Publications by authors named "Elisa Zironi"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances through human milk in preterm infants.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138, Bologna, (BO), Italy.

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmental contaminants that have been shown to exert toxic effects, which are dependent upon concentration, in animals and humans. No specific data on the exposure of preterm infants to PFASs are available. We aimed to quantify the potential exposure of preterm infants to PFASs through human milk (HM), to be compared to the exposure data recently reported for infants by EFSA. The amount of PFASs in ten preterm (PHM) and ten donor HM (DHM) samples was evaluated, and the expected daily intake (EDI) at full enteral feeding was calculated. This EDI was compared to the mean and the 95 centile dietary exposure ranges at the lower bound for infants issued by EFSA. The calculated median EDI for total PFASs was 20.72 ng/kg/day (range 10.72-107.84) for PHM and 17.92 ng/kg/day (range 6.4-28.96) for DHM, which were both higher than mean exposure ranges reported for infants (2.4-12.2 ng/kg/day). The calculated EDI for DHM was far more similar to the 95 centile (4.5-27.9 ng/kg/day) dietary exposure ranges. For PHM samples, higher EDI values were obtained, with 4 out of 10 samples exceeding the upper limit of the 95 centile range.Conclusion: The exposure of preterm infants to PFASs through HM feeding might exceed reference values reported for older and healthier infants. Given the immunological and developmental vulnerability of preterm infants, the risks related to their exposure to PFASs should be further investigated, also focusing on how maternal exposure and subsequent transfer through HM feeding can be reduced. What is Known: • Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmental contaminants that have been shown to exert toxic effects, which are dependent upon concentration, in animals and humans. The EFSA has recently issued reference values for PFASs exposure for different age groups. • Infants might be exposed to PFASs prenatally, as these substances can cross the placenta, and postnatally, through breastfeeding. No specific data about exposure of preterm infants through human milk (HM) feeding are currently available. What is New: • The exposure of preterm infants to PFASs through HM feeding might exceed reference values reported for older and healthier infants. • Given the immunological and developmental vulnerability of preterm infants, the risks related to their exposure to PFASs deserve further investigation. As HM represents the optimal feeding for preterm infants, it will be fundamental to focus on how maternal exposure and subsequent transfer through HM feeding can be reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04073-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Extruded Commercial Cat Food.

ACS Omega 2019 Aug 16;4(9):14004-14012. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy.

The occurrence of the most important mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B and B, aflatoxins B, B, G, and G, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 toxins) was determined in 64 extruded cat foods purchased in Italy through ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Deoxynivalenol and fumonisins were the most common contaminants (quantified in 80 and 95% of the samples, respectively). Conversely, aflatoxins B, G, and G were not identified in any sample. Some cat foods exceeded the regulatory limit for aflatoxin B ( = 3) or the guidance values for zearalenone ( = 3), fumonisins ( = 2), ochratoxin A ( = 1), and T-2 ( = 1) recently established for pets in the European Union. A widespread co-occurrence of mycotoxins was observed (28, 42, and 8% of the samples contained quantifiable amounts of two, three, and four mycotoxins, respectively). This study describes criticisms regarding the mycotoxin issue in pet food and suggests an improvement of the monitoring of the pet food chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b01702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714290PMC
August 2019

Preliminary monitoring of the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in Italian eggs from different breeding systems.

Ital J Food Saf 2019 May 25;8(2):7702. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences.

Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are a wide cluster of fluorinated molecules largely engaged industrially and commercially for many purposes. Because of the strength of the fluorine-carbon bond, PFASs show a firm tenacity against thermal degradation, hydrolysis, photolysis and biodegradation. On the other hand, such chemical stability gives them persistent environmental pollutant feature. In 2012, EFSA published a scientific report on PFASs in food, mentioning their adverse effects on health. Based on observational studies evidences, EFSA has recommended a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for the two most known PFASs, PFOS 150 ng/kg b.w./day and PFOA 1500 ng/kg b.w./day. The aim of this study was to monitor, for the first time, the level of contamination of PFASs in chicken eggs laid in Northern Italy. The eggs were collected from different rearing systems, in order to search a correlation between this variable and the contamination of PFASs. In this study four PFASs [perfluoro-nnonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro-noctanoic- acid (PFOA), sodium perfluoro-1- hexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and sodium perfluoro- 1-octanesulfonate (PFOS)] were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). 132 eggs were analyzed, split up in 11 groups according to the geographical origin and rearing system. Results accord with literature data available for chicken eggs: almost all the samples show a PFASs contamination level under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.25 ng/mL. No significant difference results from the rearing system, attesting an equal distribution and a concentration of PFASs detectable under the limit of quantification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2019.7702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6600846PMC
May 2019

Expression of CLAVATA3 fusions indicates rapid intracellular processing and a role of ERAD.

Plant Sci 2018 Jun 21;271:67-80. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Istituto di Bioscienze e Biorisorse, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

The 12 amino acid peptide derived from the Arabidopsis soluble secretory protein CLAVATA3 (CLV3) acts at the cell surface in a signalling system that regulates the size of apical meristems. The subcellular pathway involved in releasing the peptide from its precursor is unknown. We show that a CLV3-GFP fusion expressed in transfected tobacco protoplasts or transgenic tobacco plants has very short intracellular half-life that cannot be extended by the secretory traffic inhibitors brefeldin A and wortmannin. The fusion is biologically active, since the incubation medium of protoplasts from CLV3-GFP-expressing tobacco contains the CLV3 peptide and inhibits root growth. The rapid disappearance of intact CLV3-GFP requires the signal peptide and is inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or coexpression with a mutated CDC48 that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). The synthesis of CLV3-GFP is specifically supported by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone endoplasmin in an in vivo assay. Our results indicate that processing of CLV3 starts intracellularly in an early compartment of the secretory pathway and that ERAD could play a regulatory or direct role in the active peptide synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.03.020DOI Listing
June 2018

Vitamin B12 determination in milk, whey and different by-products of ricotta cheese production by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

Ital J Food Saf 2017 Oct 20;6(4):6795. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a metal complex composed of a central cobalt ion bonded to six ligands. It is essential for major biological functions such as protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, the maintenance of the central nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. Since mammals cannot synthesize cobalamin, dietary intake represents the only natural source for humans. Dairy products can provide significant levels of cobalamin; moreover, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) panel has set the recommended intake at 4 μg/day for adults. Vitamin B12 content was determined in milk and several matrices related to the process of transformation of the residual whey from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese-making to obtain ricotta cheese. In addition, vitamin B12 degradation during ricotta cheese shelf-life was studied. The analyses were performed using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that vitamin B12 amount in ricotta from dairy and experimental cheese-making brings respectively 1/8 to 1/4 of the adequate intake in adults established by EFSA. In addition, shelf-life experiment shows that cobalamine is fairly rapidly degraded in ricotta: light effect seems to be significant, even if the light exposure is short. The use of photoprotective packaging material increases B12 shelf-life in the early stage of storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2017.6795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850060PMC
October 2017

In vivo nose-to-brain delivery of the hydrophilic antiviral ribavirin by microparticle agglomerates.

Drug Deliv 2018 Nov;25(1):376-387

b Department of Food and Drug , University of Parma , Parma , Italy.

Nasal administration has been proposed as a potential approach for the delivery of drugs to the central nervous system. Ribavirin (RBV), an antiviral drug potentially useful to treat viral infections both in humans and animals, has been previously demonstrated to attain several brain compartments after nasal administration. Here, a powder formulation in the form of agglomerates comprising micronized RBV and spray-dried microparticles containing excipients with potential absorption enhancing properties, i.e. mannitol, chitosan, and α-cyclodextrin, was developed for nasal insufflation. The agglomerates were characterized for particle size, agglomeration yield, and ex vivo RBV permeation across rabbit nasal mucosa as well as delivery from an animal dry powder insufflator device. Interestingly, permeation enhancers such as chitosan and mannitol showed a lower amount of RBV permeating across the excised nasal tissue, whereas α-cyclodextrin proved to outperform the other formulations and to match the highly soluble micronized RBV powder taken as a reference. In vivo nasal administration to rats of the agglomerates containing α-cyclodextrin showed an overall higher accumulation of RBV in all the brain compartments analyzed as compared with the micronized RBV administered as such without excipient microparticles. Hence, powder agglomerates are a valuable approach to obtain a nasal formulation potentially attaining nose-to-brain delivery of drugs with minimal processing of the APIs and improvement of the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of micronized API and excipients, as they combine optimal flow properties for handling and dosing, suitable particle size for nasal deposition, high surface area for drug dissolution, and penetration enhancing properties from excipients such as cyclodextrins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2018.1428242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6058489PMC
November 2018

Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Through Fish Consumption in Italy.

Ital J Food Saf 2016 Sep 2;5(4):6055. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

CABA-Lab, Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna , Ozzano Emilia (BO).

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants. PFOS and PFOA were found in all samples, at concentrations up to 1896 (mean=627 ng/kg) and 487 ng/kg (mean = 75 ng/kg), respectively, confirming the role of fish as high contributor to human exposure. However, a remarkable inter-species variability was observed, and multiple factors were suggested as potentially responsible for such differences, suggesting that the preferential consumption of certain species could likely increase the intake, and thus the exposure. The exposure estimates for both average and high fish consumers resulted far below the tolerable daily intakes for PFOS and PFOA in all age groups, confirming the outcomes of EFSA's scientific report. In particular, the calculated total dietary exposure for the 95 percentile consumers belonging to the toddler age class, the most exposed group, resulted equal to 9.72 ng/kg body weight (BW)/day for PFOS and 8.39 ng/kg BW/day for PFOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2016.6055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5178833PMC
September 2016

Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood.

Ital J Food Saf 2016 Apr 2;5(2):5666. Epub 2016 May 2.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna , Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2016.5666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5076740PMC
April 2016

An LC-MS/MS method for the determination of budesonide and 16α-hydroxyprednisolone in dog plasma.

MethodsX 2016 24;3:139-43. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences - University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy.

Although budesonide is frequently used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of canine respiratory and bowel inflammatory diseases, knowledge is lacking regarding its kinetics in this species. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of budesonide and its metabolite 16α-hydroxyprednisolone in dog plasma. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction and analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with positive electrospray ionization.•This method allows budesonide and one of its main metabolites to be simultaneously quantified in dog plasma at fairly low concentrations.•The proposed protocol is very easy and fast to execute, without compromising analytical performances.•A small amount (0.5 mL) of plasma is required, making this approach suitable for pharmacokinetic studies also in small sized dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2016.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4929248PMC
July 2016

Determination of Vitamin B in Dairy Products by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Ital J Food Saf 2014 Dec 18;3(4):4513. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Laboratory of Analytical Bio-Agroalimentary Chemistry (CABA-Lab), Department of Veterinary Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna , Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy.

Vitamin B is a water-soluble molecule composed of a tetrapyrrolic complex with a cobalt atom at its centre. It is an essential regulatory element, synthesized only by bacteria; for this reason it is present only in food of animal origin and the daily requirement for humans is about 1 to 2 mg. Since milk and dairy products provide a significant dietary cobalamin intake, an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method was applied to samples collected at different stages along the process of cheese making in order to evaluate the distribution of this molecule. In particular, samples of milk, rennet, whey, ricotta cheese, curd, mozzarella cheese and caciotta cheese were analysed. Results showed a level of vitamin B about 10 times higher in whey and ricotta cheese with respect to the milk they are derived from. These data would confirm the tendency of cobalamine to concentrate in the proteic fractions along the cheese production process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2014.4513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5076693PMC
December 2014

Short communication: Monitoring the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in Italian cow milk.

J Dairy Sci 2014 3;97(6):3339-43. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Laboratorio di Chimica Analitica Bio-Agroalimentare (CABA-Lab), Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy. Electronic address:

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are fully fluorinated compounds widely used during the last 60 yr in the production of multiple industrial and consumer applications, such as food packaging, nonstick cookware, cleaning agents, and many more. These emerging contaminants have recently become of concern for human health because of their potential negative effects. The risk of exposure to PFAS for humans is mainly related to diet, and the increasing interest in food safety has led the European Commission to call Member States to monitor these contaminants in food matrices. The purpose of the present work was to perform the first monitoring on the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the 2 main and most widely investigated molecules of this family, in cow milk commercially available in Italy. We used an analytical protocol consisting of liquid-liquid extraction followed by 2 purification steps through solid-phase extraction cartridges and injection on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy system. The analysis of 67 samples of different types of cow milk from Italy demonstrated that contamination by PFOS was often present, although at relatively low concentrations (up to 97 ng/L), whereas PFOA was rarely found. On the basis of these results and data reported in the literature on this matrix, milk does not seem to be a major source of PFAS compared with other food categories such as fish and seafood. However, variability among different types of milk must be taken into account, and surveys of milk-derived products would be helpful to better define the risk for consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8005DOI Listing
October 2015

Brain distribution of ribavirin after intranasal administration.

Antiviral Res 2011 Dec 6;92(3):408-14. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Italy.

Ribavirin has proved to be effective in vitro against several RNA viruses responsible for encephalitis in humans and animals. However, the in vivo efficacy towards the cerebral viral load seems to be limited by the blood-brain barrier. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we investigated here the distribution of ribavirin in the central nervous system (CNS) after intranasal administration. We first tested in vitro ribavirin diffusion from an aqueous solution across a biological membrane, using Franz cells and rabbit nasal mucosa. About 35% of ribavirin permeated in 4 h across the mucosa, after reaching steady-state flux in less than 30 min. In the first in vivo experiment, ribavirin aqueous solution was administered intranasally to Sprague Dawley rats (10 mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed at 10, 20 or 30 min after administration to collect brain areas (cerebellum, olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and hippocampus) and biological fluids (cerebrospinal fluid and plasma). Ribavirin, quantified by LC-MS/MS spectrometry, was detected at each time point in all compartments with the highest concentration in olfactory bulb and decreasing in rostro-caudal direction. Two subsequent in vivo experiments compared the nasal route (ribavirin solution) with the intravenous one and the nasal administration of ribavirin solution with ribavirin powder (10 mg/kg). It was found that 20 min after administration, ribavirin concentration in olfactory bulb was similar after intravenous or nasal administration of the ribavirin solution, whereas the powder led to significantly higher levels. Ribavirin was also present in deeper compartments, such as basal ganglia and hippocampus. Even if the mechanisms involved in ribavirin nose-to-brain transport are not clear, these results suggest a rapid extracellular diffusive flux from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb and different CNS areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.09.012DOI Listing
December 2011

Development of a rapid LC-MS/MS method for ribavirin determination in rat brain.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2011 Mar 21;54(4):889-92. Epub 2010 Nov 21.

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Animal Pathology, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Bologna, Italy.

A rapid and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of ribavirin (RBV) in rat brain was developed. Sample preparation required only two centrifuge steps before LC-MS/MS analysis and the chromatographic separation was achieved in isocratic conditions using an Atlantis T3 column with a nearly totally aqueous (95%) mobile phase. The method showed a good linearity over a concentration range of 5-1000ppb and satisfactory results in terms of accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2010.11.021DOI Listing
March 2011

Determination of 15 organophosphorus pesticides in Italian raw milk.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2009 Feb 15;82(2):251-4. Epub 2008 Nov 15.

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Animal Pathology, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

A study was conducted on raw cow's milk to measure the residues of 15 organophosphorus pesticides used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or as insecticides in crops used for animal feed. For this purpose a previously devised method was improved and validated. The samples were collected directly from tank trucks during delivery of 3,974 tonnes of raw milk at nine Italian dairy plants. Approximately 4.4% of the 298 samples analyzed contained residues only in traces. The main pollutant was chlorpyriphos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9609-0DOI Listing
February 2009

Potent inhibition of human phosphodiesterase-5 by icariin derivatives.

J Nat Prod 2008 Sep 9;71(9):1513-7. Epub 2008 Sep 9.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Plant extracts traditionally used for male impotence (Tribulus terrestris, Ferula hermonis, Epimedium brevicornum, Cinnamomum cassia), and the individual compounds cinnamaldehyde, ferutinin, and icariin, were screened against phosphodiesterase-5A1 (PDE5A1) activity. Human recombinant PDE5A1 was used as the enzyme source. Only E. brevicornum extract (80% inhibition at 50 microg/mL) and its active principle icariin (1) (IC50 5.9 microM) were active. To improve its inhibitory activity, 1 was subjected to various structural modifications. Thus, 3,7-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)icaritin (5), where both sugars in 1 were replaced with hydroxyethyl residues, potently inhibited PDE5A1 with an IC50 very close to that of sildenafil (IC50 75 vs 74 nM). Thus, 5 was 80 times more potent than 1, and its selectivity versus phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) was much higher in comparison with sildenafil. The improved pharmacodynamic profile and lack of cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts make compound 5 a promising candidate for further development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np800049yDOI Listing
September 2008

Organophosphorus pesticides residues in Italian raw milk.

J Dairy Res 2006 Aug 28;73(3):340-4. Epub 2006 Mar 28.

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Animal Pathology - Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di sopra, 50 I 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), widely used in agriculture, can cause toxic effects to humans and animals. The main purpose of the present work was to determine the contamination in raw milk by the main organophosphorus pesticides used in Italy and to evaluate the opportunity to start specific procedures of risk management along the milk production chain. The samples, collected in 4 Italian dairy plants directly from the tank trucks during the delivering, were representative of 920 tonnes of raw milk. The isolation of the OPPs (acephate, chlorpyriphos, chlorpyriphos-methyl, diazinon, methamidophos, methidathion, phorate, pirimiphos-methyl) was performed by liquid partition followed by clean-up with solid phase extraction. The analyses were carried out by dual column gas chromatography using two nitrogen-phosphorus detectors. Among the 135 samples analysed, 37 were positive in traces and 10 showed an OPP contamination ranging from 5 to 18 microg/kg. The higher results were recorded in the samples collected during the autumn-winter period. The main pollutants detected were acephate and chlorpyriphos. In every positive sample found, the OPP contamination was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) fixed by the European Commission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906001695DOI Listing
August 2006

Residue analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in animal matrices by dual column capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.

J Chromatogr A 2005 Apr;1071(1-2):67-70

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Animal Pathology, Food Hygiene and Technology Section, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50 I 40064 Ozzano Emilia, BO, Italy.

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were determined in matrices of animal origin by dual column capillary gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD). This method was tested on cow milk and on liver and muscle of wild boar. The isolation of these pesticides was performed by liquid partition followed by cleanup with solid phase cartridge (SPE C18), after extraction from the matrix. The analytes identification was obtained by comparing the retention times in two columns with different polarity. The quantification of each OPP was obtained using parathion-ethyl as internal standard. The method was developed in a UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 certified laboratory. The recovery, investigated by analyzing samples spiked at 5, 10 and 50 ppb, ranged from 59 to 117% in milk, from 60 to 81% in liver and from 68 to 76% in muscle. The limit of quantification (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) were, respectively, 5 and 1 ppb for each compound and allowed quantifying the residues below the legal limits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.08.142DOI Listing
April 2005

Simple method for the simultaneous isolation and determination of fumonisin B1 and its metabolite aminopentol-1 in swine liver by liquid chromatography--fluorescence detection.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2005 May;819(1):97-103

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Animal Pathology, Food Hygiene and Technology Section, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50 Ozzano Emilia, I 40064, Italy.

An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with fluorescence detection (FL) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and its totally hydrolized metabolite aminopentol-1 (AP1) in pig liver. The sample preparation is based on a single solid phase extraction (SPE). o-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) was used for pre-column derivatization before the programmed reversed-phase analysis on phenylhexyl column. The developed method shows good repeatibility for inter- and intra-day precision as well as adequate linearity of calibration curves (r2 was 0.9855 for FB1 and 0.9831 for AP1). Average recoveries from the matrix were 93.6% for FB1 and 95.3% for AP1. The limit of quantification (LOQ) in swine liver was 75 microg/kg for FB1 and 42 microg/kg for AP1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.01.035DOI Listing
May 2005

Determination of high molecular mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a typical Italian smoked cheese by HPLC-FL.

J Agric Food Chem 2003 Aug;51(17):5111-5

Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria e Patologia Animale, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Via Tolara di sopra 50, I 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Italy. pagliuca@ vet.unibo.it

High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in "Diavoletto" smoked cheese. Such cheese is typically produced in the Sorrento peninsula, and it is smoked commonly with different materials of vegetable origin. The importance of the smoking generation material is proven by the attention that the EU is paying in indicating the list of wood that may be used to produce smoking flavor agents. The PAHs considered are classified as "probable human carcinogens" by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for sufficient data from animal bioassays. The smoked samples contained high molecular mass PAHs with different levels ranging from 0.12 to 6.21 microg/kg. The determination was carried out also on liquid smoking flavor agents, smoke-flavored cheese, and nonsmoked cheese to measure the level of contamination before the treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf034305jDOI Listing
August 2003