authors named "Elizabeth A Daniels"

7 Publications

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Becoming an object: A review of self-objectification in girls.

Body Image 2020 Jun 26;33:278-299. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, United States.

Objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides a framework for understanding how cultural pressure on women's appearance (i.e., sexual objectification) impacts their psychological and physical well-being. Although objectification theory proposes that objectification processes commence with the onset of puberty, much of the existing research on self-objectification has been conducted with adult women. Thus, less is known about how self-objectification operates with younger girls and adolescent girls. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of self-objectification research on girls under the age of 18 including the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of self-objectification as well as protective factors (n = 66 studies). In addition, we discuss how development is relevant to objectification theory and self-objectification. Finally, we call for a program of research that addresses methodological and conceptual concerns in existing research, fills gaps in the research literature, and pays further attention to developmental processes in self-objectification. An especially notable pattern we identified is that self-objectification is strongly related to age, such that older girls experience higher levels of self-objectification compared to younger girls. The aim of this paper is to provoke deeper considerations of development and the inclusion of girls in future research on self-objectification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.02.016DOI Listing
June 2020

Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

Body Image 2017 Dec 10;23:188-205. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.10.006DOI Listing
December 2017

Grooming ten-year-olds with gender stereotypes? A content analysis of preteen and teen girl magazines.

Body Image 2016 Dec 10;19:57-67. Epub 2016 Sep 10.

Private Practice.

Extensive research shows a strong body focus in media aimed at teen girls and adult women; less is known about the content of media aimed at preteen girls. The present study investigated differences in the content of preteen versus teen girl magazines. Additionally, the content of independent compared to mainstream magazines was examined. Media frames, which are dominant themes present in media stories, used in content about the body were examined. Finally, the prevalence of appearance-focused versus non-appearance-focused content was assessed. Advertisements and general stories were analyzed. Results indicate that teen and mainstream magazines contained more appearance content than preteen and independent magazines. Appearance media frames were more common in teen than preteen magazines. Finally, teen and mainstream magazines contained more appearance-focused than non-appearance-focused content, whereas the opposite was true for preteen and independent magazines. Findings are discussed in terms of objectification theory and gender socialization practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.08.011DOI Listing
December 2016

"I am not a skinny toothpick and proud of it": Latina adolescents' ethnic identity and responses to mainstream media images.

Body Image 2014 Jan 11;11(1):11-8. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Oregon State University Cascades, Bend, OR, United States.

Using a quasi-experimental design, 118 Latina girls, ages 13-18, viewed five color photographs of White women. Girls viewed either images of sexualized women or images of non-sexualized women. After viewing the images, girls were asked to complete the sentence stem, "I am…" 20 times. Thirty percent of girls spontaneously described their ethnicity in one of their sentence completions. Spontaneous use of ethnicity was taken as an indicator of the salience of ethnic identity. Among girls who viewed sexualized, thin-ideal White media images, spontaneously using an ethnic descriptor was related to more positive descriptions of one's own body and appearance. Analyses supported the premise that ethnic identity may act as a protective factor, buffering Latina girls from the negative effects of viewing sexualized, thin-ideal White media images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.09.001DOI Listing
January 2014

Rapamycin partially mimics the anticancer effects of calorie restriction in a murine model of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011 Jul 18;4(7):1041-51. Epub 2011 May 18.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas, USA.

Etiologic factors for pancreatic cancer, the 4th deadliest malignant neoplasm in the United States, include obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism. Calorie restriction (CR) and rapamycin each affect energy metabolism and cell survival pathways via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. By using a Panc02 murine pancreatic cancer cell transplant model in 45 male C57BL/6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that rapamycin mimics the effects of CR on pancreatic tumor growth. A chronic regimen of CR, relative to an ad libitum-fed control diet, produced global metabolic effects such as reduced body weight (20.6 ± 1.6 g vs. 29.3 ± 2.3 g; P < 0.0001), improved glucose responsiveness, and decreased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 (126 ± 8 ng/mL vs. 199 ± 11 ng/mL; P = 0.0006) and leptin (1.14 ± 0.2 ng/mL vs. 5.05 ± 1.2 ng/mL; P = 0.01). In contrast, rapamycin treatment (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal every other day, initiated in mice following 20 weeks of ad libitum control diet consumption), relative to control diet, produced no significant change in body weight, IGF-1 or leptin levels, but decreased glucose responsiveness. Pancreatic tumor volume was significantly reduced in the CR group (221 ± 107 mm(3); P < 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, the rapamycin group (374 ± 206 mm(3); P = 0.04) relative to controls (550 ± 147 mm(3)), and this differential inhibition correlated with expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. Both CR and rapamycin decreased phosphorylation of mTOR, p70/S6K, and S6 ribosomal protein, but only CR decreased phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, extracellular signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase, and STAT3(TYR705). These findings suggest that rapamycin partially mimics the anticancer effects of CR on tumor growth in a murine model of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131470PMC
July 2011

Genetic reduction of insulin-like growth factor-1 mimics the anticancer effects of calorie restriction on cyclooxygenase-2-driven pancreatic neoplasia.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011 Jul 18;4(7):1030-40. Epub 2011 May 18.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas, USA.

Risk of pancreatic cancer, the fourth deadliest cancer in the United States, is increased by obesity. Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity, suppresses carcinogenesis in many models, and reduces serum levels of IGF-1. In the present study, we examined the impact of CR on a model of inflammation-associated pancreatitis and pancreatic dysplasia, with a focus on the mechanistic contribution of systemic IGF-1. Administration of a 30% CR diet for 14 weeks decreased serum IGF-1 levels and hindered pancreatic ductal lesion formation and dysplastic severity, relative to a higher calorie control diet, in transgenic mice overexpressing COX-2 [bovine keratin-5 promoter (BK5.COX-2)]. These findings in CR mice correlated with reductions in Ki-67-positive cells, vascular luminal size, VEGF expression, and phosphorylation and total expression of downstream mediators of the IGF-1 pathway. Cell lines derived from BK5.COX-2 ductal lesions (JC101 cells) formed pancreatic tumors in wild-type FVB mice that were significantly reduced in size by a 14-week CR regimen, relative to the control diet. To further understand the impact of circulating levels of IGF-1 on tumor growth in this model, we orthotopically injected JC101 cells into liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice. The approximate 65% reduction of serum IGF-1 levels in LID mice resulted in significantly decreased burden of JC101 tumors, despite modestly elevated levels of circulating insulin and leptin. These data show that CR prevents development of dysplasia and growth of pancreatic cancer through alterations in IGF-1, suggesting that modulation of this pathway with dietary and/or pharmacologic interventions is a promising pancreatic cancer prevention strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131443PMC
July 2011