Publications by authors named "Elisabeth Jimenez"

11 Publications

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Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) microbiome is not affected by colon microbiota in healthy goats.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Apr 14;3(1):28. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

CIC bioGUNE, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, bld 801 A, 48160, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain.

Background: The knowledge about blood circulating microbiome and its functional relevance in healthy individuals remains limited. An assessment of changes in the circulating microbiome was performed by sequencing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) bacterial DNA from goats supplemented or not in early life with rumen liquid transplantation.

Results: Most of the bacterial DNA associated to PBMC was identified predominantly as Proteobacteria (55%) followed by Firmicutes (24%), Bacteroidetes (11%) and Actinobacteria (8%). The predominant genera found in PBMC samples were Pseudomonas, Prevotella, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium and Ruminococcus. Other genera such as Butyrivibrivio, Bifidobacterium, Dorea and Coprococcus were also present in lower proportions. Several species known as blood pathogens or others involved in gut homeostasis such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were also identified. However, the PBMC microbiome phylum composition differed from that in the colon of goats (P ≤ 0.001), where Firmicutes was the predominant phylum (83%). Although, rumen liquid administration in early-life altered bacterial community structure and increased Tlr5 expression (P = 0.020) in colon pointing to higher bacterial translocation, less than 8% of OTUs in colon were also observed in PBMCs.

Conclusions: Data suggest that in physiological conditions, PBMC microbiome differs from and is not affected by colon gut microbiota in small ruminants. Although, further studies with larger number of animals and covering other animal tissues are required, results point to a common circulating bacterial profile on mammals being phylum Proteobacteria, and genera Pseudomonas and Prevotella the most abundants. All suggest that PBMC microbiome in healthy ruminants could be implicated in homeostatic condition. This study expands our knowledge about PBMC microbiome contribution to health in farm animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42523-021-00091-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048065PMC
April 2021

A novel ammoniation treatment of barley as a strategy to optimize rumen pH, feed degradability and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.

Background: Meeting the energy and nitrogen (N) requirements of high-performing ruminants at the same time as avoiding digestive disturbances (i.e. rumen acidosis) is a key priority in ruminant nutrition. The present study evaluated the effect of a cereal ammoniation treatment, in which barley grains are combined with urea and enzymes that catalyze the conversion of urea to ammonia to optimize rumen function. Twelve rumen cannulated sheep were randomly divided into two groups and fed a diet containing 60% of ammoniated barley (AMM) or untreated barley supplemented with urea (CTL) to investigate the impact on rumen fermentation and feed utilization.

Results: AMM had higher total N content and effective rumen degradable N than untreated barely. AMM sheep had a consistently higher rumen pH throughout the day (6.31 versus 6.03) and tended to have a lower post-prandial ammonia peak and higher acetate molar proportion (+5.1%) than CTL sheep. The rumen environment in AMM sheep favored the colonization and utilization of agro-industrial by-products (i.e. orange pulp) by the rumen microbes leading to a higher feed degradability. AMM sheep also had higher total tract apparent N digestibility (+21.7%) and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (+34%), suggesting a higher N uptake and microbial protein synthesis than CTL sheep.

Conclusion: The inclusion of AMM in the diet of ruminants represents a valid strategy for maintaining rumen pH within a physiological range and improving N utilization by the rumen microbes, which could have positive effects on the health and productivity of animals in intensive production systems. These findings warrant further studies under conventional farm conditions. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11205DOI Listing
March 2021

Inoculation with rumen fluid in early life accelerates the rumen microbial development and favours the weaning process in goats.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Jan 19;3(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Profesor Albareda 1, 18008, Granada, Spain.

Background: Newborn ruminants possess an underdeveloped rumen which is colonized by microorganisms acquired from adult animals and the surrounding environment. This microbial transfer can be limited in dairy systems in which newborns are separated from their dams at birth. This study explores whether the direct inoculation of fresh or autoclaved rumen fluid from adult goats to newborn kids has a beneficial effect on rumen microbial development and function.

Results: Repetitive inoculation of young kids with fresh rumen fluid from adult goats adapted to forage (RFF) or concentrate diets (RFC) accelerated microbial colonization of the rumen during the pre-weaning period leading to high protozoal numbers, a greater diversity of bacterial (+ 234 OTUs), methanogens (+ 6 OTUs) and protozoal communities (+ 25 OTUs) than observed in control kids (CTL) without inoculation. This inoculation also increased the size of the core bacterial and methanogens community and the abundance of key rumen bacteria (Ruminococcaceae, Fibrobacteres, Veillonellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Tenericutes), methanogens (Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanomicrobium mobile and Group 9), anaerobic fungi (Piromyces and Orpinomyces) and protozoal taxa (Enoploplastron, Diplodinium, Polyplastron, Ophryoscolex, Isotricha and Dasytricha) before weaning whereas CTL kids remained protozoa-free through the study. Most of these taxa were positively correlated with indicators of the rumen microbiological and physiological development (higher forage and concentrate intakes and animal growth during the post-weaning period) favoring the weaning process in RFF and RFC kids in comparison to CTL kids. Some of these microbiological differences tended to decrease during the post-weaning period, although RFF and RFC kids retained a more complex and matured rumen microbial ecosystem than CTL kids. Inoculation with autoclaved rumen fluid promoted lower development of the bacterial and protozoal communities during the pre-weaning period than using fresh inocula, but it favored a more rapid microbial development during the post-weaning than observed for CTL kids.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that inoculation of young ruminants with fresh rumen fluid from adult animals accelerated the rumen microbial colonization which was associated with an earlier rumen functional development. This strategy facilitated a smoother transition from milk to solid feed favoring the animal performance during post-weaning and minimizing stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42523-021-00073-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814744PMC
January 2021

Targeting EGFR in Lung Cancer: Current Standards and Developments.

Drugs 2018 Jun;78(9):893-911

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Avda de Córdoba s/n, 28041, Madrid, Spain.

Lung cancer is the second most common malignant tumor and the leading cause of cancer death. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a distinct subtype of lung cancer comprising approximately 15-40% of non-squamous tumors. The development of first- and second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with EGFR-mutant tumors, and over the last few years has been the therapy of choice in the initial management of patients with activating mutations in EGFR, with some differences in efficacy and toxicity profile. Up to 50% of patients treated with first- and second-generation TKIs develop an EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation at the time of progression. In this context, osimertinib has shown a great benefit in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) in the second-line setting, including central nervous system metastasis control. The FLAURA trial, which compared osimertinib to first-generation inhibitors as first-line therapy, showed a clear PFS advantage for osimertinib and a trend towards an increased overall survival (OS) assessed by investigator review. Although T790M mutation is the most common mechanism of resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs, other EGFR-dependent and -independent mechanisms have been described, such as HER2 and MET amplifications or BRAF and MEK mutations. Some mechanisms of resistance to osimertinib and other third-generation TKIs have also been described. Several fourth-generation TKIs, targeted drug combinations and immunotherapy strategies are under investigation to overcome resistance to EGFR TKIs in order to improve EGFR-mutant NSCLC patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-018-0916-4DOI Listing
June 2018

In vitro assessment of the factors that determine the activity of the rumen microbiota for further applications as inoculum.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Jan 16;99(1):163-172. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.

Background: The rumen microbiota has been used as inoculum for in vitro studies and as a probiotic to improve productivity in young animals. However, great variability across studies has been noted depending on the inoculum considered. The present study aims to assess the relevance of different factors (microbial fraction, collection time, donor animal diet, fermentation substrate and inoculum preservation method) to maximize the rumen inoculum activity and set the standards for further in vitro and in vivo applications.

Results: Rumen inoculum sampled at 3 h after feeding led to greater microbial growth and activity [+12% volatile fatty acid (VFA), +17% ammonia] compared to before feeding. Similar results were noted when rumen liquid or rumen content were used as inocula. Rumen inoculum adapted to concentrate diets increased microbial activity (+19% VFA) independently of the substrate used in vitro. Freezing-thawing the inoculum, in comparison to fresh inoculum, decreased microbial activity (-14% VFA, -96% ammonia), anaerobic fungi and protozoa, with holotrichs protozoa being particularly vulnerable. Inoculum lyophilization had a stronger negative effect on microbial activity (-51% VFA) and delayed re-activation of the microbes, leading to lower levels of methanogens and anaerobic fungi, as well as almost complete wipe out of rumen protozoa.

Conclusions: Fresh rumen fluid sampled at 3 h after feeding from donor animals that were fed concentrate diets should be chosen when the aim is to provide the most diverse and active rumen microbial inoculum. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9157DOI Listing
January 2019

Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

PLoS One 2017 16;12(8):e0182235. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001). Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28). Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0182235PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558975PMC
October 2017

Prospective Clinical Integration of an Amplicon-Based Next-Generation Sequencing Method to Select Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients for Genotype-Tailored Treatments.

Clin Lung Cancer 2018 01 23;19(1):65-73.e7. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre and Instituto de Investigación i+12, Madrid, Spain; Lung Cancer Group, Clinical Research Program, CNIO (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas) and Instituto de Investigación i+12, Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: A substantial fraction of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harbor targetable genetic alterations. In this study, we analyzed the feasibility and clinical utility of integrating a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel into our routine lung cancer molecular subtyping algorithm.

Patients And Methods: After routine pathologic and molecular subtyping, we implemented an amplicon-based gene panel for DNA analysis covering mutational hot spots in 22 cancer genes in consecutive advanced-stage NSCLCs.

Results: We analyzed 109 tumors using NGS between December 2014 and January 2016. Fifty-six patients (51%) were treatment-naive and 82 (75%) had lung adenocarcinomas. In 89 cases (82%), we used samples derived from lung cancer diagnostic procedures. We obtained successful sequencing results in 95 cases (87%). As part of our routine lung cancer molecular subtyping protocol, single-gene testing for EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 was attempted in nonsquamous and 3 squamous-cell cancers (n = 92). Sixty-nine of 92 samples (75%) had sufficient tissue to complete ALK and ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and NGS. With the integration of the gene panel, 40 NSCLCs (37%) in the entire cohort and 30 NSCLCs (40%) fully tested for ALK and ROS1 IHC and NGS had actionable mutations. KRAS (24%) and EGFR (10%) were the most frequently mutated actionable genes. Ten patients (9%) received matched targeted therapies, 6 (5%) in clinical trials.

Conclusion: The combination of IHC tests for ALK and ROS1 and amplicon-based NGS is applicable in routine clinical practice, enabling patient selection for genotype-tailored treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2017.06.008DOI Listing
January 2018

Second-line Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Focus on the Clinical Development of Dacomitinib.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 5;4:36. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Instituto de Investigación i+12, Madrid, Spain.

Dacomitinib is a second-generation, irreversible, covalent pan-HER tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI). It showed potent EGFR signaling inhibition in experimental models, including first-generation TKI-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. This preclinical efficacy did not translate into clinically meaningful treatment benefits for advanced, pretreated, molecularly unselected NSCLC patients enrolled in two parallel phase III trials. Dacomitinib and erlotinib showed overlapping efficacy data in chemotherapy-pretreated wild-type (WT) patients in the ARCHER 1009 trial. Similarly, it failed to demonstrate any survival benefits as compared to placebo in WT subsets progressing on chemotherapy and at least one previous first-generation TKI (erlotinib or gefitinib) in the BR.26 trial. In the case of -mutant NSCLCs, a pooled analysis of the ARCHER 1009 and ARCHER 1028 trials comparing the efficacy of dacomitinib vs. erlotinib in chemotherapy-pretreated, EGFR TKI-naïve patients showed a trend to a longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in favor of dacomitinib that did not reach statistical significance, with a higher rate of treatment related adverse events (mainly skin rash, paronychia, and gastrointestinal toxicities). On the other hand, the clinical activity in patients with -mutant NSCLCs with acquired TKI resistance that were included in phase II/III trials was equally poor (response rate <10%; PFS 3-4 months). Therefore, with the results of the ARCHER 1050 trial (NCT01774721) still pending, the current clinical development of dacomitinib is largely focused on -mutant, TKI-naïve patients. Here, we review the most relevant clinical data of dacomitinib in advanced NSCLC. We discuss the potential role of dacomitinib in pretreated WT and -mutant (TKI-naïve and TKI-resistant) patients. Finally, we briefly comment the available clinical data of dacomitinib in HER2-mutant NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2017.00036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380728PMC
April 2017

The anti-proliferative effect of TI1B, a major Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor from pea (Pisum sativum L.), on HT29 colon cancer cells is mediated through protease inhibition.

Br J Nutr 2012 Aug;108 Suppl 1:S135-44

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Professor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada, Spain.

Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from legumes, such as soyabean, pea, lentil and chickpea, are naturally occurring plant protease inhibitors which have potential health-promoting properties within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. BBI can survive both acidic conditions and the action of proteolytic enzymes within the stomach and small intestine, permitting significant amounts to reach the large intestine in active form to exert their reported anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In a previous study, we reported the ability of a recombinant form of TI1B (rTI1B), representing a major BBI isoinhibitor from pea, to influence negatively the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigate if this effect is related directly to the intrinsic ability of BBI to inhibit serine proteases. rTI1B and a novel engineered mutant, having amino acid substitutions at the P1 positions in the two inhibitory domains, were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rTI1B proved to be active against trypsin and chymotrypsin, showing K i values at nanomolar concentrations, whereas the related mutant protein was inactive against both serine proteases. The proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells was significantly affected by rTI1B in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 31 (sd 7) μm), whereas the inactive mutant did not show any significant effect on colon cancer cell growth. In addition, neither recombinant protein affected the growth of non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. These findings suggest that serine proteases should be considered as important targets in investigating the potential chemopreventive role of BBI during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711451200075XDOI Listing
August 2012

The cytotoxic effect of Bowman-Birk isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, from soybean (Glycine max) on HT29 human colorectal cancer cells is related to their intrinsic ability to inhibit serine proteases.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2010 Mar;54(3):396-405

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.

Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from soybean and related proteins are naturally occurring protease inhibitors with potential health-promoting properties within the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we have investigated the effects of soybean BBI proteins on HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, compared with non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. Two major soybean isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, showing considerable amino acid sequence divergence within their inhibitory domains, were purified in order to examine their functional properties, including their individual effects on the proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells. IBB1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin whereas IBBD2 inhibited trypsin only. Despite showing significant differences in their enzyme inhibitory properties, the median inhibitory concentration values determined for IBB1 and IBBD2 on HT29 cell growth were not significantly different (39.9+/-2.3 and 48.3+/-3.5 microM, respectively). The cell cycle distribution pattern of HT29 colon cancer cells was affected by BBI treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with cells becoming blocked in the G0-G1 phase. Chemically inactive soybean BBI had a weak but non-significant effect on the proliferation of HT29 cells. The anti-proliferative properties of BBI isoinhibitors from soybean reveal that both trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteases involved in carcinogenesis should be considered as potential targets of BBI-like proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200900122DOI Listing
March 2010

Anti-carcinogenic soyabean Bowman-Birk inhibitors survive faecal fermentation in their active form and do not affect the microbiota composition in vitro.

Br J Nutr 2009 Apr;101(7):967-71

Department of Biochemistry and Physiology of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Profesor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada, Spain.

Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) from soyabeans is a naturally occurring protease inhibitor with potential anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In a previous paper, we reported that significant amounts of BBI-related proteins reach the terminal ileum functionally and biologically active. We have now investigated: (a) if soyabean BBI is biotransformed by faecal microbiota which would reduce its potential colorectal chemopreventive properties and (b) the potential influence of this protease inhibitor on the modulation of faecal microbiota. In vitro incubation studies of native soyabean BBI at a physiological level (93 microM) with mixed faecal samples of pigs for 24 h at 37 degrees C demonstrated that BBI remains active and its intrinsic trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities were not significantly influenced by the enzymic or metabolic activity of faecal microbiota. Soyabean BBI did not affect the growth of the different bacterial groups studied (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, bacteroides, coliforms, enterobacteria, clostridia and total anaerobes). It was concluded that protease inhibitory activities, intrinsically linked to the chemopreventive properties of soyabean BBI, were largely unaffected by faecal microbiota in vitro. BBI retains significance, therefore, as a bioactive compound in the human GIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0007114508057590DOI Listing
April 2009
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