Publications by authors named "Elissa J Hamlat"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early life adversity, pubertal timing, and epigenetic age acceleration in adulthood.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jan 10. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Given associations linking early life adversity, pubertal timing, and biological aging, we examined the direct and indirect effects of early life trauma on adult biological aging (via age of menarche).

Methods: Participants were premenopausal women (N = 183). Path models evaluated whether early life trauma predicted early pubertal timing and thereby, adult epigenetic age acceleration (indexed via four epigenetic clocks: Horvath DNAm Age, Hannum DNAm Age, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge). Secondary analyses explored the effects of type of trauma (abuse and neglect) and adult chronic stress status (caregiver of child with autism and non-caregiver).

Results: Early life trauma and earlier age at menarche independently predicted accelerated aging based on one of the four epigenetic clocks, DNAm GrimAge, though early life trauma was not associated with age of menarche. Childhood abuse, but not neglect, predicted faster epigenetic aging; results did not differ by chronic stress status.

Conclusions: Early trauma and early menarche appear to exert independent effects on DNAm GrimAge, which has been shown to be the strongest epigenetic predictor of mortality risk. This study identifies a potential correlate or determinant of accelerated epigenetic aging-menarcheal age. Future research should address the limitations of this study by using racially diverse samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.22085DOI Listing
January 2021

Early pubertal timing predicts onset and recurrence of depressive episodes in boys and girls.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2020 11 3;61(11):1266-1274. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.

Background: Recurrent depressive episodes during adolescence result in significant impairment and increased risk for subsequent adverse outcomes throughout the life span. Evidence suggests that early pubertal timing predicts the onset of depressive episodes (particularly for girls); however, it is not known if pubertal timing prospectively predicts recurrent depressive episodes in youth.

Methods: At baseline, 603 youth (56% female, at baseline: M  = 12.09, SD = 2.35) reported on their pubertal development. Youth and their parents completed a semistructured diagnostic interview to assess depressive episodes at baseline and then evaluated for onset repeatedly every 6 months for a period of 36 months.

Results: Controlling for past history of depression, Cox proportional hazards models examined whether earlier pubertal timing predicted (a) days to first depressive episode from baseline and (b) days to a second (recurrent) depressive episode from the end of the first episode. Early pubertal timing predicted the onset of the first depressive episode after baseline (b = .19, Wald = 5.36, p = .02, HR = 1.21), as well as a recurrent episode during course of study follow-up episode (b = .32, Wald = 6.16, p = .01, HR = 1.38).

Conclusions: Findings reinforce the importance of considering the impact of early pubertal timing on depression risk. Investigation on how pubertal timing interacts with other risk factors to predict depression recurrence is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396277PMC
November 2020

A Latent Structure Analysis of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Adolescence.

Behav Ther 2019 07 6;50(4):755-764. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Temple University.

Whether cognitive vulnerability to depression exists along a continuum of severity or as a qualitatively discrete phenomenological entity has direct bearing on theoretical formulations of risk for depression and clinical risk assessment. This question is of particular relevance to adolescence, given that cognitive vulnerability appears to coalesce and rates of depression begin to rise markedly during this period of development. Although a dimensional view is often assumed, it is necessary to submit this assumption to direct empirical evaluation. Taxometric analysis is a family of statistical techniques developed directly to test such assumptions. The present study applied taxometric methods to address this question in a community sample of early adolescents (n = 485), drawing on three indices of cognitive vulnerability to depression (i.e., negative inferential style, ruminative response style, self-referent information processing). The results of three taxometric analyses (i.e., mean above minus below a cut [MAMBAC], maximum eigenvalue [MAXEIG], and latent mode [L-Mode]) were consistent in unambiguously supporting a dimensional conceptualization of this construct. The latent structure of the tested indices of cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence appears to exist along a continuum of severity rather than as a discrete clinical entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582994PMC
July 2019

Pubertal Timing as a Transdiagnostic Risk for Psychopathology in Youth.

Clin Psychol Sci 2019 May 14;7(3):411-429. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Evidence suggests that early pubertal timing may operate as a transdiagnostic risk factor (i.e., shared across syndromes of psychopathology) for both genders. The current study examined associations between pubertal timing and dimensional psychopathology, structured across different levels of three organizational models: 1) DSM-based syndrome model, 2) traditional model of internalizing and externalizing factors, and 3) bifactor (p-factor) model, which includes a general psychopathology factor as well as internalizing- and externalizing- specific factors. For study analyses, 567 youth-parent pairs completed psychopathology measures when youth (55.5% female) were 13.58 (SD = 2.37, range = 9-17). Findings across all models revealed that early pubertal timing served as a transdiagnostic risk factor and also displayed some syndrome specific associations. Gender did not moderate any relationships between pubertal timing and psychopathology. Study findings reinforce the importance of examining risk across different levels of psychopathology conceptualization and analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167702618810518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6550487PMC
May 2019

Developmental Course of Personality Disorder Traits in Childhood and Adolescence.

J Pers Disord 2020 Sep 14;34(Supplement B):25-43. Epub 2019 May 14.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Developmental patterns of personality pathology traits are not well delineated from childhood through late adolescence. In the present study, participants ( = 675, 56% female) were recruited to create three cohorts of third ( = 205), sixth ( = 248), and ninth ( = 222) graders to form an accelerated longitudinal cohort design. We assessed six PD (avoidant, dependent, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, schizotypal) traits based on trait diagnostic conceptualizations via parent report at baseline, 18 months, and 36 months. According to parent report, mean levels of avoidant, dependent, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and schizotypal traits all declined for both boys and girls. The changes in dependent and histrionic traits were of medium effect size, and the changes in avoidant, narcissistic, borderline, and schizotypal traits were of small effect size. Over the 3 years of the study, the traits of each PD also demonstrated moderate to high rank-order stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2019_33_433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980182PMC
September 2020

Self-reported affective biases, but not all affective performance biases, are present in depression remission.

Br J Clin Psychol 2019 Sep 10;58(3):274-288. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objective: Individuals with active major depressive disorder (MDD) have shown affective biases in cognitive flexibility and memory, particularly for negatively valenced stimuli. We evaluated whether impairments in affective flexibility would remain even during remission (rMDD), potentially representing trait- or scar-like effects of illness.

Method: Participants completed the Emotion Card Sort Test (ECST), a measure of cognitive flexibility containing emotionally valenced stimuli, and the Emotion Word Stimulus Test (EWST), a measure of affective biases in delayed recall and recognition memory, and several self-report measures.

Results: Healthy controls (HCs; n = 35) and individuals with rMDD (n = 93) did not differ on performance for any of the three word types on the ECST or EWT. However, individuals with rMDD demonstrated greater negative bias on EWT recognition trials relative to HCs (d = .36). On self-report measures, individuals with rMDD exhibited greater levels of neuroticism, problems with attentional control, pessimistic attributional style, and negative automatic thoughts compared to HCs.

Conclusions: These results provide initial evidence that some performance, but not self-reported, indices of affective bias may improve during remission from MDD. Results of this study could suggest that some components of affective bias may represent state feature of illness and others trait-like risk or scar features.

Practitioner Points: This study suggests that self-reported affective biases may persist in remission of major depressive disorder (rMDD). Affective attentional biases and affective memory biases were not demonstrated in individuals with rMDD, with the exception of a bias for recognizing negatively versus neutrally valenced stimuli.

Cautions Or Limitations: A limitation of this study was its cross-sectional design. Under ideal conditions, the same individuals would be studied in both the active and remitted phases of illness. Another limitation of this study was the smaller number of healthy controls relative to individuals with rMDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6682436PMC
September 2019

Predictors of Attrition in Longitudinal Neuroimaging Research: Inhibitory Control, Head Movement, and Resting-State Functional Connectivity.

Brain Connect 2018 11;8(9):527-536

1 Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago , Chicago, Illinois.

Attrition is a major problem in longitudinal neuroimaging studies, as it may lead to unreliable estimates of the stability of trait-like processes over time, of the identification of risk factors for clinical outcomes, and of the effects of treatment. Identification of characteristics associated with attrition has implications for participant recruitment and participant retention to achieve representative longitudinal samples. We investigated inhibitory control deficits, head motion, and resting-state functional connectivity within the cognitive control network (CCN) as predictors of attrition. Ninety-seven individuals with remitted major depressive disorder or healthy controls completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, which included a go/no-go task and resting-state functional connectivity. Approximately 2 months later, participants were contacted and invited to return for a second scan. Seventeen individuals were lost to follow-up or declined to participate in the follow-up scan. Worse inhibitory control was correlated with greater movement within the scanner, and each predicted a greater likelihood of attrition, with movement mediating the effects of inhibitory control on attrition. Individuals who dropped out of the study exhibited greater movement than nondropouts across 9 of the 14 runs of the scan, with medium-to-large effect sizes. Finally, exploratory analyses suggested that attenuated resting-state connectivity with the CCN (particularly in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was associated with greater likelihood of attrition after accounting for head motion at several levels of analysis. Inhibitory control and movement within the scanner are associated with attrition, and should be considered for strategic oversampling and participant retention strategies to ensure generalizability of results in longitudinal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2018.0619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249664PMC
November 2018

Disrupted engagement of networks supporting hot and cold cognition in remitted major depressive disorder.

J Affect Disord 2018 02 9;227:183-191. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and emotional systems. However, the neural network correlates of cognitive control (cold cognition) and emotion processing (hot cognition) during the remitted state of MDD (rMDD) remain unclear and not fully probed, which has important implications for identifying intermediate phenotypes of depression risk.

Methods: 43 young adults with rMDD and 33 healthy controls (HCs) underwent fMRI while completing separate tasks of cold cognition (Parametric Go/No-Go test) and hot cognition (Facial Emotion Processing Test). Two 2 group (rMDD, HC) × 2 event (sad/fearful faces, correct rejections) factorial models of activation were calculated in SPM8. Functional activation was evaluated in the salience and emotional network (SEN) and the cognitive control network (CCN), including hypothesized interaction between group and task within the CCN.

Results: Individuals with rMDD demonstrated greater spatial extent of suprathreshold activation within the SEN during sad faces relative to HCs. There were several regions within the CCN in which HCs showed greater activation than rMDD during correct rejections of lures, whereas individuals with rMDD showed greater activation than HCs during sad or fearful faces.

Limitations: Results were not directly compared with active MDD.

Conclusions: These results provide evidence of deficient CCN engagement during cognitive control in rMDD (dysfunctional cold cognition). Elevated SEN activation during sad faces could represent heightened salience of negative emotional faces in rMDD; elevated CCN activation during emotional faces in rMDD could represent compensatory regulatory control. These group differences may represent vulnerability factors, scars of prior depressive episodes, or processes maintaining wellness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026853PMC
February 2018

Disrupted engagement of networks supporting hot and cold cognition in remitted major depressive disorder.

J Affect Disord 2018 02 9;227:183-191. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and emotional systems. However, the neural network correlates of cognitive control (cold cognition) and emotion processing (hot cognition) during the remitted state of MDD (rMDD) remain unclear and not fully probed, which has important implications for identifying intermediate phenotypes of depression risk.

Methods: 43 young adults with rMDD and 33 healthy controls (HCs) underwent fMRI while completing separate tasks of cold cognition (Parametric Go/No-Go test) and hot cognition (Facial Emotion Processing Test). Two 2 group (rMDD, HC) × 2 event (sad/fearful faces, correct rejections) factorial models of activation were calculated in SPM8. Functional activation was evaluated in the salience and emotional network (SEN) and the cognitive control network (CCN), including hypothesized interaction between group and task within the CCN.

Results: Individuals with rMDD demonstrated greater spatial extent of suprathreshold activation within the SEN during sad faces relative to HCs. There were several regions within the CCN in which HCs showed greater activation than rMDD during correct rejections of lures, whereas individuals with rMDD showed greater activation than HCs during sad or fearful faces.

Limitations: Results were not directly compared with active MDD.

Conclusions: These results provide evidence of deficient CCN engagement during cognitive control in rMDD (dysfunctional cold cognition). Elevated SEN activation during sad faces could represent heightened salience of negative emotional faces in rMDD; elevated CCN activation during emotional faces in rMDD could represent compensatory regulatory control. These group differences may represent vulnerability factors, scars of prior depressive episodes, or processes maintaining wellness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026853PMC
February 2018

Pubertal Development, Emotion Regulatory Styles, and the Emergence of Sex Differences in Internalizing Disorders and Symptoms in Adolescence.

Clin Psychol Sci 2016 Sep 25;4(5):867-881. Epub 2016 Sep 25.

University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators (pubertal status and timing) as predictors of the development of emotion regulation styles (rumination and emotional clarity) and depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in a three-wave study of 314 adolescents. Path analyses indicated that early pubertal timing, but not pubertal status, predicted increased rumination, but not decreased emotional clarity, in adolescent girls, but not boys. Additionally, rumination mediated the association between early pubertal timing and increased depressive, but not anxiety, symptoms and disorder onset among adolescent girls. These findings suggest that the sex difference in depression may result partly from early maturing girls' greater tendency to develop ruminative styles than boys.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061504PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167702616643008DOI Listing
September 2016

INFLEXIBLE COGNITION PREDICTS FIRST ONSET OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODES IN ADOLESCENCE.

Depress Anxiety 2016 Nov 19;33(11):1005-1012. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Major depressive disorder often is characterized by a lack of cognitive and emotional flexibility, resulting in an impaired ability to adapt to situational demands. Adolescence is an important period of risk for the first onset of depression, yet relatively little is known about whether aspects of inflexibility, such as rumination and deficits in attentional shifting, could confer risk for the development of the disorder during this time.

Method: In the present study, a sample of 285 never-depressed adolescents completed self-report and behavioral measures of rumination and attentional shifting at a baseline visit, followed by up to 4 years of annual prospective follow-up diagnostic assessments.

Results: Survival analyses indicated that adolescents with greater levels of rumination or poorer attentional shifting experienced a shorter time until the first onset of major depressive episodes, even after accounting for baseline symptoms and demographic characteristics. Although girls were twice as likely as boys to experience the first onset of depression, rumination predicted a shorter time until depression onset only for boys. Rumination and attentional shifting were not correlated and predicted time until onset of major depression independently of one another.

Conclusions: These results provide evidence that components of cognition that are characterized by rigidity and perseveration confer risk for the first onset of major depression during adolescence. Evaluating rumination and attentional shifting in adolescence may be useful in identifying individuals who are at risk for depression and who may benefit from interventions that target or alter the development of these characteristics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5071106PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22513DOI Listing
November 2016

Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls.

J Early Adolesc 2015 Apr;35(3):378-402

Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218 adolescents (53.4% female, 49.3% African American, 50.7% Caucasian) completed both a baseline assessment and a follow-up assessment approximately 8 months later. Early maturing Caucasian girls and late maturing African American girls experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up if they experienced higher levels of peer victimization between baseline and follow-up. Furthermore, body esteem significantly mediated the relationship between pubertal timing, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms for girls of both races. The interaction of pubertal timing and peer victimization did not predict depressive symptoms for boys of either race. These results support body esteem as a mechanism that contributes to increased depression among girls in adolescence-despite a differential impact of pubertal timing for Caucasian and African American girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431614534071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4486298PMC
April 2015

Cognitive Styles in Mood Disorders: Discriminative Ability of Unipolar and Bipolar Cognitive Profiles.

Int J Cogn Ther 2015 Mar;8(1):35-60

Temple University.

Although previous research has identified cognitive styles that distinguish individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), and individuals without mood disorders from one another, findings have been inconsistent. The current study included 381 participants classified into a BD group, a MDD group, and a no mood disorder group. To differentiate between these groups, this study evaluated cognitive styles with a battery of traditional and more recently-developed measures. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to determine the discriminate ability of variables with significant between group differences. Results supported that BD and MDD may be characterized by distinct cognitive styles. Given work showing that interventions for MDD may not be effective at treating BD, it is important to directly compare individuals with these disorders. By clarifying the overlapping and divergent cognitive styles characterizing BD and MDD, research can not only improve diagnostic validity, but also provide more efficacious and effective interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2015.8.1.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4399766PMC
March 2015

Rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescents: an integration of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression.

J Youth Adolesc 2015 Apr 22;44(4):806-18. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA,

During adolescence, rates of depression dramatically increase and girls become twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Research suggests that overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination are vulnerability factors for depressive symptoms in adolescence that may be triggered by stressful life events. The current longitudinal study included 160 early adolescents (Mage = 12.44 years, 60.0 % African American, 40.0 % Caucasian, and 56.2 % female). At baseline, adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms, rumination, and specificity of autobiographical memories. Approximately 9 months later, the adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms and stressful life events that had occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that girls with more overgeneral autobiographical memories in combination with higher levels of rumination were most vulnerable to experiencing increases in depressive symptoms following stressful life events. Additionally, retrieving more specific autobiographical memories appeared to buffer against the impact of negative life events on depressive symptoms among both boys and girls. Memory specificity may play a protective role in depression risk, suggesting that memory specificity training interventions may prove beneficial for adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0090-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107201PMC
April 2015

Pubertal timing and vulnerabilities to depression in early adolescence: differential pathways to depressive symptoms by sex.

J Adolesc 2014 Feb 25;37(2):165-74. Epub 2013 Dec 25.

Temple University, USA.

Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescents with more negative cognitive styles and lower emotional clarity, and whether this risk was specific to adolescent girls. In a diverse sample of 318 adolescents, early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls with more negative cognitive styles and adolescent girls with poor emotional clarity. These findings suggest that earlier pubertal maturation may heighten the risk of depression for adolescents with pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression, and that early maturing adolescent girls with lower levels of emotional clarity may be particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms, representing one pathway through which the sex difference in depression may emerge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939064PMC
February 2014

Cognitive vulnerabilities amplify the effect of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation during adolescence.

J Youth Adolesc 2014 May 24;43(5):824-33. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Weiss Hall, 1701 N. 13th Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA,

Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-0015-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964199PMC
May 2014

Early pubertal timing as a vulnerability to depression symptoms: differential effects of race and sex.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2014 May;42(4):527-38

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Weiss Hall, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA,

Robust evidence supports that girls and boys who experience early pubertal timing, maturing earlier than one's peers, are vulnerable to developing symptoms of depression. However, it has yet to be clarified whether early pubertal timing confers vulnerability to African American as well as to Caucasian adolescents and whether this vulnerability is specific to depressive symptoms or can be generalized to symptoms of social anxiety. In previous studies, one race or one sex was examined in isolation or sample sizes were too small to examine racial differences. Our longitudinal study consisted of a sample of 223 adolescents (Mage = 12.42, 54.3 % female, 50.2 % African American, and 49.8 % Caucasian). At baseline, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and pubertal timing were assessed by self-report. Nine months later, we assessed depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, body esteem, and stressful life events that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that early pubertal timing interacted with stressful life events to predict increased symptoms of depression, but only for Caucasian girls and African American boys. Results were found to be specific to depressive symptoms and did not generalize to symptoms of social anxiety. Additionally, there was a significant positive indirect effect of pubertal timing on symptoms of depression through body esteem for Caucasian females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9798-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3949709PMC
May 2014

Emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and depressive versus anxiety symptoms during adolescence: hopelessness as a mediator.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2013 27;42(3):332-47. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.

Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We expanded on past research by examining hopelessness as a mediator of the relationships between these interpersonal stressors and symptoms. Participants included 225 adolescents (55% African American; 59% female; M age = 12.84 years) who completed measures at baseline (Time 1) and two follow-up assessments (Times 2 and 3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety (social, physical, total) were assessed at Time 1 and Time 3, whereas intervening emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and hopelessness were assessed at Time 2. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that emotional abuse was a nonspecific predictor of increases in both depressive symptoms and symptoms of social, physical, and total anxiety, whereas relationally oriented peer victimization predicted depressive symptoms specifically. Emotional neglect did not predict increases in depressive or anxiety symptoms. In addition, hopelessness mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and increases in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. These findings suggest that emotional abuse and relationally oriented peer victimization are interpersonal stressors that are relevant to the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence and that hopelessness may be one mechanism through which emotional abuse contributes to an increased risk of depression and social anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.777916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3645878PMC
October 2013

Overgeneral autobiographical memory, emotional maltreatment, and depressive symptoms in adolescence: evidence of a cognitive vulnerability-stress interaction.

J Adolesc 2013 Feb 24;36(1):201-8. Epub 2012 Nov 24.

Temple University, Department of Psychology, Weiss Hall, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.

Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 seventh-graders, OGM and familial emotional abuse interacted to predict depressive symptoms eight months later, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Specifically, emotional abuse predicted increases in depressive symptoms among Caucasian adolescents with more OGM, but not among those with less OGM. This association was not significant for African American adolescents. These results provide support for a cognitive vulnerability-stress relationship between OGM and emotional abuse in early adolescence and suggest that these mechanisms of risk for depression may be specific to Caucasian adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530666PMC
February 2013