Publications by authors named "Elisa Marques"

51 Publications

Association between physical activity and mortality in end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review of observational studies.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jun 18;22(1):227. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, University Institute of Maia, ISMAI, Maia, Portugal.

Background: End-stage Kidney Disease patients have a high mortality and hospitalization risk. The association of these outcomes with physical activity is described in the general population and in other chronic diseases. However, few studies examining this association have been completed in end-stage Kidney Disease patients, raising the need to systematically review the evidence on the association of physical activity with mortality and hospitalization in this population.

Methods: Electronic databases (EBSCO, Scopus and Web of Science) and hand search were performed until March 2020 for observational studies reporting the association of physical activity with mortality or hospitalization in adult end-stage Kidney Disease patients on renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplant). Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020155591).

Results: Eleven studies were included: six in hemodialysis, three in kidney transplant, and two in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Physical activity was self-reported, except in one study that used accelerometers. All-cause mortality was addressed in all studies and cardiovascular mortality in three studies. Nine studies reported a significant reduction in all-cause mortality with increased levels of physical activity. Evidence of a dose-response relationship was found. For cardiovascular mortality, a significant reduction was observed in two of the three studies. Only one study investigated the association of physical activity with hospitalization.

Conclusions: Higher physical activity was associated with reduced mortality in end-stage Kidney Disease patients. Future studies using objective physical activity measures could strengthen these findings. The association of physical activity with hospitalization should be explored in future investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02407-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212466PMC
June 2021

Accelerated decline in quadriceps area and Timed Up and Go test performance are associated with hip fracture risk in older adults with impaired kidney function.

Exp Gerontol 2021 07 16;149:111314. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to examine whether an accelerated decline in quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA), attenuation (a surrogate of quality), and strength, as well as lower limb muscular function, are associated with hip fractures in older adults with impaired kidney function.

Design: Prospective population-based study.

Setting: Community-dwelling old population in Reykjavik, Iceland.

Subjects: A total of 875 older adults (mean baseline age 76 years) from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study with impaired kidney function.

Methods: Quadriceps CSA and density were determined using computed tomography (CT), knee extension strength was measured with an isometric dynamometer chair, and muscular function was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. All muscle-related measurements were assessed twice over a mean follow-up of 5.2 years. Data on hip fracture incidence was obtained from medical records during a maximum of 8.4 years of follow-up time.

Results: Fully adjusted cox-proportional hazard regression models showed that a faster decline in quadriceps CSA and TUG test performance were significantly associated with increased hip fracture risk (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.02-2.36, and HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.19-2.72, respectively). A faster decrease in quadriceps density and isometric knee extension strength were not associated with fracture risk.

Conclusions: Accelerated decline in CT-derived quadriceps CSA and muscular function, as measured by the TUG test's performance, are predictive of hip fracture risk in older adults with impaired kidney function. TUG test is a simple measure and easily included in routine medical examinations, compared to CT scans, which seems to be useful for identifying a subgroup of individuals with high risk of fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111314DOI Listing
July 2021

Computed tomography-based skeletal muscle and adipose tissue attenuation: Variations by age, sex, and muscle.

Exp Gerontol 2021 07 10;149:111306. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate how skeletal muscle attenuation and adipose tissue (AT) attenuation of the quadriceps, hamstrings, paraspinal muscle groups and the psoas muscle vary according to the targeted muscles, sex, and age.

Design: Population-based cross-sectional study.

Setting: Community-dwelling old population in Reykjavik, Iceland.

Subjects: A total of 5331 older adults (42.8% women), aged 66-96 years from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)- Reykjavik Study, who participated in the baseline visit (between 2002 and 2006) and had valid thigh and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans were studied.

Methods: Muscle attenuation and AT attenuation of the quadriceps, hamstrings, paraspinal muscle groups and the psoas muscle were determined using CT. Linear mixed model analysis of variance was performed for each sex, with skeletal muscle or AT attenuation as the dependent variable.

Results: Muscle attenuation decreased, and AT attenuation increased with age in both sexes, and these differences were specific for each muscle, although not in all age groups. Age-related differences in muscle and AT attenuation varied with specific muscle. In general, for both sexes, skeletal muscle attenuation of the hamstrings declined more than average with age. Men and women displayed a different pattern in the age differences in AT attenuation for each muscle.

Conclusions: Our data support the hypotheses that skeletal muscle attenuation decreases, and AT attenuation increases with aging. In addition, our data add new evidence, supporting that age-related differences in skeletal muscle and AT attenuation vary between muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096682PMC
July 2021

Impact of physical activity and exercise on bone health in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of observational and experimental studies.

BMC Nephrol 2020 08 8;21(1):334. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, University Institute of Maia, Av. Carlos Oliveira Campos - Castelo da Maia, 4475-690, Maia, Portugal.

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients frequently develop life-impairing bone mineral disorders. Despite the reported impact of exercise on bone health, systematic reviews of the evidence are lacking. This review examines the association of both physical activity (PA) and the effects of different exercise interventions with bone outcomes in CKD.

Methods: English-language publications in EBSCO, Web of Science and Scopus were searched up to May 2019, from which observational and experimental studies examining the relation between PA and the effect of regular exercise on bone-imaging or -outcomes in CKD stage 3-5 adults were included. All data were extracted and recorded using a spreadsheet by two review authors. The evidence quality was rated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale.

Results: Six observational (4 cross-sectional, 2 longitudinal) and seven experimental (2 aerobic-, 5 resistance-exercise trials) studies were included, with an overall sample size of 367 and 215 patients, respectively. Judged risk of bias was low and unclear in most observational and experimental studies, respectively. PA was positively associated with bone mineral density at lumbar spine, femoral neck and total body, but not with bone biomarkers. Resistance exercise seems to improve bone mass at femoral neck and proximal femur, with improved bone formation and inhibited bone resorption observed, despite the inconsistency of results amongst different studies.

Conclusions: There is partial evidence supporting (i) a positive relation of PA and bone outcomes, and (ii) positive effects of resistance exercise on bone health in CKD. Prospective population studies and long-term RCT trials exploring different exercise modalities measuring bone-related parameters as endpoint are currently lacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01999-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414574PMC
August 2020

Cigarette Smoking Is Associated With Lower Quadriceps Cross-sectional Area and Attenuation in Older Adults.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 05;22(6):935-941

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD.

Introduction: In addition to well-established links with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cigarette smoking may affect skeletal muscle; however, associations with quadriceps atrophy, density, and function are unknown. This study explored the associations of current and former smoking with quadriceps muscle area and attenuation as well as muscle force (assessed as knee extension peak torque) and rate of torque development-a measure of muscle power in older adults.

Methods: Data from 4469 older adults, aged 66-95 years at baseline in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with measurements of thigh computed tomography, isometric knee extension testing, self-reported smoking history, and potential covariates were analyzed.

Results: Sex differences were observed in these data; therefore, our final analyses are stratified by sex. In men, both former smokers and current smokers had lower muscle area (with β= -0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17 to -0.03 and β = -0.19, 95% CI = -0.33 to -0.05, respectively) and lower muscle attenuation (ie, higher fat infiltration, β = -0.08, 95% CI = -0.16 to -0.01 and β = -0.17, 95% CI = -0.34 to -0.01, respectively) when compared with never smokers. Smoking status was not associated with male peak torque or rate of torque development. In women, current smoking was associated with lower muscle attenuation (β = -0.24, 95% CI = -0.34 to -0.13) compared to never smoking. Among female smokers (current and former), muscle attenuation and peak torque were lower with increasing pack-years.

Conclusions: Results suggest that cigarette smoking is related to multiple muscle properties at older age and that these relationships may be different among men and women.

Implications: This article presents novel data, as it examined for the first time the relationship between smoking and computed tomography-derived quadriceps muscle size (cross-sectional area) and attenuation. This study suggests that current cigarette smoking is related to higher muscle fat infiltration, which may have significant health implications for the older population, because of its known association with poor physical function, falls, and hip fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249920PMC
May 2020

Total and regional bone mineral and tissue composition in female adolescent athletes: comparison between volleyball players and swimmers.

BMC Pediatr 2018 07 3;18(1):212. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

CIDAF (UID/DTP/04213/2016), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Background: Exploring the osteogenic effect of different bone-loading sports is particular relevant to understand the interaction between skeletal muscle and bone health during growth. This study aimed to compare total and regional bone and soft-tissue composition between female adolescent swimmers (n=20, 15.71±0.93 years) and volleyball players (n=26, 16.20±0.77 years).

Methods: Dietary intake was obtained using food frequency questionnaires. Body size was given by stature, sitting height, and body mass. Six skinfolds were measured. Bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), lean soft tissue, and fat tissue were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among variables, by type of sport. Comparisons between swimmers and volleyball players were performed using student t-tests for independent samples and multivariate analysis of covariance (controlling for age, training history and body size).

Results: Swimmers (BMC: 2328±338 g) and volleyball players (BMC: 2656±470 g) exceeded respectively by 2.1 and 2.8 standard deviation scores the average of international standards for whole body BMC of healthy adolescents. Years of training in swimmers were positively related to the upper limbs BMC (r=+0.49, p<0.05). In volleyball players, years of training correlated significantly with lower limbs BMD (r=+0.43, p<0.05). After adjustments for potential confounders, moderate differences (ES-r=0.32) between swimmers and volleyball players were noted in BMD at the lower limbs (volleyball players: +0.098 g∙cm, +7.8%).

Conclusions: Youth female athletes who participate in high-intensity weight-loading activities such as volleyball exhibit moderately higher levels of BMD at the lower limbs compared to non-loading sports such as swimming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1182-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031185PMC
July 2018

Additive Effects of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia and Endurance Training on Bodyweight, Food Intake, and Oxygen Consumption in Rats.

High Alt Med Biol 2018 Sep 29;19(3):278-285. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

1 Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona , Barcelona, Spain .

Cabrera-Aguilera, Ignacio, David Rizo-Roca, Elisa A. Marques, Garoa Santocildes, Teresa Pagès, Gines Viscor, António A. Ascensão, José Magalhães, and Joan Ramon Torrella. Additive effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and endurance training on bodyweight, food intake, and oxygen consumption in rats. High Alt Med Biol. 19:278-285, 2018.-We used an animal model to elucidate the effects of an intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and endurance exercise training (EET) protocol on bodyweight (BW), food and water intake, and oxygen consumption. Twenty-eight young adult male rats were divided into four groups: normoxic sedentary (NS), normoxic exercised (NE), hypoxic sedentary (HS), and hypoxic exercised (HE). Normoxic groups were maintained at an atmospheric pressure equivalent to sea level, whereas the IHH protocol consisted of 5 hours per day for 33 days at a simulated altitude of 6000 m. Exercised groups ran in normobaric conditions on a treadmill for 1 hour/day for 5 weeks at a speed of 25 m/min. At the end of the protocol, both hypoxic groups showed significant decreases in BW from the ninth day of exposure, reaching final 10% (HS) to 14.5% (HE) differences when compared with NS. NE rats also showed a significant weight reduction after the 19th day, with a decrease of 7.4%. The BW of hypoxic animals was related to significant hypophagia elicited by IHH exposure (from 8% to 12%). In contrast, EET had no effect on food ingestion. Total water intake was not affected by hypoxia but was significantly increased by exercise. An analysis of oxygen consumption at rest (mL O/[kg·min]) revealed two findings: a significant decrease in both hypoxic groups after the protocol (HS, 21.7 ± 0.70 vs. 19.1 ± 0.78 and HE, 22.8 ± 0.80 vs. 17.1 ± 0.90) and a significant difference at the end of the protocol between NE (21.3 ± 0.77) and HE (17.1 ± 0.90). These results demonstrate that IHH and EET had an additive effect on BW loss, providing evidence that rats underwent a metabolic adaptation through a reduction in oxygen consumption measured under normoxic conditions. These data suggest that the combination of IHH and EET could serve as an alternative treatment for the management of overweight and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ham.2018.0013DOI Listing
September 2018

Sex differences in the spatial distribution of bone in relation to incident hip fracture: Findings from the AGES-Reykjavik study.

Bone 2018 09 16;114:72-80. Epub 2018 May 16.

National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

In this case-cohort study, we used data-driven computational anatomy approaches to assess within and between sex spatial differences in proximal femoral bone characteristics in relation to incident hip fracture. One hundred male and 234 female incident hip fracture cases, and 1047 randomly selected noncase subcohort participants (562 female) were chosen from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (mean age of 77 years). The baseline -i.e. before hip fracture- hip quantitative computed tomography scans of these subjects were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry, tensor-based morphometry, and surface-based statistical parametric mapping to assess the spatial distribution of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), internal structure, and cortical bone properties (thickness, vBMD and trabecular vBMD adjacent to the endosteal surface) of the proximal femur, respectively, in relation to incident hip fracture. Results showed that in both men and women: 1) the superior aspect of the femoral neck and the trochanteric region (except for cortical bone thickness) were consistently identified as being associated with incident hip fracture, and 2) differences in bone properties between noncases and incident hip fracture cases followed similar trends, were located at compatible regions, and manifested heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of their magnitude with focal regions showing larger differences. With respect to sex differences, most of the regions with a significant interaction between fracture group and sex showed: 1) differences of greater magnitude in men between noncases and incident hip fracture cases with different spatial distributions for all bone properties with the exception of cortical bone thickness, and 2) that while most of these regions showed better bone quality in male cases than in female cases, female cases showed higher vBMD in the principal compressive group and higher endotrabecular vBMD at several regions including the anterior, posterior, and lateral aspects of the proximal femur. These findings indicate the value of these image analysis techniques by providing unique information about the specific patterns of bone deterioration associated with incident hip fracture and their sex differences, highlighting the importance of looking to men and women separately in the assessment of hip fracture risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137723PMC
September 2018

Impact of Futsal and Swimming Participation on Bone Health in Young Athletes.

J Hum Kinet 2017 Dec 28;60:85-91. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

IGOID Research Group, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Spain.

Physical activity plays a crucial role in bone mass acquisition during childhood and adolescence, with weightbearing and high-impact sport activities being more beneficial. This study sought to evaluate the impact of different sports activities on bone mineral density and content in male Portuguese athletes. Seventy adolescent boys (aged 12-15 years) including 28 futsal players (FG), 20 swimmers (SG) and 22 non-athletic adolescents used as control subjects (CG), participated in the current study. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and areal bone mineral content (aBMC) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Futsal players had significantly higher aBMD (lumbar spine - FG: 0.95 ± 0.18, SG: 0.80 ± 0.13, CG: 0.79 ± 0.13 g/cm2, = 0.001; pelvis - FG: 1.17 ± 0.21, SG: 0.91 ± 0.12, CG: 0.98 ± 0.10 g/cm2, < 0.001; lower limbs - FG: 1.21 ± 0.19, SG: 0.97 ± 0.10, CG: 0.99 ± 0.09 g/cm2, < 0.001) and aBMC (lumbar spine - FG: 51.07 ± 16.53, SG: 40.19 ± 12.47, CG: 40.50 ± 10.53 g, = 0.013; pelvis - FG: 299.5 ± 110.61, SG: 170.02 ± 55.82, CG: 183.11 ± 46.78 g, < 0.001; lower limbs - FG: 427.21 ± 117.11, SG: 300.13 ± 76.42, CG: 312.26 ± 61.86 g/cm2, < 0.001) than swimmers and control subjects. Data suggest that futsal, as a weightbearing and high or odd-impact sport, may improve bone mass during childhood and adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5765788PMC
December 2017

Cigarette smoking and hip volumetric bone mineral density and cortical volume loss in older adults: The AGES-Reykjavik study.

Bone 2018 03 10;108:186-192. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

This study aimed to explore the relationships of several indicators of cigarette smoking habits (smoking status, pack-years, age at smoking initiation and smoking cessation) with quantitative computed tomographic (QCT)-derived proximal femur bone measures (trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol)) and with subsequent change in these measures over the next five years. A total of 2673 older adults (55.9% women), aged 66-92 years at baseline from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, who had two QCT scans of the hip were studied. In multivariable linear regression models, compared to never-smokers, current smokers had lower cvol/ivol at baseline and former-smokers had poorer measures on all outcomes (lower trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD and cvol/ivol), even when adjusted for several potential confounders. Further, among former smokers, those with higher pack-years had worse bone outcomes and those with longer duration since smoking cessation had better bone health at baseline. Analyses of change in bone measures revealed that compared to never-smokers, current smokers had significantly greater loss of trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD, and cvol/ivol. The regression models included adjustment for sex, age, education, and baseline body mass index, creatinine, % weight change from age 50, 25OHD, physical activity level, high-sensitive C-Reactive protein levels, alcohol and coffee consumption, history of diabetes mellitus, arthritis, and respiratory diseases. In conclusion, both current and former smoking showed adverse associations with bone health assessed with QCT. Results suggest that current smoking in particular may aggravate the rate of bone loss at older age and highlight implications for targeting this risk factor in populations that present higher smoking prevalence and vulnerability to bone fragility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.01.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5803432PMC
March 2018

Frailty and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Older Persons: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

Rejuvenation Res 2017 Dec 7;20(6):517-524. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

3 Laboratory of Epidemiology, and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging , Bethesda, Maryland.

Frailty is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the studies available have not considered the presence of subclinical atherosclerotic disease as potential confounders. We investigated the association between frailty and the onset of CVD independently of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. For this reason, a sample of 3818 older participants participating in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study without CVD at baseline was followed for a median of 8.7 years. Frailty was defined as the presence of ≥3 among five Fried's criteria (unintentional weight loss, low physical activity level, weakness, exhaustion, and slow gait speed). Incident CVD was defined as onset of coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and CVD-related mortality identified using hospital, medical, and death records. Subclinical atherosclerotic disease was evaluated as the maximum value of carotid intima media thickness, presence of carotid plaque (moderate or high), and total coronary calcifications (CACs). At baseline, frail participants (n = 300) were more frequently obese, diabetic, and had a greater presence of metabolic syndrome than the nonfrail (n = 3518). Frail participants also showed a higher presence of carotid plaques and CACs. Using a Cox's regression analysis, adjusted for clinical, biochemical, and subclinical atherosclerosis estimates, frailty increased the risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.74), with results stronger for women than men (HR = 1.51, p = 0.006 and 1.19, p = 0.44, respectively). Among Fried's criteria, exhaustion was the only criterion significantly associated with the onset of new CVD events (HR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00-1.73). In conclusion, frailty was associated with the onset of CVD in older people even after adjusting for subclinical atherosclerotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2016.1905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5731544PMC
December 2017

Genome-wide association study for feed efficiency and growth traits in U.S. beef cattle.

BMC Genomics 2017 05 18;18(1):386. Epub 2017 May 18.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211, USA.

Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays for domestic cattle have catalyzed the identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits for inclusion in modern breeding and selection programs. Using actual and imputed Illumina 778K genotypes for 3887 U.S. beef cattle from 3 populations (Angus, Hereford, SimAngus), we performed genome-wide association analyses for feed efficiency and growth traits including average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), mid-test metabolic weight (MMWT), and residual feed intake (RFI), with marker-based heritability estimates produced for all traits and populations.

Results: Moderate and/or large-effect QTL were detected for all traits in all populations, as jointly defined by the estimated proportion of variance explained (PVE) by marker effects (PVE ≥ 1.0%) and a nominal P-value threshold (P ≤ 5e-05). Lead SNPs with PVE ≥ 2.0% were considered putative evidence of large-effect QTL (n = 52), whereas those with PVE ≥ 1.0% but < 2.0% were considered putative evidence for moderate-effect QTL (n = 35). Identical or proximal lead SNPs associated with ADG, DMI, MMWT, and RFI collectively supported the potential for either pleiotropic QTL, or independent but proximal causal mutations for multiple traits within and between the analyzed populations. Marker-based heritability estimates for all investigated traits ranged from 0.18 to 0.60 using 778K genotypes, or from 0.17 to 0.57 using 50K genotypes (reduced from Illumina 778K HD to Illumina Bovine SNP50). An investigation to determine if QTL detected by 778K analysis could also be detected using 50K genotypes produced variable results, suggesting that 50K analyses were generally insufficient for QTL detection in these populations, and that relevant breeding or selection programs should be based on higher density analyses (imputed or directly ascertained).

Conclusions: Fourteen moderate to large-effect QTL regions which ranged from being physically proximal (lead SNPs ≤ 3Mb) to fully overlapping for RFI, DMI, ADG, and MMWT were detected within and between populations, and included evidence for pleiotropy, proximal but independent causal mutations, and multi-breed QTL. Bovine positional candidate genes for these traits were functionally conserved across vertebrate species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-017-3754-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5437562PMC
May 2017

Associations of 24-hour sleep duration and CT-derived measurements of muscle and bone: The AGES-Reykjavik Study.

Exp Gerontol 2017 07 9;93:1-6. Epub 2017 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Gateway Building, Suite 2N300, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205, USA.

Background: Although the importance of sleep on preservation of several physiological functions is well known, the relationship with the two interconnected tissues - muscle and bone is less understood.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association of 24-hour sleep duration with mid-thigh muscle composition and proximal femur volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD).

Methods: 2438 men and 3326 women aged 66 to 96years, residents in the Reykjavik area, were included in this cross-sectional study. Proximal femur integral vBMD, mid-thigh muscle area and muscle attenuation were assessed with computed tomography. Sleep and nap habits were assessed using a questionnaire.

Results: We found that after adjustment for age and BMI long sleep duration (>8h/d) was negatively associated with thigh lean area in both men (B=-2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): -4.01, -0.40) and women (B=-2.39, 95% CI: -3.75, -1.03) and with muscle attenuation (B=-0.95, 95% CI: -1.47, -0.43) only in women. After adjustments for age, health and lifestyle factors the association between long sleep duration and muscle lean area was attenuated and became nonsignificant while associations with muscle attenuation remained marginally significant (B=-0.51, 95% CI: -1.03, -0.002). Sleep duration was not associated with proximal femur integral vBMD in the multivariate models.

Conclusion: Long sleep duration, particularly in old women, can affect thigh muscle attenuation (increase in intramuscular fat). Whether optimization of sleep can ameliorate age-associated intramuscular or intermuscular adipose tissue warrants further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2017.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5499246PMC
July 2017

Proximal Femur Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Mortality: 13 Years of Follow-Up of the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

J Bone Miner Res 2017 Jun 20;32(6):1237-1242. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Bone mineral density (BMD) has been linked to mortality, but little is known about the independent contribution of each endosteal bone compartment and also the rate of bone loss to risk of mortality. We examined the relationships between (1) baseline trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the proximal femur, and (2) the rate of trabecular and cortical bone loss and all-cause mortality in older adults from the AGES-Reykjavik study. The analysis of trabecular and cortical vBMD and mortality was based on the baseline cohort of 4654 participants (aged ≥66 years) with a median follow-up of 9.4 years; the association between rate of bone loss and mortality was based on 2653 participants with bone loss data (median follow-up of 5.6 years). Analyses employed multivariable Cox-proportional models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with time-varying fracture status; trabecular and cortical variables were included together in all models. Adjusted for important confounders, Cox models showed that participants in the lowest quartile of trabecular vBMD had an increased risk of mortality compared to participants in other quartiles (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.25); baseline cortical vBMD was not related to mortality (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.20). After adjustment for time-dependent fracture status, results were attenuated and not statistically significant. A faster loss (quartile 1 versus quartiles 2-4) in both trabecular and cortical bone was associated with higher mortality risk (HR = 1.37 and 1.33, respectively); these associations were independent of major potential confounders including time-dependent incident fractures (HR = 1.32 and 1.34, respectively). Overall, data suggest that faster bone losses over time in both the trabecular and cortical bone compartments are associated with mortality risk and that measurements of change in bone health may be more informative than single-point measurements in explaining mortality differences in older adults. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466463PMC
June 2017

Association of Serum Klotho with Loss of Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk in Older Adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2016 12 2;64(12):e304-e308. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Intramural Research Program, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Objectives: Klotho deficiency has been previously linked to aging-like phenotypes such as osteoporosis, cognitive impairment, and sarcopenia. Low serum klotho was shown to be related to grip strength and disability. Nonetheless, no previous study has explored the association between serum klotho and fractures. The purpose of this report is to examine the relationship of serum klotho with bone mineral density (BMD) loss and fractures in older adults.

Design: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a longitudinal cohort study of 3,075 community-dwelling older adults.

Setting: US clinical centers.

Participants: Two thousand seven hundred and seventy six well-functioning black and white adults aged 70 to 79 years with serum klotho measurements were followed up for a median of 5 years.

Measurements: Percent annualized BMD change and fracture risk were compared across klotho quartiles. A Poisson distribution was used to calculate age-adjusted fracture incidence rates, and Cox proportional hazards models for multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios.

Results: The annualized percent changes in hip, femoral neck, and vertebral BMD were similar across klotho quartiles. Participants experienced 507 nonspine fractures, 203 hip fractures, and 135 vertebral fractures. The Incidence rate (IR) of nonspine fractures was 17 per 1,000 person-years. The most frequent site was hip (IR = 6 per 1,000 person-years) and the IR of vertebral fractures was 3 per 1,000 person-years. There was no association between the lowest quartile of plasma klotho and nonspine (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-1.65), hip (HR = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.79-2.27), or vertebral fractures (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.65-2.11).

Conclusion: Although klotho gene is a susceptible gene for reduced BMD, klotho blood concentration does not appear to be a predictor of bone loss or fracture risk in well-functioning older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5173411PMC
December 2016

Are resistance and aerobic exercise training equally effective at improving knee muscle strength and balance in older women?

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2017 Jan - Feb;68:106-112. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, CIAFEL, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal.

This study aimed to compare the magnitude of knee muscle strength and static and dynamic balance change in response to 8 months of progressive RE and AE training in healthy community-dwelling older women. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between muscle strength and balance changes (up and go test (UGT), one-leg stance test, and center of pressure measures). This study was a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial, a three-arm intervention study in older women (n=71, mean age 69.0y). The results suggest that both interventions elicited likely to almost certain improvements (using magnitude-based inference) in balance performance. Leg strength was improved after RE whereas it was unclear following AE. Improvements in strength were almost certainly moderate after RE and possibly trivial after AE, with very likely greater improvements following RE compared to AE. A large and significant negative correlation (r=-0.5; CI 90%: -0.7 to -0.2) was found between ΔUGT and change in both knee extension and knee flexion strength after 8-month RE. In conclusion, our results showed that both types of training improve balance, but RE was also effective at improving leg strength. In addition, improvements in both knee extension and flexion strength after RE appear to make an important contribution to meaningful improvements in static and dynamic balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2016.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5760177PMC
June 2017

Effects of a multicomponent exercise program in institutionalized elders with Alzheimer's disease.

Dementia (London) 2019 Feb 18;18(2):417-431. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport Science, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

This study examined the effect of a Multicomponent Training (MT) intervention on cognitive function, functional fitness and anthropometric variables in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-seven institutionalized elders (84.05 ± 5.58 years) clinically diagnosed with AD (mild and moderate stages) were divided into two groups: Experimental Group (EG, n = 19) and Control Group (CG, n = 18). The EG participated in a six-month supervised MT program (aerobic, muscular resistance, flexibility and postural exercises) of 45-55 minutes/session, twice/week. Cognitive function (MMSE), physical fitness (Senior Fitness Test) and anthropometric variables (Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference), were assessed before (M1), after three months (M2) and after six months (M3) of the experimental protocol. A two-way ANOVA, with repeated measures, revealed significant group and time interactions on cognitive function, chair stand, arm curl, 2-min step, 8-foot up-and-go (UG), chair sit-and-reach (CSR) and back scratch tests as well as waist circumference. Accordingly, for those variables a different response in each group was evident over the time, supported by a significantly better EG performance in chair stand, arm curl, 2-min step, UG, CSR and back scratch tests from M1 to M3, and a significant increase in MMSE from M1 to M2. The CG's performance decreased over time (M1 to M3) in chair stand, arm curl, 2-min step, UG, CSR, back scratch and MMSE. Results suggest that MT programs may be an important non-pharmacological strategy to improve physical and cognitive functions in institutionalized AD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1471301216674558DOI Listing
February 2019

Prognostic factors for recovery in Portuguese patients with Bell's palsy.

Neurol Res 2016 Oct 18;38(10):851-6. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

a Faculty of Sport, Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure , University of Porto , Porto , Portugal.

Objective: The main aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that contribute to complete recovery at 6 weeks and 6 months in patients with Bell's palsy.

Material And Methods: This is a prospective, longitudinal, and descriptive study that included 123 patients diagnosed with facial nerve palsy (FNP) at a hospital in Guimarães, Portugal. However, only 73 patients with Bell's palsy (BP) were included in the assessment of recovery at 6 weeks and 6 months. We analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, including sex, age, paralyzed side, occupation, previous and associated symptoms, seasonal occurrence, familial facial palsy, patient perception, intervention options, and baseline grade according to the House-Brackmann facial grading system (HB-FGS).

Results: Of the 123 cases with FNP, 79 (64.2%) patients had BP. Age, sex, and baseline HB-FGS grades were significant predictors of complete recovery at 6 weeks. Patients with HB-FGS grade III or lower (6 weeks baseline) had significant recovery of function at 6 months.

Conclusions: Baseline severity of BP, elderly patients, and male sex were early predictors of poor prognosis. Patients with mild and moderate dysfunction according to the HB-FGS achieved significant normal facial function at 6 months. Further prospective studies with longer observation periods and larger samples are needed to verify the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2016.1209620DOI Listing
October 2016

Are corticosteroids useful in all degrees of severity and rapid recovery of Bell's palsy?

Acta Otolaryngol 2016 Jul 22;136(7):736-41. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

a Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport , University of Porto , Porto , Portugal ;

Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that corticosteroids were not effective in all grades of dysfunction and for achieving a rapid remission in the early phase of BP, highlighting the need to define standard and rigorous criteria to prescribe corticosteroids in these patients. Objectives The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of corticosteroids better associated than paralleled with neuromuscular training (C + FNT) is more effective than facial neuromuscular training (FNT) applied alone, in terms of recovery degree and facial symmetry during the early phase of Bell's palsy (BP). Patients and methods A prospective single-blinded study involved 73 patients: the C + FNT group (n = 42; median age = 37.5 years) and FNT group (n = 31; median age = 49.0 years). Patients were assessed before and 6 weeks after treatment by House-Brackmann (HB-FGS) and Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SB-FGS). Results Recovery degree and facial symmetry improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.001), without differences between groups (p > 0.05). However, the C + FNT group displayed better outcomes for cheek (p = 0.004) and mouth (p = 0.022) resting symmetry at SB-FGS, instead of compared to the FNT group. The corticosteroids had no significant effect on all recovery degrees (p = 0.992) and rapid remission (p = 0.952). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the type of intervention was not a significant predictor for recovery degree (p = 0.917).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00016489.2016.1154604DOI Listing
July 2016

Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Sep;30(9):2406-15

1School of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA; 3Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; 4Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), University Institute of Maia (ISMAI), Maia, Portugal; and 5INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France.

Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both cycling and running are decisive and should be well developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001335DOI Listing
September 2016

Efficient removal of mercury from aqueous solutions and industrial effluent.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2015 ;50(12):1230-40

a Institute of Chemistry, Federal Fluminense University, Campus of Valonguinho , Niterói, Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.

The objective of this study was to examine the ability of a solid waste produced during beneficiation of ornamental rocks to remove mercury (Hg) from an industrial effluent and aqueous solutions under various conditions. Batch studies have been carried out by observing the effects of pH, concentration of the adsorbate, contact time, and so on. Various sorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tóth have been applied for the adsorbent. Film and intraparticle diffusion were both found to be rate-limiting steps. Adsorption was properly described by the Freundlich model (capacity constant of 0.3090 (mg g(-1))(mg L(-1))(-1/n) and adsorption intensity indicator of 2.2939), which indicated a favorable sorption and encouraged subsequent studies for treatment of Hg-containing industrial effluent. Industrial effluent treatment efficiency reached Hg removals greater than 90% by using ornamental rock solid waste (ORSW). Besides, desorption studies indicated that the maximum recovery of mercury was 100 ± 2% for 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 and 74 ± 8% for 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO3. The ORSW could be reused thrice without significant difference on the Hg removal rate from industrial effluent. These findings place ORSW as a promising efficient and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg from aqueous solutions and industrial effluent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2015.1055147DOI Listing
April 2016

Exercise intervention and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children. Comparison between obese youngsters taking part in a physical activity school-based programme with and without individualised diet counselling: the ACORDA project.

Ann Hum Biol 2016 May 21;43(3):183-90. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

a Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure (CIAFEL) Faculty of Sports , University of Porto, Rua Dr Plácido Costa , Porto , Portugal .

Aim: To determine the effects of a school-based exercise intervention programme on cardiovascular risk factors, including body fat (BF), metabolic profile and physical activity (PA) in children with and without individualised dietary counselling approach (IDC and WIDC).

Subjects And Methods: Forty-six overweight children from 6-16 years old (25 girls, 54.3%; age = 10.3 ± 2.8) of six schools took part in an 8-month interdisciplinary, school-based intervention programme. All children were engaged in PA classes, but only one group was exposed to individualised counselling. Blood pressure (BP), lipids and lipoproteins, accelerometer-based PA, percentage of body fat (%BF) and trunk fat (%TF) measures were taken before and after intervention. General Linear Model (Repeated Measures ANOVA) adjusted for age, maturation and height change was used to analyse the longitudinal effect of individualised counselling between two evaluations in each group.

Results: Favourable changes were observed for %BF, %TF, systolic BP and total cholesterol in the IDC group. Subjects WIDC only increased light and moderate-vigorous PA. In IDC, significant effects for time * group interactions were found for systolic BP, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, indicating that counselling might add favourable changes in these markers, beyond those explained by PA and growth.

Conclusion: School-based interventions can contribute to counteracting obesity in youth, particularly when individualised dietary counselling is provided. Therefore, the link between schools and professional counselling should be strengthened to ensure consolidated changes towards healthy behaviours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2015.1059889DOI Listing
May 2016

Physical therapy with drug treatment in Bell palsy: a focused review.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2015 Apr;94(4):331-40

From the Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal (MF, EAM, JAD, PCS); Department of Physiotherapy, North Polytechnic Institute of Health, CESPU-Gandra, Gandra, Portugal (MF); Higher Education Institute of Maia, Maia, Portugal (EAM); and Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Technology of Porto, Institute Polytechnic of Porto, Porto, Portugal (PCS).

The physical therapy (PT) associated with standard drug treatment (SDT) in Bell palsy has never been investigated. Randomized controlled trials or quasirandomized controlled trials have compared facial PT (except treatments such as acupuncture and osteopathic) combined with SDT against a control group with SDT alone. Participants included those older than 15 yrs with a clinical diagnosis of Bell palsy, and the primary outcome measure was motor function recovery by the House-Brackmann scale. The methodologic quality of each study was also independently assessed by two reviewers using the PEDro scale. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three trials indicate that PT in association with SDT supports higher motor function recovery than SDT alone between 15 days and 1 yr of follow-up. On the other hand, one trial showed that electrical stimulation added to conventional PT with SDT did not influence treatment outcomes. The present review suggests that the current practice of Bell palsy treatment by PT associated with SDT seems to have a positive effect on grade and time recovery compared with SDT alone. However, there is very little quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, and such evidence is insufficient to decide whether combined treatment is beneficial in the management of Bell palsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000255DOI Listing
April 2015

Criterion-referenced fitness standards for predicting physical independence into later life.

Exp Gerontol 2015 Jan 18;61:142-6. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Research Center in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to develop sex and age-adjusted criterion-referenced fitness standards to predict independent physical functioning into later life.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: National Survey of Physical Fitness and Physical Activity, Portugal.

Participants: A national representative sample of 3074 non-institutionalized older adults (65-84years).

Measurements: Projected capacity for physical independence was assessed by the Composite Physical Function (CPF) scale, and physical fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test battery. ROC analyses were used to evaluate the classification accuracy of physical fitness components, and determine the best cutoff values of functional fitness to predict loss of independence. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sex and age category fitness components that were predictors of independence with follow-up ROC analysis to verify the model's discriminative capability.

Results: ROC curve analysis showed that the fitness tests were good in diagnosing physical independence (AUC>0.7). Logistic regression models demonstrated that different fitness components should be targeted according to age and sex, but with an emphasis on aerobic endurance and agility/dynamic balance. Overall, models provided higher AUC (males: 0.79-0.86; females: 0.73-0.85) when comparing the best fitness tests for each sex and age category. The sensitivity of newly developed models ranged from 80.5 to 87.7 in males and from 68.2 to 86.3 in females, while the specificity ranged from 62.1 to 73.8 in males and between 58.2 and 82.9 in females.

Conclusion: The Senior Fitness Test provides a good field tool that allows the identification of fitness levels that older adults need to achieve to be physically independent later in life, and permits the accurate planning and implementation of exercise-based interventions for older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2014.12.012DOI Listing
January 2015

QTLs associated with dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test weight, growth and feed efficiency have little overlap across 4 beef cattle studies.

BMC Genomics 2014 Nov 20;15:1004. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, USA.

Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies and functional analyses using 50 K and 770 K SNP genotypes scored in 5,133 animals from 4 independent beef cattle populations (Cycle VII, Angus, Hereford and Simmental×Angus) with phenotypes for average daily gain, dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test body weight and residual feed intake.

Results: A total of 5, 6, 11 and 10 significant QTL (defined as 1-Mb genome windows with Bonferroni-corrected P-value<0.05) were identified for average daily gain, dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test body weight and residual feed intake, respectively. The identified QTL were population-specific and had little overlap across the 4 populations. The pleiotropic or closely linked QTL on BTA 7 at 23 Mb identified in the Angus population harbours a promising candidate gene ACSL6 (acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6), and was the largest effect QTL associated with dry matter intake and mid-test body weight explaining 10.39% and 14.25% of the additive genetic variance, respectively. Pleiotropic or closely linked QTL associated with average daily gain and mid-test body weight were detected on BTA 6 at 38 Mb and BTA 7 at 93 Mb confirming previous reports. No QTL for residual feed intake explained more than 2.5% of the additive genetic variance in any population. Marker-based estimates of heritability ranged from 0.21 to 0.49 for residual feed intake across the 4 populations.

Conclusions: This GWAS study, which is the largest performed for feed efficiency and its component traits in beef cattle to date, identified several large-effect QTL that cumulatively explained a significant percentage of additive genetic variance within each population. Differences in the QTL identified among the different populations may be due to differences in power to detect QTL, environmental variation, or differences in the genetic architecture of trait variation among breeds. These results enhance our understanding of the biology of growth, feed intake and utilisation in beef cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-1004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253998PMC
November 2014

Risk for losing physical independence in older adults: the role of sedentary time, light, and moderate to vigorous physical activity.

Maturitas 2014 Sep 21;79(1):91-5. Epub 2014 Jun 21.

Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Estrada da Costa, 1499-002 Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo, Portugal. Electronic address:

This study examined the association of a range of physical activity intensities and sedentary behavior with the risk of losing physical independence later in life in community-dwelling older adults. A total of 131 males and 240 females, aged 65-103 years, were enrolled. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers and the risk for losing physical independence in later years was assessed with the self-reported composite physical function (CPF) scale adjusted for age. Participants were divided in two groups - high risk group (HRG) and low risk group (LRG), according current CPF. According to the multiple logistic regression analyses, sedentary time was not a significant predictor. The odds of a male participant being in the LRG were 12.19 times higher than those of a female (95% CI 5.06-29.39). Both, light PA (OR=1.01; 95% CI 1.01-1.02) and MVPA (OR=1.432; 95% CI 1.21-1.69) had a significant main effect on the risk of losing physical independence. Age and gender interacted with moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) to predict the risk of losing physical independence. Thus, as age increases, participants that are more physically active became less likely (OR=0.997; 95% CI 0.995-0.999) to be in the HRG than younger participants. Similarly, the odds of a physically active women being physical independent in later life are higher (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.91-0.96) than those of a physically active men. These new findings suggest that light PA, and MVPA are significantly associated with the risk of losing physical independence later in life, and age and gender combined with MVPA have an interaction effect on physical independence of older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.06.012DOI Listing
September 2014

Independent mobility and its relationship with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in middle-school Portuguese boys and girls.

J Phys Act Health 2014 Nov 11;11(8):1640-3. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: The exact relation between objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and independent mobility in children has yet to be fully defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether independent mobility is associated with level of MVPA.

Methods: Data were collected from 9 middle schools in Porto (Portugal) area. A total of 636 children in the 6th grade (340 girls and 296 boys) with a mean age of 11.64 years old participated in the study. PA was measured in 636 participants using an accelerometer. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to assess the odds for belonging to quartiles of MVPA.

Results: After controlling for age, gender, body mass index, meeting PA recommendations, and participation in structured exercise, the odds of having a higher level of MVPA when children have higher independent mobility increase through the MVPA quartiles.

Conclusions: A positive associations were found between independent mobility and quartiles of physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2013-0035DOI Listing
November 2014

Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds.

Front Genet 2013 18;4:176. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Bovine Functional Genomics Laboratory, BARC, Agriculture Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture Beltsville, MD, USA.

To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2013.00176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776237PMC
September 2013

Parental physical activity, safety perceptions and children's independent mobility.

BMC Public Health 2013 Jun 15;13:584. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91, Porto 4200-450, Portugal.

Background: Parents are likely to be a basic influence on their children's behavior. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' physical activity and perception of neighborhood environment with children's independent mobility.The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of parental physical activity and perception of neighborhood safety to children's independent mobility.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 354 pupils and their parents, independent mobility, perceptions of neighborhood safety and physical activity were evaluated by questionnaire. Categorical principal components analyses were used to determine the underlying dimensions of both independent mobility and perceptions of neighborhood safety items.

Results: The strongest predictor of independent mobility was the parental perception of sidewalk and street safety (beta = 0.132). Parent's physical activity was also a significant predictor. The final model accounted for 13.0% of the variance.

Conclusions: Parental perception of neighborhood safety and parents' self reported physical activity might be associated with children's independent mobility. Further research in this topic is needed to explore this possible association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3686676PMC
June 2013

Response of bone mineral density, inflammatory cytokines, and biochemical bone markers to a 32-week combined loading exercise programme in older men and women.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2013 Sep-Oct;57(2):226-33. Epub 2013 Apr 23.

Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport Science, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal.

This study examines the effects of 32 weeks of exercise training on balance, lower-extremity muscle strength, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum levels of bone metabolism and inflammatory markers in older adults. Forty-seven healthy older adults (women=24, men=23; mean age 68.2 years) participated in a exercise intervention (60min/session) that included resistance exercise training (2 days/week) at 75-80% of maximum plus a multicomponent weight-bearing impact exercise training (1 day/week). Outcome measures included lumbar spine and proximal femoral BMD, dynamic balance, muscle strength, serum levels of bone metabolism markers [osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTX), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)] and serum levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitive (hs)-C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ]. Potential confounding variables included body composition, dietary intake (using 4-day diet records), and accelerometer-based physical activity. After 32 weeks, both men and women increased dynamic balance (6.4%), muscle strength (11.0%) and trochanter (0.7%), intertrochanter (0.7%), total hip (0.6%), and lumbar spine BMD (1.7%), while OC, CTX, OPG and RANKL levels remained unchanged. In addition, hs-CRP and IFN-γ levels were decreased, while TNF-α levels were unchanged, and a decrease in IL-6 levels was only observed in men. These findings suggest that our combined impact protocol reduces inflammation and increases BMD, balance, and lower-extremity muscle strength, despite having little effect on bone metabolism markers. This reinforces the role of exercise to counteract the age-related inflammation, and the muscle strength, balance and BMD reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2013.03.014DOI Listing
February 2014
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