Publications by authors named "Elie Claude Ndjitoyap Ndam"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with personal health care on urticaria in peripheral health facilities of Yaoundé, Cameroon (Sub-Saharan Africa).

Int J Dermatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Urticaria is an acute or chronic inflammatory dermatosis that is characterized by erythematous, edematous, itchy, and transient urticarial plaques that cover the skin and mucous membranes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of consulting staff on urticaria in Yaoundé, Cameroon, as well as the attitudes and practices resulting from it.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study. The participants were enrolled from January to April 2017 in 25 health facilities in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The sample consisted of health personnel including doctors, nurses, and nursing aids. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire; the evaluation scores for each heading were established. Data processing was done using the SPSS software Version 21.

Results: We recruited 101 participants, with a sex ratio of 0.4 (73/101 were female); 44.6% of the participants were doctors, and 50% of our participants had less than 5 years of professional experience. The level of knowledge on urticaria was insufficient for 40.6% of the staff enrolled. Attitudes towards urticaria were incorrect for 36.6% of staff, and 95% of our sample had harmful practices.

Conclusion: Our study reveals that skills of the health care provider regarding urticaria are generally poor and do not enable them to ensure an adequate management of the disease.
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June 2021

[Prognosis and survival of esophageal cancer in Cameroon: a prognostic study].

Pan Afr Med J 2019 31;33:73. Epub 2019 May 31.

Service de Médecine et d'Oncologie de l'Hôpital Général de Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroun.

Introduction: Esophageal cancer is rare. Poor prognosis is due to delayed diagnosis. Five year survival is less than 20%. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with survival of patients with esophageal cancer in Cameroon.

Methods: We conducted a prognostic study in the General Hospitals in Yaoundé and in Douala over a period of 11 years from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015. The parameters studied were those associated with survival. Survival was established on the basis of the date of diagnosis and of the date of death or of the last visit. SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 23 allowed for data analysis. Kaplan Meier curve was used to estimate the survival function. Log RankTest allowed for comparison among the different groups. Cox regression helped to highlight the different factors associated with it. Significance level was set at 0.05.

Results: We collected data from 49 medical records. The average age of patients was 57.83 years. There was a male predominance (71.4%; n=35) with a sex ratio of 2.49. The follow-up period was 3.2 months. Median survival was 6.67 months (CI 95% [1.33-10.4]) and the average survival time was 7.99 months (CI 95% [4.42-11.17]). Multivariate-adjusted analysis showed that stage IV was a predictive factor of mortality (HR = 2.79; CI95% [1.13-6.89], p = 0.025]).

Conclusion: Esophageal cancer is a rare disease with poor prognosis. Prognostic factor is the tumor stage.
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September 2019

Epidemiology and clinical features of keloids in Black Africans: a nested case-control study from Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Int J Dermatol 2019 Oct 20;58(10):1135-1140. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Internal Medicine and Specialities, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Keloids are a common presenting complaint in Black Africans but remain poorly documented in these populations. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients with keloids seen at dermatology outpatient consultations in Yaoundé (Cameroon) and to determine driving factors of keloid occurrence.

Methods: This was a 1 : 2 case-control study conducted from February to May 2016 at the dermatology unit of five health facilities in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Cases were patients with black skin and diagnosed with keloids while controls had no keloid scar, paired to cases according to age and sex. The diagnosis of keloid was based on clinical history and findings.

Results: Of 2,940 patients seen during the study period, 102 (54.9% females) had keloids, hence a prevalence of 3.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.2). The most affected age group was ≥25 years (69.6%). Lesions at the origin of keloids were mostly traumatic (66.7%). In 68 patients (66.7%), keloid scars were associated with pruritus. The presternal region was the predominant localization (26.5%). Existence of a family history of keloids was significantly associated with presence of keloids (adjusted odds ratio: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.4-7.2; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Keloids commonly affect black skin as recorded during dermatology consultations in Yaoundé, Cameroon. More often, they are secondary to skin trauma and seem to occur among those with a family history of keloids. Therefore, these people should be closely monitored accordingly.
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October 2019

Prevalence and Clinical Profile of Drug Eruptions among Antiretroviral Therapy-Exposed HIV Infected People in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Dermatol Res Pract 2017 28;2017:6216193. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Prevalence and incidence of drug eruptions vary around the world and are influenced by some key factors including HIV infection.

Objective: This study aimed to find the peculiarities of drug eruptions in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study including ART-taking PLHIV, aged 15+ years, followed up between January 2010 and December 2014 at the day-care unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, and who presented with drug eruptions after ART initiation.

Results: Of 6,829 ART-experiencing PLHIV, 41 presented with drug eruptions, giving a prevalence of 0.6%. The M/F sex ratio equaled 0.17. The mean age was 41.07 ± 11.36 years. Benign drug eruptions accounted for 83.3%. Milder forms were essentially maculopapular exanthema (36.6%), fixed pigmented erythema (7.3%), and urticaria (4.9%). Severe forms were represented by multiform erythema (4.9%), toxic epidermal necrolysis (2.4%), and drug hypersensitivity syndrome (2.4%). The Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz ART-protocol was received by 48.8% of patients and 69% of patients were receiving Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Zidovudine, and Cotrimoxazole were suspected as the potential causes in 43.7%, 4.8%, 2.4%, and 26.8% of cases, respectively.

Conclusion: Drug eruptions seem infrequent among ART-exposed HIV infected adult Cameroonians.
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June 2017

Skin whitening among Cameroonian female university students: knowledge, attitudes, practices and motivations.

BMC Womens Health 2017 04 17;17(1):33. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Lack of data on skin whitening (SW) among Cameroonian female university students prompted us to undertake the present study which aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes, practices and motivations of female university students vis-a-vis SW.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from January to April 2013 in 4 university campuses of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Any female student regularly registered in one of the study sites, who was present at the campus when the investigator visited and volunteered to participate in the study was enrolled.

Results: Overall, we recruited 620 female students, their ages ranging from 16 to 46 years with a mean of 21.3 ± 2.9 years. Only 87 participants (14%) found that SW was a good practice. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (27.3%) were currently practicing SW with no age difference when compared to their counterparts (p = 0.09). The desire to have a uniform body skin color was the prevailing reason motivating the practice of SW (39.1%), followed by the need to have a soft skin (29%). Assessment of levels of knowledge regarding advantages of the black skin and deleterious effects of SW showed excellent scores (≥75% of good answers) only in 6.1 and 0.5% of cases respectively, with no difference between those practicing SW or not (all p values > 0.05).

Conclusion: The practice of SW is common among Cameroonian female university students who should therefore be educated on the advantages of the black skin and the harmful effects of SW.
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April 2017

Clinical Outcome of a Portosplenomesenteric Venous Thrombosis in Necrotizing Acute Pancreatitis with Protein C and S Deficiency Treated by Anticoagulation Therapy Alone.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2015 14;2015:934784. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde General Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Cases of splanchnic venous thrombosis have not been described in Cameroon. Their prevalence in acute pancreatitis is variable. With the emergence of acute intra-abdominal infections including typhoid fever and peritoneal tuberculosis in situations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, these cases will become frequent. We report the case of a portosplenomesenteric venous thrombosis related to necrotizing acute pancreatitis associated with proteins C and S deficiency, in a 46-year-old Cameroonian man, without particular past medical history. He was admitted for abdominal pain which had been evolving for 3 weeks and accompanied by vomiting. In the absence of hemorrhagic risk factor, the patient received low molecular weight heparin followed by oral warfarin. The abdominal ultrasound check on the 12th day showed a partial recanalization of venous thrombosis. The abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scanner at day 30 on oral anticoagulation therapy showed collateral vessels and small bowel edema. At the same time the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed grade II esophageal varices. We have maintained oral anticoagulation therapy. This case highlights that an early effective anticoagulation heparin therapy is needed for a clear benefit in case of suspected PSMVT. It is certain that the sooner the treatment is given, the better outcome will be.
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October 2015

Features of human scabies in resource-limited settings: the Cameroon case.

BMC Dermatol 2015 Jul 23;15:12. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: The persistent high prevalence of human scabies, especially in low- and middle-income countries prompted us to research the sociodemographic profile of patients suffering from it, and its spreading factors in Cameroon, a resource-poor setting.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from October 2011 to September 2012 in three hospitals located in Yaoundé, Cameroon, and enrolled patients diagnosed with human scabies during dermatologists' consultations who volunteered to take part in the study.

Results: We included 255 patients of whom 158 (62 %) were male. Age ranged from 0 to 80 years old with a median of 18 (Inter quartile range: 3-29) years. One to eight persons of our patients' entourage exhibited pruritus (mean = 2.1 ± 1.8). The number of persons per bed/room varied from 1 to 5 (mean = 2.1 ± 0.8). The first dermatologist's consultation occurred 4 to 720 days after the onset of symptoms (mean = 77.1 ± 63.7). The post-scabies pruritus (10.2 % of cases) was unrelated to the complications observed before correct treatment (all p values > 0.05), mainly impetiginization (7.1 %) and eczematization (5.9 %).

Conclusion: Human scabies remains preponderant in our milieu. Populations should be educated on preventive measures in order to avoid this disease, and clinicians' knowledges must be strengthened for its proper diagnosis and management.
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July 2015

Helicobacter pylori and precancerous conditions of the stomach: the frequency of infection in a cross-sectional study of 79 consecutive patients with chronic antral gastritis in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Pan Afr Med J 2015 20;20:52. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Department of internal medicine and specialties, Faculty of medicine and biomedical sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon.

Introduction: The study aimed at determining the different types of precancerous conditions of the stomach and searches the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in these lesions in patients with chronic antral gastritis in Yaounde, Cameroon.

Methods: Five gastric biopsies were performed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for pathology and fixed in formol 10% before being coated in paraffin. Both the modified Giemsa and Periodic acid of Shift - Alkaline blue stains were used for the histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Hematoxylyn and eosin stain was used to determine the activity of gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in accordance to the Sydney's classification of gastritis. Data were analysed using both the Epi info 6.04 and Excel 2007 softwares. Means and their standard deviations, medians and their interquartiles (IQR) were calculated. Proportions were established for qualitative variables and chi square analysis done in this study with a p value set at 0.05.

Results: Seventy-nine patients with chronic antral gastritis were enrolled, of which 43 (54.4%) were male, median age: 43 years (range from 21 to 70 years). The rate of atrophic gastritis was 74.7% (59/79). The activity of atrophic gastritis was mild in 47.5% (28/59) of cases, moderate in 47.5% (28/59) and severe in 5% (5/59). Intestinal metaplasia and follicular gastritis were present in 6.3% (5/79), and 10.1% (8/79), respectively. Concerning Helicobacter pylori infection, 71.2% (42/59) of patients with atrophic gastritis tested positive against 28.8% (17/59) who tested negative (p=0.00003). Helicobacter pylori infection was related to the severity of gastric atrophy (p=0.0001). Among patients with intestinal metaplasia and follicular gastritis, the proportion of those who tested positive for Helicobacter pylori infection was 80% (4/5), and 75% (6/8), respectively. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of atrophic gastritis according to age groups (p=0.908).

Conclusion: This study concludes that atrophic gastritis, which is most often caused by Helicobacter pylori, is the most frequent precancerous condition of stomach in Cameroon. Routine gastric sampling for pathologic analysis is mandatory for effective diagnosis and surveillance of Helicobacter pylori infection and precancerous conditions of the stomach.
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May 2016

Epidemiology of hepatitis C: related hepatocellular carcinoma in Cameroon.

Pan Afr Med J 2014 15;19:379. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Yaounde General Hospital, Department of internal medicine and specialties, Faculty of medicine and biomedical sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global public health problem. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection accounts for close to 24% of HCC in developing countries especially when associated with cirrhosis. There exists no vaccine against HCV to prevent the occurrence of HCV-related HCC. A sound knowledge of the epidemiology and prevention of the initial infection is vital. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiologic profile of HCV-related HCC in Cameroon to improve its' management.

Methods: It was a prospective study of histologically proven HCV-related HCC seen in two University Centers in Yaounde, Cameroon from March 2012 to January 2013. Demographic data (age, gender), alcohol abuse (>80g/day), presence of cirrhosis, tobacco abuse and parenteral exposition were analyzed.

Results: Twenty-six patients with histologically proven HCV-related HCC were included (18 men (69.2%) and 8 women (30.8%); mean age +/- SD, 61.46+/-10.18 years). A total of 22 (84.6%) patients had a parenteral exposition, 02 (7.7%) patients were alcoholics and 06 (23.1%) patients were smokers. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis was 69.2% against 30.8% cirrhosis-free. Patients with cirrhosis were relatively younger than those cirrhosis-free (mean age +/- SD, 59.05+/-10.05 years vs 66.87+/- 8.72 years, p=0.06). HCV-related HCC was more prevalent in 60 years and above patients (53.8%, 95%CI: 33.4-73.4). The relative risk of HCC among alcoholics patients was high (RR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.13-1.99, p<0.05).

Conclusion: In Cameroon, HCV-related HCC is more prevalent among age older than 60 years, a finding which is relatively less to that found in western countries, male gender is twice more at risk than female gender and cirrhosis frequency is less compared to that observed elsewhere. HCV and alcohol play a synergistic role in the occurrence of HCC in our environment.
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November 2015

[Epidemiology of infection Helicobacter pylori in Yaoundé: specificity of the African enigma].

Pan Afr Med J 2013 25;16:115. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

CHU de Yaoundé, Département de Médecine Interne et Spécialités, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences Biomédicales, Université de Yaoundé I, Cameroon.

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November 2014