Publications by authors named "Elisa Arnoldi"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional determinants of gate-DNA selection and cleavage by bacterial type II topoisomerases.

Nucleic Acids Res 2013 Nov 12;41(20):9411-23. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, St.George's, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK.

Antibacterial fluoroquinolones trap a cleavage complex of gyrase and topoisomerase (topo) IV inducing site-specific DNA breakage within a bent DNA gate engaged in DNA transport. Despite its importance for drug action and in revealing potential sites of topoisomerase catalysis, the mechanism of DNA selectivity is poorly understood. To explore its functional basis, we generated mutant versions of the strongly cleaved E-site and used a novel competitive assay to examine their gemifloxacin-mediated DNA breakage by Streptococcus pneumoniae topo IV and gyrase. Parallel studies of Ca(2+)-induced cleavage distinguished 'intrinsic recognition' of DNA cleavage sites by topo IV from drug-induced preferences. Analysis revealed strong enzyme-determined requirements for -4G, -2A and -1T bases preceding the breakage site (between -1 and +1) and enzyme-unique or degenerate determinants at -3, plus drug-specific preferences at +2/+3 and for +1 purines associated with drug intercalation. Similar cleavage rules were seen additionally at the novel V-site identified here in ColE1-derived plasmids. In concert with DNA binding data, our results provide functional evidence for DNA, enzyme and drug contributions to DNA cleavage at the gate, suggest a mechanism for DNA discrimination involving enzyme-induced DNA bending/helix distortion and cleavage complex stabilization and advance understanding of fluoroquinolones as important cleavage-enhancing therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3814380PMC
November 2013

Immunomodulation of TGF-beta 1 in mdx mouse inhibits connective tissue proliferation in diaphragm but increases inflammatory response: implications for antifibrotic therapy.

J Neuroimmunol 2006 Jun 27;175(1-2):77-86. Epub 2006 Apr 27.

Department of Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases, National Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Irreversible connective tissue proliferation in muscle is a pathological hallmark of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a genetic degenerative muscle disease due to lack of the sarcolemmal protein dystrophin. Focal release of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is involved in fibrosis development. Murine muscular dystrophy (mdx) is genetically homologous to DMD and histopathological alterations comparable to those in DMD muscles occur in diaphragm of older mdx mice. To investigate the early development of fibrosis and TGF-beta1 involvement, we assessed diaphragms in 6-36-week-old mdx and C57/BL6 (control) mice for fibrosis, and used real-time PCR and ELISA to determine TGF-beta1 expression. Significantly greater fibrosis and TGF-beta1 expression were found in mdx from the 6th week. Mice treated with neutralizing antibody against TGF-beta1 had lower levels of TGF-beta1 protein, reduced fibrosis, unchanged muscles fiber degeneration/regeneration, but increased inflammatory cells (CD4+lymphocytes). These data demonstrate early and progressive fibrosis in mdx diaphragm accompanied by TGF-beta1 upregulation. Reduction of TGF-beta1 appears promising as a therapeutic approach to muscle fibrosis, but further studies are required to evaluate long term effects of TGF-beta1 immunomodulation on the immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.03.005DOI Listing
June 2006

Increased toll-like receptor 4 expression in thymus of myasthenic patients with thymitis and thymic involution.

Am J Pathol 2005 Jul;167(1):129-39

Department of Neurology IV, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Thymic abnormalities are present in approximately 80% of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients, and the thymus seems to be the main site of autosensitization to the acetylcholine receptor. In view of findings that the innate immune system can generate an autoimmune response, we studied the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 to 5, key components of innate immunity signaling pathways, in 37 thymuses from patients with autoimmune MG. TLR4 mRNA levels were significantly greater in thymitis (hyperplasia with diffuse B-cell infiltration) and involuted thymus than in germinal center hyperplasia and thymoma. By immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, cells positive for TLR4 protein were rarely detected in thymoma. However, in thymitis TLR4 protein was mostly found on epitheliomorphic (cytokeratin-positive) cells located in close association with clusters of acetylcholine receptor-positive myoid cells in thymic medulla and also at the borders between cortical and medullary areas. B cells were never TLR4-positive. TLR4 protein was also present in remnant tissue of involuted thymus. This is the first finding of a possible link between innate immunity and MG. We speculate that in a subgroup of MG patients, an exogenous or endogenous danger signal may activate the innate immune system and give rise to TLR4-mediated mechanisms contributing to autoimmunity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1603452PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62960-4DOI Listing
July 2005

A multidisciplinary evaluation of the effectiveness of cyclosporine a in dystrophic mdx mice.

Am J Pathol 2005 Feb;166(2):477-89

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento Farmacobiologico, Facoltà di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, Campus, 70125 Bari, Italy.

Chronic inflammation is a secondary reaction of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may contribute to disease progression. To examine whether immunosuppressant therapies could benefit dystrophic patients, we analyzed the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on a dystrophic mouse model. Mdx mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of CsA for 4 to 8 weeks throughout a period of exercise on treadmill, a protocol that worsens the dystrophic condition. The CsA treatment fully prevented the 60% drop of forelimb strength induced by exercise. A significant amelioration (P < 0.05) was observed in histological profile of CsA-treated gastrocnemius muscle with reductions of nonmuscle area (20%), centronucleated fibers (12%), and degenerating area (50%) compared to untreated exercised mdx mice. Consequently, the percentage of normal fibers increased from 26 to 35% in CsA-treated mice. Decreases in creatine kinase and markers of fibrosis were also observed. By electrophysiological recordings ex vivo, we found that CsA counteracted the decrease in chloride conductance (gCl), a functional index of degeneration in diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers. However, electrophysiology and fura-2 calcium imaging did not show any amelioration of calcium homeostasis in extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers. No significant effect was observed on utrophin levels in diaphragm muscle. Our data show that the CsA treatment significantly normalized many functional, histological, and biochemical endpoints by acting on events that are independent or downstream of calcium homeostasis. The beneficial effect of CsA may involve different targets, reinforcing the usefulness of immunosuppressant drugs in muscular dystrophy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1602333PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62270-5DOI Listing
February 2005