Publications by authors named "Elissa J Brown"

38 Publications

Threat-specific maltreatment exposure: Comparison of measurement models and associations with internalizing, externalizing, and PTSD symptoms.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 24;115:105010. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Child HELP Partnership, St. John's University, United States.

Background: Child maltreatment is associated with short- and long-term mental health sequelae. Extant research has demonstrated that exposure characteristics (i.e., severity, frequency, duration, onset) are important in the measurement of maltreatment experiences. Emerging research has highlighted the contributions of these characteristics on symptom outcomes.

Objective: The current study used multiple exposure characteristics of threat-specific types of maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence) to examine three distinct measurement models of maltreatment and their relation to symptoms.

Participants And Setting: A racially and ethnically diverse sample of treatment-seeking youth (74 % female) ages 4-17 (N = 348) participated in the study. The majority of the youth (61 %) endorsed experiencing more than one type of threat-specific maltreatment.

Method: Using Structural Equation Modeling, we tested one-factor, three-factor, and bifactor models of maltreatment characteristics, and hypothesized that the bifactor model would yield the best fitting model based on prior studies supporting family violence as an underlying factor for child physical abuse and domestic violence.

Results: The bifactor measurement model fit the data better than the three- and one-factor models. In the bifactor structural model that included symptom outcomes, physical abuse was significantly and positively associated with child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, whereas sexual abuse and witnessing domestic violence were associated with externalizing symptoms and PTSD.

Conclusion: Our findings support the inclusion of multiple exposure characteristics in the measurement of maltreatment and suggest that specific types of threat-specific maltreatment may have distinct associations with mental health sequelae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105010DOI Listing
May 2021

Why Do Women Talk About It? Reasons for Disclosure of Sexual Victimization and Associated Symptomology.

Violence Against Women 2021 Dec 6;27(15-16):3114-3135. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, NY, USA.

Many sexual victimization survivors disclose their experience; however, there is limited research investigating why women disclose this experience and how reasons relate to psychopathology. The current online study aims to further understand the experiences of 142 female survivors (aged 18-29 years) by identifying their reason for disclosure and investigating how reasons relate to self-reported depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Qualitative analyses identified two reasons: intentional and elicited disclosures. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that elicited disclosures were associated with higher PTSD symptomology than intentional disclosures above and beyond relevant covariates, suggesting that disclosure reason is an important factor in the recovery process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801220978818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257734PMC
December 2021

Complex trauma and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: How do trauma chronicity and PTSD presentation affect treatment outcome?

Child Abuse Negl 2021 01 5;111:104734. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY, 11439, United States.

Background: Traumatic experiences are common in youth and can be classified as acute (one incident or short-term) or complex (chronic exposure to multiple traumas) experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common response to trauma, often co-occurring with other mental health symptoms. According to the International Classification of Diseases, 11 Edition (World Health Organization, 2018), complex PTSD includes difficulties with affect regulation, interpersonal relationships, and self-blame.

Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate trauma chronicity and PTSD presentation as moderators of outcomes of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT).

Participants And Setting: Participants included 176 youth and caregiver dyads who were participants in an ongoing effectiveness study of TF-CBT at a community-based clinic in NYC.

Methods: Multilevel modeling was used to examine longitudinal, within-subject variability. Moderation analyses were used to assess the role of trauma chronicity and levels of PTSD on change in the outcomes.

Results: There were no baseline differences between youth with acute versus chronic trauma. At baseline, participants who had PTSD plus 2 or 3 of the ICD-11 Complex PTSD symptom domains had significantly worse functioning than those with simple PTSD. We found significant improvement on most measures of PTSD and complex PTSD domains. Level of improvement was found to vary based on PTSD presentation at baseline.

Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate both trauma chronicity and PTSD presentation in the context of evidence-based treatment, and findings support the effectiveness of TF-CBT for simple and complex PTSD for youth who have experienced acute and chronic trauma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104734DOI Listing
January 2021

Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: The role of caregivers.

J Affect Disord 2020 12 5;277:39-45. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Professor and Vice ChairDepartment of Psychiatry, Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny Health Network, Drexel University College of Medicine, 4 Allegheny Center, 8th Floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Childhood trauma exposure is unfortunately common and is associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as a number of other serious medical and mental and health disorders. After experiencing trauma, children depend on their non-offending parents to believe and support them, reframe the meaning of the trauma, and to keep them safe from future harm. Parents are often negatively impacted by their child's trauma which may contribute to the child's risk for developing PTSD and related problems. Including parents in treatment may enhance child outcomes.

Methods: Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is an evidence-based child and adolescent trauma treatment model that integrally includes non-offending parents or caregivers throughout treatment (hereafter referred to as "caregivers"). This article describes TF-CBT's underlying concepts, principles and core components, as well as the role of caregiver inclusion in this model, and evaluates the extant evidence for caregiver factors in predicting TF-CBT outcomes.

Results: Several studies suggest that inclusion of non-offending caregivers is associated with TF-CBT outcomes, and that this may occur through enhancing caregiver support of the child and/or reducing caregivers' trauma-related maladaptive cognitions.

Limitations: Few studies have evaluated whether caregiver factors served as formal treatment mediators.

Conclusions: Including non-offending caregivers in TF-CBT can improve youth outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.123DOI Listing
December 2020

An Exploratory Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral vs Client-Centered Therapies for Child-Mother Dyads Bereaved from Terrorism.

J Child Adolesc Trauma 2020 Mar 18;13(1):113-125. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

1Department of Psychology, St. John's University, Queens, NY USA.

The study was an evaluation of Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al. 2017) with child-caregiver dyads who experienced the death of a loved one from terrorism, using a hybrid efficacy/effectiveness design in which there were no required minimum symptom levels. Forty children ages 4-17 years old whose fathers died in the line of duty on 9/11/2001 and their mothers participated in an RCT comparing TF-CBT and Client-Centered Therapy (CCT). At baseline, mothers' PTSD, depression, and prolonged grief symptoms were highly elevated, whereas children's were at normative levels. Using intent-to-treat analysis, condition-by-time interactions showed significantly greater symptom reduction for mothers receiving CBT than those receiving CCT. For the children, both treatments led to significant symptom improvements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40653-019-00264-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163875PMC
March 2020

Why Women Are Not Talking About It: Reasons for Nondisclosure of Sexual Victimization and Associated Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression.

Violence Against Women 2020 03 14;26(3-4):271-295. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Queens College, City University of New York, New York City, USA.

Disclosure of traumatic experiences is typically encouraged and associated with positive outcomes. However, there is limited research on nondisclosure of sexual trauma and consequent symptomology. This online study of undergraduate females examines reasons for nondisclosure and associated symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Of 221 participants who reported sexual victimization, 25% had not previously disclosed it. Four reasons for nondisclosure were identified: shame, minimization of experience, fear of consequences, and privacy. Nondisclosers who minimized the experience and nondisclosers low on shame reported fewer PTSD symptoms than disclosers. These findings suggest that reasons for nondisclosure are associated with symptomology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801219832913DOI Listing
March 2020

Psychometrics of the PTSD and Depression Screener for Bereaved Youth.

Death Stud 2019 30;43(1):20-31. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

c Dee Norton Child Advocacy Center , Charleston , SC.

Interventions for bereaved children and families range from supportive counseling, designed to promote social connectedness and expression of feelings and thoughts about the deceased, to intensive trauma/grief-specific therapy, designed to ameliorate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. That said, professionals have few brief assessment instruments to match response and functioning to appropriate interventions. To expedite the screening and referral process for bereaved families, Brown, Goodman, and Swiecicki ( 2008 ) developed the PTSD and Depression Screener for Bereaved Youth, a 19-item measure of bereavement-related history and symptoms of PTSD and depression. The current study is a psychometric evaluation of the Screener for Bereaved Youth. Data were collected from 284 bereaved children, 6-17 years of age (M = 12.4; SD = 2.9). A factor analysis revealed distinct subscales for PTSD (eight items) and depression (four items). The PTSD and depression subscales showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. Endorsement of four items on either subscale was associated with meeting full criteria on more extensive measures of PTSD and depression. These findings are discussed with specific consideration to the multiple systems in which the measure could be used and applications to clinical services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2018.1432719DOI Listing
August 2019

Children's resilience and trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy: Comparing resilience as an outcome, a trait, and a process.

Child Abuse Negl 2017 Nov 21;73:30-41. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamaica, NY 11439, United States.

Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge from the literature: resilience as an immediate outcome (i.e., behavioral or symptom response), resilience as a trait, and resilience as a dynamic process. The current study compared these models in youth undergoing trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy. Results provide the most support for resilience as a process, in which increase in resilience preceded associated decrease in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. There was partial support for resilience conceptualized as an outcome, and minimal support for resilience as a trait. Results of the models are compared and discussed in the context of existing literature and in light of potential clinical implications for maltreated youth seeking treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.09.021DOI Listing
November 2017

Caregiver Report of Child Symptoms Predicts Attrition in Abuse-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapies.

Child Maltreat 2018 02 11;23(1):54-62. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

2 St. John's University, Queens, NY, USA.

A common critique of empirically supported treatments for abuse-related psychopathology is attrition during critical phases of therapy (i.e., exposure). The goal of this study was to examine whether child and caregiver symptoms were predictive of attrition among families in abuse-specific cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs). Children ( N = 104) and their caregivers completed baseline assessments of internalizing symptoms, externalizing problems, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and were enrolled in abuse-specific CBTs. Logistic regressions were conducted with baseline symptoms as predictor variables and treatment status (attrition vs. completion) as the criterion variable. Caregiver report of child internalizing symptoms showed the predicted quadratic relation to attrition. Caregiver report of child externalizing symptoms at moderate and high (vs. low) levels was associated with attrition. Child self-report and caregiver self-report of symptoms were not associated with the dyad's attrition. These results underscore the importance of attending to caregivers' initial perceptions of children's symptoms in abuse-specific therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559517724542DOI Listing
February 2018

Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Victimization and Victims' Symptoms of PTSD and Depression: The Protective Role of Ethnic Identity.

J Interpers Violence 2019 11 3;34(21-22):4638-4660. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

St. John's University, Flushing, NY, USA.

College-aged women experience high rates of sexual victimization. Their postassault symptoms are associated with the types of responses they receive from the people to whom they disclose these experiences. Negative responses are pervasive and associated with poorer outcomes. The current study examined whether a strong sense of ethnic identity and comfort with the mainstream culture moderate the association between negative responses to the first disclosure of sexual victimization and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A diverse sample (10% Black/African American, 51% White, 39% Other, and 66% Hispanic) of undergraduate women was recruited from two urban, Eastern United States universities for this online study. Participants reported histories of sexual victimization, demographics, responses to sexual assault disclosure (i.e., victim blame, treating the victim differently, taking control, distraction, and egocentric reactions), symptoms of PTSD and depression, and their ethnic identity and mainstream cultural comfort. Thirty-seven percent ( = 221) endorsed an experience of sexual victimization, and 165 disclosed it to someone. Hierarchical ordinary least squares regressions revealed that a stronger sense of ethnic identity was associated with fewer symptoms of PTSD for those women who experienced higher levels of control, distraction, and egocentric responses from the first disclosure recipient. A strong sense of affiliation with the mainstream culture did not protect survivors who reported receiving negative responses to disclosure against symptoms of PTSD or depression. Ethnic affiliation may protect women against PTSD when they receive high levels of negative messages about sexual victimization experiences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260516676475DOI Listing
November 2019

Family Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Latino Emerging Adults: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomology and Acculturative Stress.

J Fam Violence 2015 Nov 9;30(8):967-976. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

This study proposes that posttraumatic stress symptomology and acculturative stress may further explain the relationship between family violence exposure and sexual risk-taking behaviors among Latino emerging adults (=1,100). A moderated mediation analysis indicated that lifetime rates of family violence exposure were positively associated with sexual risk-taking via posttraumatic stress symptomology, and this mediation significantly varied as a function of acculturative stress. Overall, the findings of the current study underscore a need for a better understanding of how family violence exposure puts Latino emerging adults at risk for aversive health outcomes and suggest the use of an ecological systemic framework that examines the interactions between family, individual, and cultural systems in relation to health risk-taking behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10896-015-9735-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320386PMC
November 2015

Identity Centrality and Psychosocial Functioning: A Person-Centered Approach.

Emerg Adulthood 2015 Oct 12;3(5):327-339. Epub 2015 Jul 12.

Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

There has been increased recognition that identity operates within several "components" and that not every component is likely to be equally central to one's sense of self. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which identity components (i.e., personal, relational, collective, and public) are differentially central to emerging adults' identity. We used a two-step cluster analytic procedure to identify distinct clusters and determine how these configurations might differ in relation to psychosocial functioning (i.e., well-being, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, illicit drug use, risky sex, and impaired driving). The sample consisted of 8,309 college students (72.8% female; = 19.94 years, 18-29, = 2.01) from 30 U.S. colleges and universities. Analyses identified six unique clusters based on the centrality of the four identity components. The findings indicated that a more well-rounded identity was associated with the most favorable psychosocial functioning. Results are discussed in terms of important directions for identity research and practical implications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167696815593183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319851PMC
October 2015

Evaluating the invariance of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure across foreign-born, second-generation and later-generation college students in the United States.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2016 07 12;22(3):460-465. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Psychology, St. John's University.

Objectives: Past research has established that the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) exhibits measurement invariance across diverse ethnic groups. However, relatively little research has evaluated whether this measure is invariant across generational status. Thus, the present study evaluates the invariance of the MEIM across foreign-born, second-generation, and later-generation respondents.

Method: A large, ethnically diverse sample of college students completed the MEIM as part of an online survey (N = 9,107; 72.8% women; mean age = 20.31 years; SD = 3.38).

Results: There is evidence of configural and metric invariance, but there is little evidence of scalar invariance across generational status groups.

Conclusions: This study suggests that the MEIM has an equivalent factor structure across generation groups, indicating it is appropriate to compare the magnitude of associations between the MEIM and other variables across foreign-born, second-generation, and later-generation individuals. However, the lack of scalar invariance suggests that mean-level differences across generational status should be interpreted with caution. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869584PMC
July 2016

Factor structure and factorial invariance of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory.

Psychol Assess 2015 Sep 2;27(3):915-924. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts-Amherst.

Using a national data set, this study examined the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory (MASI) across Latino and Asian Americans, gender, and nativity (U.S.- vs. foreign-born). Results showed that a 4-factor model of acculturative stress provided good fit to the data. Tests of factorial invariance provided evidence of measurement equivalence across all of the groupings tested. These findings suggest that the MASI operationalizes acculturative stress in an equivalent manner across Latino and Asian American students, gender, and nativity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896486PMC
September 2015

Identity in young adulthood: Links with mental health and risky behavior.

J Appl Dev Psychol 2015 Jan-Feb;36:39-52

University of Florida, USA.

The present study was conducted to contribute to our understanding of young adult identity development by deriving latent profiles from intrapersonal and interpersonal indices of identity synthesis and confusion. A sample of 9737 college-attending young adults completed measures of identity, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Four latent profiles emerged: Synthesized (high synthesis, low confusion), Diffused (moderate synthesis, high confusion), Elevated (high synthesis and confusion), and Moderate (moderate synthesis and confusion). The Synthesized profile was associated with the highest well-being and the lowest levels of internalizing, externalizing, and health risks. The Diffused and Elevated profiles were both associated with low well-being and with high internalizing, externalizing, and risky behaviors - with the Elevated profile highest on all of the negative outcomes. The Moderate profile scored intermediately on well-being, internalizing, externalizing, and health risks. These results are discussed in terms of the role of identity within a successful transition to adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2014.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319849PMC
August 2021

The Role of Social and Personal Identities in Self-Esteem Among Ethnic Minority College Students.

Identity (Mahwah, N J) 2015 30;15(3):202-220. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

University of Kentucky.

This study examined the latent personal-social identity profiles that emerged from simultaneous consideration of ethnic, national (United States), and personal identities among ethnic minority college students ( = 3,009) as well as how personal and social identities are jointly associated with self-esteem. Results indicated that the structure of personal-social identity profiles significantly differed across ethnicity, but also indicated some commonalities. The study identified three profiles among Blacks, four among Asian Americans, and two among Latinos. Some personal-social identity profiles were common across multiple ethnic groups, but others were unique within one specific ethnic group. Overall, the profiles indicated important associations between ethnic identity, U.S. identity, and personal identity. These profiles were linked with self-esteem such that individuals who reported high levels of multiple social and personal identities had the highest self-esteem compared to other profiles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15283488.2015.1055532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884058PMC
July 2015

Good Choices, Poor Choices: Relationship Between the Quality of Identity Commitments and Psychosocial Functioning.

Emerg Adulthood 2013 Sep 15;1(3):163-174. Epub 2013 Apr 15.

University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

Research indicates making identity commitments on the part of emerging adults is associated with a wide range of psychosocial benefits. Data from a large research collaborative were used to evaluate hypotheses drawn from eudaimonic identity theory that the benefits of commitment are attributable to the quality of the commitments held. Findings from a study with 9,650 students attending 30 colleges and universities replicated previous research indicating the benefits of identity commitments with respect to subjective well-being, psychological well-being, self-esteem, an internal locus of control; and reduced likelihood of symptoms of general anxiety, social anxiety, and depression. However, when a measure of the quality of identity commitments was added to the analyses, results indicated that commitment quality accounted almost entirely for the associations of identity commitments with psychosocial functioning. Identity commitments of low quality were found to be associated with psychological costs rather than benefits. Implications for helping emerging adults distinguish better identity choices are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167696813484004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319852PMC
September 2013

Role of meaning in the prediction of depressive symptoms among trauma-exposed and nontrauma-exposed emerging adults.

J Clin Psychol 2013 Dec 24;69(12):1269-83. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

St. John's University.

Objectives: This study investigated the role of searching for meaning, finding meaning, trauma exposure, and their interaction in the prediction of depressive symptoms among trauma-exposed and nontrauma-exposed emerging adults.

Method: Eight thousand seven hundred and eighty-four college students (73% female; mean age of 19.8 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the three-way interaction in the prediction of depressive symptoms.

Results: Searching for and finding meaning as well as the three-way interaction significantly contributed to the prediction of depression. Specifically, searching for meaning was associated with increased symptoms, irrespective of meaning levels among nontrauma-exposed and low frequency trauma-exposed emerging adults. Among high frequency trauma-exposed individuals, an increase in the search-by-find meaning interaction predicted fewer symptoms.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that searching for and finding meaning are important mechanisms in the prediction of depression among emerging adults facing daily stressors and traumatic events. Clinical implications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22002DOI Listing
December 2013

The moderating role of centrality on associations between ethnic identity affirmation and ethnic minority college students' mental health.

J Am Coll Health 2013 ;61(3):133-40

a Department of Educational Psychology , University of Illinois at Chicago , Chicago , Illinois.

Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality).

Methods: Using path analysis, the current study examined the relations between ethnic affirmation and indices of mental health problems (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms), and tested whether the process was moderated by ethnic centrality among 3,659 college students representing 3 ethnic groups (41% Latino/a, 35% Asian American, and 24% African American) who participated in a large, multisite university study.

Results And Conclusions: Results suggested that the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health were stronger for Latino/a and Asian American students who reported higher levels of ethnic centrality. For African Americans, higher levels of ethnic affirmation predicted better mental health, but this association did not vary as a function of ethnic centrality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2013.773904DOI Listing
July 2015

Meaning in Life in Emerging Adulthood: A Person-Oriented Approach.

J Pers 2014 Feb 8;82(1):57-68. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

University of South Dakota.

The present study investigated naturally occurring profiles based on two dimensions of meaning in life: Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning. Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning-in-life profiles, and subsequent analyses identified different patterns in psychosocial functioning for each profile. A sample of 8,492 American emerging adults (72.5% women) from 30 colleges and universities completed measures on meaning in life, and positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Results provided support for five meaningful yet distinguishable profiles. A strong generalizability of the cluster solution was found across age, and partial generalizability was found across gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the five profiles showed specific patterns in relation to positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Specifically, respondents with profiles high on Presence of Meaning showed the most adaptive psychosocial functioning, whereas respondents with profiles where meaning was largely absent showed maladaptive psychosocial functioning. The present study provided additional evidence for prior research concerning the complex relationship between Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning, and their relation with psychosocial functioning. Our results offer a partial clarification of the nature of the Search for Meaning process by distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive searching for meaning in life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12033DOI Listing
February 2014

Psychiatric Symptoms as a Predictor of Sexual Aggression among Male College Students.

J Aggress Maltreat Trauma 2011;20(7):726-740

Department of Psychology, St. John's University, Jamaica, New York, USA.

The goal of this investigation was to examine psychiatric symptoms as predictors of the frequency and severity of sexually aggressive behaviors that had been perpetrated by college-aged men in the past year. Over 400 undergraduate males completed an assessment of sexual aggression, athletic involvement, fraternity affiliation, alcohol and drug use, mistrust of women, depression, and social anxiety. More than 40% of the undergraduate men reported having participated in some form of sexual aggression within the past 12 months, 6% of whom reported having attempted or completed rape. Sexually aggressive behavior (both frequency and severity) was predicted by alcohol use, mistrust of women, and social anxiety. Results are the first to indicate that psychiatric symptoms might contribute to sexual aggression among college men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2011.608184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583129PMC
January 2011

Factor structure of the Youth Coping In Traumatic Times (YCITT) scale.

Psychiatry Res 2010 Oct;179(3):357-62

Division of Child Psychiatry, Columbia University-NYSPI, New York, NY 10032, USA.

The objective of the present study is to determine if a brief measure of coping strategies administered to children and adolescents after a mass traumatic event - Youth Coping In Traumatic Times (YCITT) - has a factor structure similar to that of a lengthier, widely used scale, the How I Coped Under Pressure Scale (HICUPS). The YCITT was developed for the New York City - Board of Education WTC Study, conducted 6 months after 9/11. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) were performed in two randomly selected sub-samples of youth in grades 6-12 (sub-sample 1, n=2249; sub-sample 2, n=2315). In sub-sample 1, CFA indicated acceptable fit of a four-factor solution based on the HICUPS (distraction, active coping, support seeking and avoidance) and EFA yielded a nearly identical solution. In sub-sample 2, CFA indicated that the fit of the HICUPS-based factor solution and the solution derived from the EFA in sub-sample 1 were very similar, with both indicating acceptable model fit. In conclusion, the brief YCITT has a factor structure, which is similar to that of the HICUPS. When used in large-scale assessments of future mass traumatic events, the measure can provide relevant information about youth coping strategies across four key coping domains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2009.03.018DOI Listing
October 2010

Childhood traumatic grief: a multi-site empirical examination of the construct and its correlates.

Death Stud 2008 ;32(10):899-923

Marillac Hall, St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, New York 11439, USA.

This study evaluated the construct of childhood traumatic grief (CTG) and its correlates through a multi-site assessment of 132 bereaved children and adolescents. Youth completed a new measure of the characteristics, attributions, and reactions to exposure to death (CARED), as well as measures of CTG, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anger. CTG was distinct from but highly correlated with PTSD, depression, and, to a lesser degree, anger. In contrast to a recent study of complicated grief, CTG severity was significantly associated with the degree to which the death was viewed as traumatic. CTG was also associated with caregivers' emotional reaction at the time of the death and caregivers' current sadness. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481180802440209DOI Listing
December 2008

Service and science in times of crisis: developing, planning, and implementing a clinical research program for children traumatically bereaved after 9/11.

Death Stud 2008 ;32(2):154-80

St. John's University, Queens New York and Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

September 11, 2001 was a tragedy unparalleled in the United States, resulting in the largest number of parentally bereaved children from a single terrorist incident. The event necessitated swift and sensitive development of programs to meet the needs of bereaved children and their families, and it offered a rare opportunity to investigate the symptoms of, and intervention for, traumatic bereavement. Progress is being made in evaluating assessment and treatment services for traumatically bereaved children and their caregivers. However, attention must be paid to how programs are created in order to carry out the work. This article reports on the methods used to develop and deliver a clinical research program in the aftermath of 9/11. The specific challenges following a crisis, the decision-making process and lessons learned are highlighted, and future program development recommendations are presented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481180701801410DOI Listing
October 2008

From efficacy to effectiveness: the trajectory of the treatment literature for children with PTSD.

Expert Rev Neurother 2008 Aug;8(8):1233-46

Department of Psychology, Marillac Hall, Rm 409, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439, USA.

This review summarizes efficacious treatments for preschoolers, children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder, with a focus on the advances made within the last 5 years. There is considerable support for the use of trauma-specific cognitive-behavioral interventions, in both individual and group formats. The research on psychopharmacological treatments lags behind that of psychotherapy and is currently inconclusive. Limitations of the studies are discussed and treatments that warrant further consideration are reviewed. The authors also review current advances in effectiveness and suggest future directions that are important in generalizing the interventions to underserved and hard to reach populations. The article concludes with the authors' projections for the evolution of the field within the upcoming 5 years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14737175.8.8.1233DOI Listing
August 2008

Childhood traumatic grief: an exploration of the construct in children bereaved on September 11.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2005 Jun;34(2):248-59

Department of Psychology, St. John's University, Queens, NY 11439, USA.

This study is an exploration of the measurement and correlates of childhood traumatic grief (CTG). Eighty-three children of uniformed service personnel who died during the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001, were assessed using measures of demographic characteristics, trauma exposure (physical proximity, emotional proximity, and secondary adversities), use of coping strategies, psychiatric symptoms (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], general anxiety, depression), self-esteem, and traumatic grief. An exploratory factor analysis of the Extended Grief Inventory (EGI; Layne, Savjak, Saltzman, & Pynoos, 2001) indicated distinct constructs of normal versus traumatic grief. CTG factor scores were correlated with secondary adversities from the traumatic event, symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and coping responses, underscoring the theoretical and clinical utility of the content of the measure. Study limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3402_4DOI Listing
June 2005

Clinical characteristics and efficacious treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents.

Authors:
Elissa J Brown

Pediatr Ann 2005 Feb;34(2):138-46

Department of Psychology, St. John's University, Queens, NY 11439, USA.

Children in the United States are exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Psychosocial sequelae to these events vary in their nature and severity. PTSD is a common, debilitating response to traumatic events that may alter the normal developmental course for children. Risk and protective factors in the development of PTSD include child, caregiver, and family characteristics. To date, empirical evidence reveals the efficacy of psychosocial treatments, especially cognitive-behavior therapy. Caregiver involvement in treatment is indicated. Aside from participation in psychosocial interventions, caregivers should be encouraged to convey belief of and empathy for their children, provide a forum for children to discuss the trauma if they choose, and promote coping skills that have been helpful following other stressful events. Emerging studies suggest the potential adjunctive effects of pharmacologic treatments. Additional investigations of the efficacy of school-based group CBT, combined CBT and pharmacotherapy, and CBT for more severely impaired children are warranted. Children and families also might benefit from research on community-based interventions (eg, following disasters, terrorism, war, and community violence) and preventive interventions (designed to prevent the development of PTSD following traumatic events).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/0090-4481-20050201-13DOI Listing
February 2005

School entry after a community-wide trauma: challenges and lessons learned from September 11th, 2001.

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2004 Dec;7(4):211-21

New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a school-based trauma-specific mental health program in New York City following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. This program aimed to serve children most at risk for developing mental health problems as a result of physical proximity (e.g., evacuation from schools surrounding the World Trade Center) to the trauma. As we present the components of the program, we will review the literature that guided our decision making. The ongoing struggle between searching for answers from established science and immediate needs in a crisis is highlighted. Lastly, a discussion of the lessons learned and recommended next steps is presented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-004-6086-9DOI Listing
December 2004
-->