Publications by authors named "Elisabeth Thiering"

80 Publications

Genetic association study of childhood aggression across raters, instruments, and age.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 07 30;11(1):413. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1.5 and 18 years, while accounting for sample overlap. We also meta-analyzed within subsets of the data, i.e., within rater, instrument and age. SNP-heritability for the overall meta-analysis (AGG) was 3.31% (SE = 0.0038). We found no genome-wide significant SNPs for AGG. The gene-based analysis returned three significant genes: ST3GAL3 (P = 1.6E-06), PCDH7 (P = 2.0E-06), and IPO13 (P = 2.5E-06). All three genes have previously been associated with educational traits. Polygenic scores based on our GWAMA significantly predicted aggression in a holdout sample of children (variance explained = 0.44%) and in retrospectively assessed childhood aggression (variance explained = 0.20%). Genetic correlations (r) among rater-specific assessment of AGG ranged from r = 0.46 between self- and teacher-assessment to r = 0.81 between mother- and teacher-assessment. We obtained moderate-to-strong rs with selected phenotypes from multiple domains, but hardly with any of the classical biomarkers thought to be associated with AGG. Significant genetic correlations were observed with most psychiatric and psychological traits (range [Formula: see text]: 0.19-1.00), except for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aggression had a negative genetic correlation (r = ~-0.5) with cognitive traits and age at first birth. Aggression was strongly genetically correlated with smoking phenotypes (range [Formula: see text]: 0.46-0.60). The genetic correlations between aggression and psychiatric disorders were weaker for teacher-reported AGG than for mother- and self-reported AGG. The current GWAMA of childhood aggression provides a powerful tool to interrogate the rater-specific genetic etiology of AGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01480-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324785PMC
July 2021

Genome-wide association study of circulating interleukin 6 levels identifies novel loci.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 04;30(5):393-409

Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (Pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (Pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (Pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098112PMC
April 2021

Novel loci for childhood body mass index and shared heritability with adult cardiometabolic traits.

PLoS Genet 2020 10 12;16(10):e1008718. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Public Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581004PMC
October 2020

Air pollution and IgE sensitization in 4 European birth cohorts-the MeDALL project.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 02 11;147(2):713-722. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Whether long-term exposure air to pollution has effects on allergic sensitization is controversial.

Objective: Our aim was to investigate associations of air pollution exposure at birth and at the time of later biosampling with IgE sensitization against common food and inhalant allergens, or specific allergen molecules, in children aged up to 16 years.

Methods: A total of 6163 children from 4 European birth cohorts participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy [MeDALL] consortium were included in this meta-analysis of the following studies: Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) (Sweden), Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Human Immune System and Development of Allergies in Childhood (LISA)/German Infant Study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention PLUS Environmental and Genetic Influences on Allergy Development (GINIplus) (Germany), and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) (The Netherlands). The following indicators were modeled by land use regression: individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm, less than 10 μm, and between 2.5 and 10 μm; PM absorbance (a measurement of the blackness of PM filters); and nitrogen oxides levels. Blood samples drawn at ages 4 to 6 (n = 5989), 8 to 10 (n = 6603), and 15 to 16 (n = 5825) years were analyzed for IgE sensitization to allergen extracts by ImmunoCAP. Additionally, IgE against 132 allergen molecules was measured by using the MedALL microarray chip (n = 1021).

Results: Air pollution was not consistently associated with IgE sensitization to any common allergen extract up to age 16 years. However, allergen-specific analyses suggested increased risks of sensitization to birch (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12 [95% CI = 1.01-1.25] per 10-μg/m increase in NO exposure). In a subpopulation with microarray data, IgE to the major timothy grass allergen Phleum pratense 1 (Phl p 1) and the cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) greater than 3.5 Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip standardized units for detection of IgE antibodies were related to PM exposure at birth (OR = 3.33 [95% CI = 1.40-7.94] and OR = 4.98 [95% CI = 1.59-15.60], respectively, per 5-μg/m increase in exposure).

Conclusion: Air pollution exposure does not seem to increase the overall risk of allergic sensitization; however, sensitization to birch as well as grass pollen Phl p 1 and cat Fel d 1 allergen molecules may be related to specific pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.08.030DOI Listing
February 2021

Changes in parental smoking during pregnancy and risks of adverse birth outcomes and childhood overweight in Europe and North America: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 229,000 singleton births.

PLoS Med 2020 08 18;17(8):e1003182. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background: Fetal smoke exposure is a common and key avoidable risk factor for birth complications and seems to influence later risk of overweight. It is unclear whether this increased risk is also present if mothers smoke during the first trimester only or reduce the number of cigarettes during pregnancy, or when only fathers smoke. We aimed to assess the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy, specifically of quitting or reducing smoking and maternal and paternal smoking combined, with preterm birth, small size for gestational age, and childhood overweight.

Methods And Findings: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis among 229,158 families from 28 pregnancy/birth cohorts from Europe and North America. All 28 cohorts had information on maternal smoking, and 16 also had information on paternal smoking. In total, 22 cohorts were population-based, with birth years ranging from 1991 to 2015. The mothers' median age was 30.0 years, and most mothers were medium or highly educated. We used multilevel binary logistic regression models adjusted for maternal and paternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. Compared with nonsmoking mothers, maternal first trimester smoking only was not associated with adverse birth outcomes but was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.02-1.35], P value = 0.030). Children from mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy had higher risks of preterm birth (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.15], P value = 0.012), small size for gestational age (OR 2.15 [95% CI 2.07-2.23], P value < 0.001), and childhood overweight (OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.35-1.48], P value < 0.001). Mothers who reduced the number of cigarettes between the first and third trimester, without quitting, still had a higher risk of small size for gestational age. However, the corresponding risk estimates were smaller than for women who continued the same amount of cigarettes throughout pregnancy (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.52-2.34] instead of OR 2.20 [95% CI 2.02-2.42] when reducing from 5-9 to ≤4 cigarettes/day; OR 2.79 [95% CI 2.39-3.25] and OR 1.93 [95% CI 1.46-2.57] instead of OR 2.95 [95% CI 2.75-3.15] when reducing from ≥10 to 5-9 and ≤4 cigarettes/day, respectively [P values < 0.001]). Reducing the number of cigarettes during pregnancy did not affect the risks of preterm birth and childhood overweight. Among nonsmoking mothers, paternal smoking was associated with childhood overweight (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.16-1.27], P value < 0.001) but not with adverse birth outcomes. Limitations of this study include the self-report of parental smoking information and the possibility of residual confounding. As this study only included participants from Europe and North America, results need to be carefully interpreted regarding other populations.

Conclusions: We observed that as compared to nonsmoking during pregnancy, quitting smoking in the first trimester is associated with the same risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age, but with a higher risk of childhood overweight. Reducing the number of cigarettes, without quitting, has limited beneficial effects. Paternal smoking seems to be associated, independently of maternal smoking, with the risk of childhood overweight. Population strategies should focus on parental smoking prevention before or at the start, rather than during, pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433860PMC
August 2020

A novel whole blood gene expression signature for asthma, dermatitis, and rhinitis multimorbidity in children and adolescents.

Allergy 2020 12 23;75(12):3248-3260. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Institute for Advanced Biosciences, UGA-INSERM U1209-CNRS UMR5309, Allée des Alpes, France.

Background: Allergic diseases often occur in combination (multimorbidity). Human blood transcriptome studies have not addressed multimorbidity. Large-scale gene expression data were combined to retrieve biomarkers and signaling pathways to disentangle allergic multimorbidity phenotypes.

Methods: Integrated transcriptomic analysis was conducted in 1233 participants with a discovery phase using gene expression data (Human Transcriptome Array 2.0) from whole blood of 786 children from three European birth cohorts (MeDALL), and a replication phase using RNA Sequencing data from an independent cohort (EVA-PR, n = 447). Allergic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis) were considered as single disease or multimorbidity (at least two diseases), and compared with no disease.

Results: Fifty genes were differentially expressed in allergic diseases. Thirty-two were not previously described in allergy. Eight genes were consistently overexpressed in all types of multimorbidity for asthma, dermatitis, and rhinitis (CLC, EMR4P, IL5RA, FRRS1, HRH4, SLC29A1, SIGLEC8, IL1RL1). All genes were replicated the in EVA-PR cohort. RT-qPCR validated the overexpression of selected genes. In MeDALL, 27 genes were differentially expressed in rhinitis alone, but none was significant for asthma or dermatitis alone. The multimorbidity signature was enriched in eosinophil-associated immune response and signal transduction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis identified IL5/JAK/STAT and IL33/ST2/IRAK/TRAF as key signaling pathways in multimorbid diseases. Synergistic effect of multimorbidity on gene expression levels was found.

Conclusion: A signature of eight genes identifies multimorbidity for asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Our results have clinical and mechanistic implications, and suggest that multimorbidity should be considered differently than allergic diseases occurring alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14314DOI Listing
December 2020

Association of sugar-sweetened drinks with caries in 10- and 15-year-olds.

BMC Oral Health 2020 03 19;20(1):81. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Goethestraße70, 80336, Munich, Germany.

Background: Sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs) are known to be cariogenic, but this association has not been well investigated in population-based repeated cross-sectional studies in recent years. Therefore, this study examined whether SSD intake is associated with higher caries experience in 10- and 15-year-olds.

Methods: The study sample included participants from the Munich study centre of two birth cohorts with data on non-cavitated caries lesions (NCCL/S), caries experience (DMF/S index), overall caries burden (DMF + NCCL/S) and SSD intake. In total, 915 and 996 children were included from the 10- and 15-year follow-ups, respectively. Intake (g/day) of SSDs, comprising cola, lemonade, ice-tea, sport/energy drinks, fruit squashes and nectars, was calculated from food frequency questionnaires. For analyses, the SSD intake was converted into portions (250 ml/day). Multiple logistic regression and prospective analysis models were performed to test associations between SSD intake and various definitions of caries, adjusting for sex, parental education, body mass index (BMI) categories, study cohort, plaque-affected sextants, mode of SSD consumption, energy content of SSDs, and total energy intake.

Results: The mean overall caries burden at 10 and 15 years of age was 1.81 (SD: 2.71) and 6.04 (SD: 8.13), respectively. The average consumption of SSDs at the 10- and 15-year follow-ups was 0.48 (SD: 0.85) and 0.83 (SD 1.40) portions/day, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, in 10-year-olds, SSD intake was significantly associated with higher caries experience based on the indices DMF/S (adjusted odds ratio: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57), NCCL/S (1.24; 1.03-1.49) and DMF + NCCL/S (1.27; 1.05-1.55). At the 15-year follow-up, SSD consumption was significantly associated with increased DMF/S index (1.12; 1.01-1.25) only. Prospective model associating 10-year SSD intake with 15-year caries experience was not significant.

Conclusions: SSD intake significantly increases the caries burden in 10-year-olds, with attenuated effects in 15-year-olds. To prevent caries, SSD consumption should be reduced, especially in children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01068-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082943PMC
March 2020

GWAS on longitudinal growth traits reveals different genetic factors influencing infant, child, and adult BMI.

Sci Adv 2019 09 4;5(9):eaaw3095. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Early childhood growth patterns are associated with adult health, yet the genetic factors and the developmental stages involved are not fully understood. Here, we combine genome-wide association studies with modeling of longitudinal growth traits to study the genetics of infant and child growth, followed by functional, pathway, genetic correlation, risk score, and colocalization analyses to determine how developmental timings, molecular pathways, and genetic determinants of these traits overlap with those of adult health. We found a robust overlap between the genetics of child and adult body mass index (BMI), with variants associated with adult BMI acting as early as 4 to 6 years old. However, we demonstrated a completely distinct genetic makeup for peak BMI during infancy, influenced by variation at the locus. These findings suggest that different genetic factors control infant and child BMI. In light of the obesity epidemic, these findings are important to inform the timing and targets of prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw3095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904961PMC
September 2019

Ambient air pollution and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Res 2020 01 12;180:108817. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, LMU Munich, Member, German Center for Lung Research (DZL Munich), CPC (Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich), Germany; Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Air pollutants are suggested to be related to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since several high quality papers on air pollutants and T2D have been published beyond the last reviews, an extended systematic review is highly warranted. We review epidemiological studies to quantify the association between air pollutants and T2D, and to answer if diabetes patients are more vulnerable to air pollutants.

Methods: We systematically reviewed the databases of PubMed and Web of Science based on the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). We calculated odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the strength of the associations between air pollutants [e.g., particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM), particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM), and nitrogen dioxide (NO)] and T2D. We evaluated the quality and risk of bias of the included studies and graded the credibility of the pooled evidence using several recommended tools. We also performed sensitivity analysis, meta-regression analysis, and publication bias test.

Results: Out of 716 articles identified, 86 were used for this review and meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed significant associations of PM with T2D incidence (11 studies; HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17 per 10 μg/m increment; I = 74.4%) and prevalence (11 studies; OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.04-1.12 per 10 μg/m increment; I = 84.3%), of PM with T2D prevalence (6 studies; OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17 per 10 μg/m increment; I = 89.5%) and incidence (6 studies; HR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00-1.22 per μg/m increment; I = 70.6%), and of NO with T2D prevalence (11 studies; OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.04-1.11 per 10 μg/m increment; I = 91.1%). The majority of studies on glucose-homoeostasis markers also showed increased risks with higher air pollutants levels, but the studies were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis. Overall, patients with diabetes might be more vulnerable to PM.

Conclusions: Recent publications strengthened the evidence for adverse effects of ambient air pollutants exposure (especially for PM) on T2D and that diabetic patients might be more vulnerable to air pollutants exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108817DOI Listing
January 2020

Association of Birth Weight With Type 2 Diabetes and Glycemic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 09 4;2(9):e1910915. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations.

Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits.

Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (β = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755534PMC
September 2019

A trans-ancestral meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies reveals loci associated with childhood obesity.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 10;28(19):3327-3338

Unidad de Investigacion Medica en Bioquımica, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859434PMC
October 2019

Early life determinants induce sustainable changes in the gut microbiome of six-year-old children.

Sci Rep 2019 09 3;9(1):12675. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

While the association between early life determinants and the development of the gut microbiome composition in infancy has been widely investigated, a potential persistent influence of early life determinants on the gut microbial community after its stabilization at later childhood remains largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify the association between several early life determinants and the gut microbiome composition in six-year-old children from the LISA birth cohort. A total number of 166 fecal samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based barcoding to assess bacterial diversity pattern. The bacterial profiles were investigated for their association with maternal smoking during pregnancy, mode of delivery, breastfeeding, antibiotic treatment between one and two years of age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES). While alpha and beta diversity of the infants' gut microbiome remained unaffected, amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) annotated to Firmicutes and Actinobacteria responded to early life determinants, mostly to feeding practice and antibiotics use. ASVs associated to Bacteriodetes remained unaffected. Our findings indicate that early life determinants could have a long-term sustainable effect on the gut microflora of six-year-old children, however, associations with early life determinates are weaker than reported for infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49160-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722248PMC
September 2019

Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Adverse Maternal and Infant Outcomes.

JAMA 2019 05;321(17):1702-1715

Division of Health Data and Digitalization, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges.

Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015.

Exposures: Gestational weight gain.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth.

Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.3820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506886PMC
May 2019

Maternal and fetal genetic effects on birth weight and their relevance to cardio-metabolic risk factors.

Nat Genet 2019 05 1;51(5):804-814. Epub 2019 May 1.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0403-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522365PMC
May 2019

An individual participant data meta-analysis on metabolomics profiles for obesity and insulin resistance in European children.

Sci Rep 2019 03 25;9(1):5053. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Interdisciplinary Obesity Unit, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Ulm, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

Childhood obesity prevalence is rising in countries worldwide. A variety of etiologic factors contribute to childhood obesity but little is known about underlying biochemical mechanisms. We performed an individual participant meta-analysis including 1,020 pre-pubertal children from three European studies and investigated the associations of 285 metabolites measured by LC/MS-MS with BMI z-score, height, weight, HOMA, and lipoprotein concentrations. Seventeen metabolites were significantly associated with BMI z-score. Sphingomyelin (SM) 32:2 showed the strongest association with BMI z-score (P = 4.68 × 10) and was also closely related to weight, and less strongly to height and LDL, but not to HOMA. Mass spectrometric analyses identified SM 32:2 as myristic acid containing SM d18:2/14:0. Thirty-five metabolites were significantly associated to HOMA index. Alanine showed the strongest positive association with HOMA (P = 9.77 × 10), while acylcarnitines and non-esterified fatty acids were negatively associated with HOMA. SM d18:2/14:0 is a powerful marker for molecular changes in childhood obesity. Tracing back the origin of SM 32:2 to dietary source in combination with genetic predisposition will path the way for early intervention programs. Metabolic profiling might facilitate risk prediction and personalized interventions in overweight children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41449-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433919PMC
March 2019

Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood: An individual participant data meta-analysis.

PLoS Med 2019 02 11;16(2):e1002744. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact.

Methods And Findings: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations.

Conclusions: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370184PMC
February 2019

Lung function and oral health in adolescents.

Eur Respir J 2019 03 7;53(3). Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Neuherberg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01951-2018DOI Listing
March 2019

Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America, and Oceania.

BMC Med 2018 11 5;16(1):201. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Departments of Public Health Sciences and Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies.

Methods: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape.

Results: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications.

Conclusions: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1189-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6217770PMC
November 2018

Genome Analyses of >200,000 Individuals Identify 58 Loci for Chronic Inflammation and Highlight Pathways that Link Inflammation and Complex Disorders.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 11;103(5):691-706

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218410PMC
November 2018

Author Correction: Genome-wide association and HLA fine-mapping studies identify risk loci and genetic pathways underlying allergic rhinitis.

Nat Genet 2018 09;50(9):1343

Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

In the version of this article initially published, in Fig. 3, the y-axis numbering did not match the log scale indicated in the axis label. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0197-6DOI Listing
September 2018

Genome-wide association and HLA fine-mapping studies identify risk loci and genetic pathways underlying allergic rhinitis.

Nat Genet 2018 08 16;50(8):1072-1080. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Allergic rhinitis is the most common clinical presentation of allergy, affecting 400 million people worldwide, with increasing incidence in westernized countries. To elucidate the genetic architecture and understand the underlying disease mechanisms, we carried out a meta-analysis of allergic rhinitis in 59,762 cases and 152,358 controls of European ancestry and identified a total of 41 risk loci for allergic rhinitis, including 20 loci not previously associated with allergic rhinitis, which were confirmed in a replication phase of 60,720 cases and 618,527 controls. Functional annotation implicated genes involved in various immune pathways, and fine mapping of the HLA region suggested amino acid variants important for antigen binding. We further performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses of allergic sensitization against inhalant allergens and nonallergic rhinitis, which suggested shared genetic mechanisms across rhinitis-related traits. Future studies of the identified loci and genes might identify novel targets for treatment and prevention of allergic rhinitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0157-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068780PMC
August 2018

Metabolic Regulation of Pre- and Postnatal Growth.

Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser 2018 10;89:79-91. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Growth characteristics during periods of early developmental plasticity are linked with later health outcomes and with disease risks. Infant growth is modulated by genetic and exogenous factors including nutrition. We try to explore their underlying mechanisms using targeted metabolomic profiling of small molecules in biological samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantify hundreds of molecules in small biosamples, e.g., 50 µL plasma. In the large German LISA birth cohort study, cord blood lysophosphatidylcholines and fatty acids were closely associated with infant birth weight, with a nonsignificant trend towards an association with infant weight gain and later BMI. Studies in infants randomized to different protein intakes in the European CHOP Study show conventional high protein intakes to markedly increase plasma-indispensable amino acids (AA), particularly branched-chain AA (BCAA), while exceeding the infant's capacity of BCAA breakdown, and an increase in the dispensable AA tyrosine previously associated with insulin resistance. In a path model analysis of the relationship of infant plasma AA, growth factors, and infant growth, AA were generally found to induce a stronger response of insulin than IGF-I although effects of individual AA were very different. We conclude that targeted improvement in nutrient supply in pregnancy and infancy may offer large opportunities for promoting desirable child growth patterns and long-term health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486494DOI Listing
October 2019

Consortium-based genome-wide meta-analysis for childhood dental caries traits.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 09;27(17):3113-3127

Research Unit for Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5000, Denmark.

Prior studies suggest dental caries traits in children and adolescents are partially heritable, but there has been no large-scale consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date. We therefore performed GWAS for caries in participants aged 2.5-18.0 years from nine contributing centres. Phenotype definitions were created for the presence or absence of treated or untreated caries, stratified by primary and permanent dentition. All studies tested for association between caries and genotype dosage and the results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analysis included up to 19 003 individuals (7530 affected) for primary teeth and 13 353 individuals (5875 affected) for permanent teeth. Evidence for association with caries status was observed at rs1594318-C for primary teeth [intronic within ALLC, odds ratio (OR) 0.85, effect allele frequency (EAF) 0.60, P 4.13e-8] and rs7738851-A (intronic within NEDD9, OR 1.28, EAF 0.85, P 1.63e-8) for permanent teeth. Consortium-wide estimated heritability of caries was low [h2 of 1% (95% CI: 0%: 7%) and 6% (95% CI 0%: 13%) for primary and permanent dentitions, respectively] compared with corresponding within-study estimates [h2 of 28% (95% CI: 9%: 48%) and 17% (95% CI: 2%: 31%)] or previously published estimates. This study was designed to identify common genetic variants with modest effects which are consistent across different populations. We found few single variants associated with caries status under these assumptions. Phenotypic heterogeneity between cohorts and limited statistical power will have contributed; these findings could also reflect complexity not captured by our study design, such as genetic effects which are conditional on environmental exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097157PMC
September 2018

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring overweight: is there a dose-response relationship? An individual patient data meta-analysis.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 07 28;42(7):1249-1264. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Paediatrics and Adolescents Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background/objectives: A number of meta-analyses suggest an association between any maternal smoking in pregnancy and offspring overweight obesity. Whether there is a dose-response relationship across number of cigarettes and whether this differs by sex remains unclear.

Subject/methods: Studies reporting number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and offspring BMI published up to May 2015 were searched. An individual patient data meta-analysis of association between the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and offspring overweight (defined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference) was computed using a generalized additive mixed model with non-linear effects and adjustment for confounders (maternal weight status, breastfeeding, and maternal education) and stratification for sex.

Results: Of 26 identified studies, 16 authors provided data on a total of 238,340 mother-child-pairs. A linear positive association was observed between the number of cigarettes smoked and offspring overweight for up to 15 cigarettes per day with an OR increase per cigarette of 1.03, 95% CI = [1.02-1.03]. The OR flattened with higher cigarette use. Associations were similar in males and females. Sensitivity analyses supported these results.

Conclusions: A linear dose-response relationship of maternal smoking was observed in the range of 1-15 cigarettes per day equally in boys and girls with no further risk increase for doses above 15 cigarettes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0050-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685293PMC
July 2018

Ambient air pollution: How much of estimated "prenatal exposure" is truly attributable to pre-birth exposures?

Environ Res 2018 08 8;165:442-443. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.12.002DOI Listing
August 2018

Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with improved FEV and FVC in adolescence.

Eur Respir J 2017 04 26;49(4). Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology I, Neuherberg, Germany

Vitamin D plays a role in the development of the immune system and the lung, as well as in airway remodelling. Therefore, this study investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and spirometric lung function parameters at age 15 years.In the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus, lung function testing by spirometry and 25(OH)D measurements were performed during the 15-year follow-up examinations. Valid lung function measurements pre- and/or post-bronchodilation and serum 25(OH)D concentrations, which were adjusted for the date of blood sampling to account for seasonal variability, were available for 2607 adolescents. Associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and spirometric parameters were analysed using generalised additive models adjusted for confounding factors.Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly associated with forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) and FEV/FVC measured before bronchodilation after adjustment for potential confounders: FEV increased by 10 mL (95% CI 2-17), FVC by 20 mL (95% CI 12-28) and FEV/FVC decreased by 0.177% (95% CI -0.286 to -0.067) per 10 nmol·L increase in 25(OH)D concentrations. Flow rates (forced expiratory flow rates at 25, 50 and 75% of exhaled FVC (FEF, FEF, FEF) and mean flow rate between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF)) were not associated with vitamin D. Similar associations were observed for lung function parameters measured after bronchodilation.Vitamin D concentrations are positively associated with volume-related lung function parameters pre- and post-bronchodilation, suggesting structural changes in peripheral airways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01804-2016DOI Listing
April 2017

Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development.

Obes Facts 2017 5;10(2):85-100. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Division of Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich Medical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Background/aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence.

Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA), polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables.

Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing.

Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000453001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5644937PMC
November 2017

Gingivitis and lifestyle influences on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 in adolescents.

J Clin Periodontol 2017 Apr 11;44(4):372-381. Epub 2017 Feb 11.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Aim: This cross-sectional study was repeated at two time points and investigated the influence of gingivitis, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the systemic inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL6) in 10- and 15-year-olds.

Materials And Methods: The study sample of two birth cohorts, i.e. GINIplus and LISAplus, from the Munich centre consisted of 806 and 846 subjects who were evaluated at 10- and 15-year follow-ups respectively. Children and their parents completed questionnaires on participant-related lifestyle information. Gingivitis was measured at the sextant level using a simplified sulcus-bleeding index. Serum hs-CRP and IL6 levels were obtained from blood samples. Multiple logistic regressions adjusting for lifestyle-related factors and other confounders were performed to assess associations between the specified variables.

Results: There were no associations between gingivitis and the inflammatory markers hs-CRP and IL6 in 10-year-olds. In 15-year-olds, gingivitis (aOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.25-3.77); daily smoking (aOR: 6.27; 95% CI: 1.39-28.39); and being overweight/obese (aOR: 4.95; 95% CI: 0.73-33.68) were identified as significantly influencing factors for elevated hs-CRP values. Oral hygiene did not influence hs-CRP.

Conclusion: In this study, hs-CRP was positively associated with gingivitis, smoking daily and overweight/obesity among 15-year-olds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12690DOI Listing
April 2017

Fluoride/vitamin D tablet supplementation in infants-effects on dental health after 10 years.

Clin Oral Investig 2017 Sep 7;21(7):2283-2290. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

Objective: We examined whether fluoride/vitamin D supplementation in the first year of life is associated with caries or molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) at 10 years of age.

Methods: The study population consisted of 406 children for whom information on fluoride/vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life was available. Dental examination at the age of 10 included caries and MIH registration. The results of logistic regression models were adjusted for gender, age, BMI, parental education, and equivalent income.

Results: Children receiving supplementation during the entire first year of life had a significantly lower probability of having caries-related restorations in primary teeth in comparison to those who received supplementation for less than 6 months (fluoride supplementation: odds ratio (OR) for dmfs 2.47 (1.32-4.63), for fs 2.70 (1.43-5.10); vitamin D supplementation: OR for dmfs 2.08 (1.00-4.32), fs 2.50 (1.19-5.25)). The majority of logistic regression analyses indicated no association between supplementation and MIH.

Conclusions: It was found a consistent significant caries-preventive effect in the primary dentition of children who received fluoride (256/372)/vitamin D supplementation (274/376) in all 12 months over the first year of life; no effects were observed for permanent dentition. The high parental interest in supplementation is linked to an imbalance of the study groups. Furthermore, tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride toothpastes and/or other oral hygiene products were not recorded during the observation period which may also confound the results.

Clinical Relevance: Fluoride/vitamin D supplementation can be used in children for preventing caries in the primary dentition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-016-2021-yDOI Listing
September 2017

Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease.

Nature 2016 10 28;538(7624):248-252. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Birth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. These life-course associations have often been attributed to the impact of an adverse early life environment. Here, we performed a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of BW in 153,781 individuals, identifying 60 loci where fetal genotype was associated with BW (P < 5 × 10). Overall, approximately 15% of variance in BW was captured by assays of fetal genetic variation. Using genetic association alone, we found strong inverse genetic correlations between BW and systolic blood pressure (R = -0.22, P = 5.5 × 10), T2D (R = -0.27, P = 1.1 × 10) and coronary artery disease (R = -0.30, P = 6.5 × 10). In addition, using large -cohort datasets, we demonstrated that genetic factors were the major contributor to the negative covariance between BW and future cardiometabolic risk. Pathway analyses indicated that the protein products of genes within BW-associated regions were enriched for diverse processes including insulin signalling, glucose homeostasis, glycogen biosynthesis and chromatin remodelling. There was also enrichment of associations with BW in known imprinted regions (P = 1.9 × 10). We demonstrate that life-course associations between early growth phenotypes and adult cardiometabolic disease are in part the result of shared genetic effects and identify some of the pathways through which these causal genetic effects are mediated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5164934PMC
October 2016
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