Publications by authors named "Elisabeth Blanchard"

9 Publications

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Influence of Immune Priming and Egg Adaptation in the Vaccine on Antibody Responses to Circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses After Influenza Vaccination in Adults.

J Infect Dis 2018 10;218(10):1571-1581

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Although ferret antisera used in influenza surveillance did not detect antigenic drift of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the 2015-2016 season, low vaccine effectiveness was reported in adults. We investigated the immune basis of low responses to circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses after vaccination.

Methods: Prevaccination and postvaccination serum samples collected from >300 adults (aged 18-49 years) in 6 seasons (2010-2011 to 2015-2016) were analyzed using hemagglutination inhibition assays to evaluate the antibody responses to 13 A(H1N1) viruses circulated from 1977 to 2016. Microneutralization and serum adsorption assays were used to verify the 163K and 223R specificity of antibodies.

Results: Individual antibody profiles to A(H1N1) viruses revealed 3 priming patterns: USSR/77, TW/86, or NC/99 priming. More than 20% of adults had reduced titers to cell-propagated circulating 6B.1 and 6B.2 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses compared with the A/California/07/2009 vaccine virus X-179A. Significantly reduced antibody reactivity to circulating viruses bearing K163Q was observed only in the USSR/77-primed cohort, whereas significantly lower reactivity caused by egg-adapted Q223R change was detected across all 3 cohorts.

Conclusion: Both 163K specificity driven by immune priming and 223R specificity from egg-adapted changes in the vaccine contributed to low responses to circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses after vaccination. Our study highlights the need to incorporate human serology in influenza surveillance and vaccine strain selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy376DOI Listing
October 2018

Diverse antigenic site targeting of influenza hemagglutinin in the murine antibody recall response to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

Virology 2015 Nov 27;485:252-62. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. Electronic address:

Here we define the epitopes on HA that are targeted by a group of 9 recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) isolated from memory B cells of mice, immunized by infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus followed by a seasonal TIV boost. These rmAbs were all reactive against the HA1 region of HA, but display 7 distinct binding footprints, targeting each of the 4 known antigenic sites. Although the rmAbs were not broadly cross-reactive, a group showed subtype-specific cross-reactivity with the HA of A/South Carolina/1/18. Screening these rmAbs with a panel of human A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates indicated that naturally-occurring changes in HA could reduce rmAb binding, HI activity, and/or virus neutralization activity by rmAb, without showing changes in recognition by polyclonal antiserum. In some instances, virus neutralization was lost while both ELISA binding and HI activity were retained, demonstrating a discordance between the two serological assays traditionally used to detect antigenic drift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2015.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5737639PMC
November 2015

Loss of the F-BAR protein CIP4 reduces platelet production by impairing membrane-cytoskeleton remodeling.

Blood 2013 Sep 23;122(10):1695-706. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center and Children's Memorial Hospital, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Megakaryocytes generate platelets through extensive reorganization of the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Cdc42 interacting protein 4 (CIP4) is an F-BAR protein that localizes to membrane phospholipids through its BAR domain and interacts with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) via its SRC homology 3 domain. F-BAR proteins promote actin polymerization and membrane tubulation. To study its function, we generated CIP4-null mice that displayed thrombocytopenia similar to that of WAS(-) mice. The number of megakaryocytes and their progenitors was not affected. However, the number of proplatelet protrusions was reduced in CIP4-null, but not WAS(-), megakaryocytes. Electron micrographs of CIP4-null megakaryocytes showed an altered demarcation membrane system. Silencing of CIP4, not WASP, expression resulted in fewer proplatelet-like extensions. Fluorescence anisotropy studies showed that loss of CIP4 resulted in a more rigid membrane. Micropipette aspiration demonstrated decreased cortical actin tension in megakaryocytic cells with reduced CIP4 or WASP protein. These studies support a new biophysical mechanism for platelet biogenesis whereby CIP4 enhances the complex, dynamic reorganization of the plasma membrane (WASP independent) and actin cortex network (as known for WASP and cortical actin) to reduce the work required for generating proplatelets. CIP4 is a new component in the highly coordinated system of megakaryocytic membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling affecting platelet production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-03-484550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3765055PMC
September 2013

Effect of chemokine receptor CX3CR1 deficiency in a murine model of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Comp Med 2012 Feb;62(1):14-20

National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Scientific Resources, Laboratory Animal Medicine Residency Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious lower respiratory illness in infants and young children worldwide, making it a high priority for development of strategies for prevention and treatment. RSV can cause repeat infections throughout life, with serious complications in elderly and immunocompromised patients. Previous studies indicate that the RSV G protein binds through a CX3C chemokine motif to the host chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, and modulates the inflammatory immune response. In the current study, we examined the contribution of CX3CR1 to the immune response to RSV infection in mice. CX3CR1-deficient mice showed an impaired innate immune response to RSV infection, characterized by substantially decreased NK1.1(+) natural killer, CD11b(+), and RB6-8C5(+) polymorphonuclear cell trafficking to the lung and reduced IFNγ production compared with those in wildtype control mice. Leukocytes from CX3CR1-deficient mice were poorly chemotactic toward RSV G protein and CX3CL1. These results substantiate the importance of the RSV G CX3C-CX3CR1 interaction in the innate immune response to RSV infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276387PMC
February 2012

Development of a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein based immunoassay for detection of antibodies against human coronavirus OC43.

J Virol Methods 2011 Oct 27;177(1):100-6. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Gastroenteritis and Respiratory Viruses Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Human coronaviruses are one of the main causes of upper respiratory tract infections in humans. While more often responsible for mild illness, they have been associated with illnesses that require hospitalization. In this study, an assay for one of the human coronaviruses, OC43, was developed using a truncated recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein antigen in an enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and evaluated using serum collected from HCoV-OC43-infected patients, healthy adults, and patients with other respiratory virus infections. Results showed that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 90.9% (10/11) and 82.9% (39/47), respectively. To evaluate the clinical utility of the ELISA, serum samples collected from patients during an outbreak of HCoV-OC43 infection and previously identified as positive by HCoV-OC43 whole N ELISA were screened resulting in 100% diagnosis agreement between the testing methods. These results suggest that this assay offers a reliable method to detect HCoV-OC43 infection and may be a useful tool in coronavirus seroepidemiological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112803PMC
October 2011

Dasatinib inhibits the growth of molecularly heterogeneous myeloid leukemias.

Clin Cancer Res 2010 Feb 9;16(4):1149-58. Epub 2010 Feb 9.

Division of Pediatrics, Departments of Leukemia and Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 60611, USA.

Purpose: Dasatinib is a dual Src/Abl inhibitor recently approved for Bcr-Abl+ leukemias with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. Because Src kinases contribute to multiple blood cell functions by triggering a variety of signaling pathways, we hypothesized that their molecular targeting might lead to growth inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Experimental Design: We studied growth factor-dependent and growth factor-independent leukemic cell lines, including three cell lines expressing mutants of receptor tyrosine kinases (Flt3 or c-Kit) as well as primary AML blasts for responsiveness to dasatinib.

Results: Dasatinib resulted in the inhibition of Src family kinases in all cell lines and blast cells at approximately 1 x 10(-9) mol/L. It also inhibited mutant Flt3 or Kit tyrosine phosphorylation at approximately 1 x 10(-6) mol/L. Mo7e cells expressing the activating mutation (codon 816) of c-Kit were most sensitive to growth inhibition with a GI(50) of 5 x 10(-9) mol/L. Primary AML blast cells exhibited a growth inhibition of <1 x 10(-6) mol/L. Cell lines that showed growth inhibition at approximately 1 x 10(-6) mol/L showed a G(1) cell cycle arrest and correlated with accumulation of p21 and p27 protein. The addition of rapamycin or cytotoxic agents enhanced growth inhibition. Dasatinib also caused the apoptosis of Mo7e cells expressing oncogenic Kit.

Conclusions: Although all of the precise targets for dasatinib are not known, this multikinase inhibitor causes either growth arrest or apoptosis in molecularly heterogeneous AML. The addition of cytotoxic or targeted agents can enhance its effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2988651PMC
February 2010

The Cdc42-interacting protein-4 (CIP4) gene knock-out mouse reveals delayed and decreased endocytosis.

J Biol Chem 2010 Feb 17;285(7):4348-54. Epub 2009 Nov 17.

Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

The newly described F-BAR (Fer/CIP4 and Bin, amphiphysin, Rvs) family of proteins includes Cdc42-interacting protein-4 (CIP4), formin-binding protein-17 (FBP-17) and transactivator of cytoskeletal assembly-1 (Toca-1), and drives membrane deformation and invagination. Membrane remodeling affects endocytosis, vesicle budding, and cargo selection. The F-BAR family presents a novel family of proteins, which little is known about their in vivo function. We investigated the physiological role of CIP4, by creating Cip4-null mice through homologous recombination. Compared with their wild-type littermates, the Cip4-null mice displayed lower early post-prandial glucose levels. Adipocytes isolated from Cip4-null mice exhibited increased [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose uptake compared with cells from wild-type mice. The enhanced insulin sensitivity was not due to higher levels of insulin or phospho-Akt, a critical player in insulin signaling. However, higher glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) levels were detected in muscle membrane fractions in Cip4-null mice under insulin stimulation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Cip4-null mice demonstrated decreased transferrin uptake, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and horseradish peroxidase uptake, indicating that CIP4 affects multiple modes of endocytosis. These studies demonstrate a physiological role for CIP4 in endocytosis leading to a whole animal phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.041038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836039PMC
February 2010

The F-BAR protein CIP4 promotes GLUT4 endocytosis through bidirectional interactions with N-WASp and Dynamin-2.

J Cell Sci 2009 Jul 9;122(Pt 13):2283-91. Epub 2009 Jun 9.

Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

F-BAR proteins are a newly described family of proteins with unknown physiological significance. Because F-BAR proteins, including Cdc42 interacting protein-4 (CIP4), drive membrane deformation and affect endocytosis, we investigated the role of CIP4 in GLUT4 traffic by flow cytometry in GLUT4myc-expressing L6 myoblasts (L6 GLUT4myc). L6 GLUT4myc cells express CIP4a as the predominant F-BAR protein. siRNA knockdown of CIP4 increased insulin-stimulated (14)C-deoxyglucose uptake by elevating cell-surface GLUT4. Enhanced surface GLUT4 was due to decreased endocytosis, which correlated with lower transferrin internalization. Immunoprecipitation of endogenous CIP4 revealed that CIP4 interacted with N-WASp and Dynamin-2 in an insulin-dependent manner. FRET confirmed the insulin-dependent, subcellular properties of these interactions. Insulin exposure stimulated specific interactions in plasma membrane and cytosolic compartments, followed by a steady-state response that underlies the coordination of proteins needed for GLUT4 traffic. Our findings reveal a physiological function for F-BAR proteins, supporting a previously unrecognized role for the F-BAR protein CIP4 in GLUT4 endocytosis, and show that interactions between CIP4 and Dynamin-2 and between CIP4 and NWASp are spatially coordinated to promote function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.041343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2723146PMC
July 2009

Flow cytometric determination of Src phosphorylation in pediatric patients treated with dasatinib.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009 Dec;53(6):1132-5

Division of Pediatrics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, have dramatically improved the outcomes for patients with selected cancers. For imatinib, western blotting of phospho-CrkL was an insensitive, indirect, and descriptive method to determine drug efficacy. Greater use of targeted therapies should involve more quantitative evaluation of the target's dose-inhibition. The Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib has recently been approved for use in Ph+ leukemias after failure with imatinib. Src family kinases (SFK) also play a critical role in nonhematologic cancers. We have developed a flow cytometric assay to measure SFK autophosphorylation levels in blood mononuclear cells and observed a direct correlation between its inhibition and patient dosage. This method provides a sensitive, quick, and quantitative tool to assess drug efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2760231PMC
December 2009
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