Publications by authors named "Elias Pavlatos"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Accuracy of OCT-derived net corneal astigmatism measurement.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Casey Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Purpose: To assess the repeatability and accuracy of corneal astigmatism measurement with a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system (Avanti, Optovue) and compare them with Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR, Oculus) and swept-source optical biometry (IOLMaster 700, Carl Zeiss Mediatec AG).

Setting: Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Design: Prospective cross-sectional observational study.

Methods: Sixty pseudophakic eyes with monofocal non-toric intraocular lens that previously had refractive surgery were analyzed. To assess accuracy, simulated keratometric (SimK) and net corneal astigmatism, obtained from each device were compared with subjective manifest refraction astigmatism. Repeatability for corneal astigmatism was assessed for OCT and Pentacam HR by the coefficient of repeatability from three repeated measures.

Results: Compared to manifest refraction, SimK readings produced with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatic bias which was reduced for net astigmatism for all the three devices. Except for OCT net astigmatism, all instruments significantly overestimated the magnitude of the astigmatism (linear mixed-effects model (LMM), P < .05). OCT net astigmatism showed the highest accuracy for manifest astigmatism prediction with the smaller 95% confidence ellipse for the mean difference vector. OCT net mean absolute difference was 0.57 D, significantly smaller than that of the other modalities (LMM, P <.05). Net corneal astigmatism measured with OCT showed the best repeatability (coefficient of repeatability = 0.29 D).

Conclusions: OCT has the capability to measure net corneal astigmatism with higher precision and accuracy than Pentacam HR Scheimpflug imaging and IOLMaster 700 swept-source optical biometry in post refractive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.jcrs.0000000000000766DOI Listing
July 2021

Eye motion correction algorithm for OCT-based corneal topography.

Biomed Opt Express 2020 Dec 1;11(12):7343-7356. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

The Center for Ophthalmic Optics and Lasers, Casey Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.

With its sequential image acquisition, OCT-based corneal topography is often susceptible to measurement errors due to eye motion. We have developed a novel algorithm to detect eye motion and minimize its impact on OCT topography maps. We applied the eye motion correction algorithm to corneal topographic scans acquired using a 70 kHz spectral-domain OCT device. OCT corneal topographic measurements were compared to those from a rotating Scheimpflug camera topographer. The motion correction algorithm provided a 2-4 fold improvement in the repeatability of OCT topography and its agreement with the standard Scheimpflug topographer. The repeatability of OCT Zernike-based corneal mean power, cardinal astigmatism, and oblique astigmatism after motion detection was 0.14 D, 0.28 D, and 0.24 D, respectively. The average differences between the two devices were 0.19 D for simulated keratometry-based corneal mean power, 0.23 D for cardinal astigmatism, and 0.25 D for oblique astigmatism. Our eye motion detection method can be applied to any OCT device, and it therefore represents a powerful tool for improving OCT topography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.412209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747916PMC
December 2020

Keratoconus detection using OCT corneal and epithelial thickness map parameters and patterns.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2021 06;47(6):759-766

From The Center for Ophthalmic Optics and Lasers, Casey Eye Institute, and Department of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (Yang, Pavlatos, Chamberlain, Huang, Li); Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China (Yang).

Purpose: To detect keratoconus using optical coherence tomography (OCT) corneal map parameters and patterns.

Setting: Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Design: Cross-sectional observational study.

Methods: A spectral-domain OCT was used to acquire corneal and epithelial thickness maps in normal, manifest keratoconic, subclinical keratoconic, and forme fruste keratoconic (FFK) eyes. A 2-step decision tree was designed. An eye will be classified as keratoconus if both decision tree conditions are met. First, at least 1 of the 4 quantitative corneal thickness (minimum, minimum-maximum, and superonasal-inferotemporal) and epithelial thickness (standard deviation) map parameters exceed cutoff values. Second, presence of both concentric thinning pattern on the epithelial thickness map and coincident thinning patterns on corneal and epithelial thickness maps by visual inspection.

Results: The study comprised 54 eyes from 29 normal participants, 91 manifest keratoconic eyes from 65 patients, 12 subclinical keratoconic eyes from 11 patients, and 19 FFK eyes from 19 patients. The decision tree correctly classified all normal eyes (100% specificity) and had good sensitivities for detecting manifest keratoconus (97.8%), subclinical keratoconus (100.0%), and FFK (73.7%).

Conclusions: The 2-step decision tree provided a useful tool to detect keratoconus, including cases at early disease stages (subclinical keratoconus and FFK). OCT corneal and epithelial thickness map parameters and patterns can be used in conjunction with topography to improve keratoconus screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.jcrs.0000000000000498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131403PMC
June 2021

A Coincident Thinning Index for Keratoconus Identification Using OCT Pachymetry and Epithelial Thickness Maps.

J Refract Surg 2020 Nov;36(11):757-765

Purpose: To develop a coincident thinning (CTN) index to differentiate between keratoconic and healthy corneas using optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of pachymetry and epithelial thickness.

Methods: Pattern deviation maps of pachymetry and epithelial thickness were generated using Fourier-domain OCT images of the cornea. The co-localized thinning of the two maps was quantified using a novel CTN index, which was calculated from Gaussian fits of the regions of maximum relative thinning. The CTN index was validated using k-fold cross-validation, and its classification performance was compared to minimum pachymetry and maximum keratometry.

Results: A total of 82 normal eyes and 133 eyes within three groups of keratoconus severity were evaluated. The pattern deviation maps for the keratoconic eyes showed relative thinning that was larger in magnitude and more strongly correlated with the Gaussian function compared to normal eyes (all P < .01). The distance between the pachymetric and epithelial maximum relative thinning locations was significantly smaller for the keratoconic eyes than for the normal eyes (all P < .02). The CTN index was significantly larger for all three keratoconus groups compared to normal eyes (all P < .0001). The CTN index demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% in detecting manifest keratoconus, 100% for subclinical keratoconus, and 56% for forme fruste keratoconus. The overall classification accuracy was better for the CTN index (93%) than for minimum pachymetry (86%) and maximum keratometry (86%).

Conclusions: The CTN index is a highly sensitive measure of coincident pachymetric and epithelial thinning. It provides valuable information for detecting and monitoring early to moderate keratoconus. [J Refract Surg. 2020;36(11):757-765.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/1081597X-20200925-01DOI Listing
November 2020

IOP-induced regional displacements in the optic nerve head and correlation with peripapillary sclera thickness.

Exp Eye Res 2020 11 27;200:108202. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; Biophysics Interdisciplinary Group, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Mechanical insult induced by intraocular pressure (IOP) is likely a driving force in the disease process of glaucoma. This study aimed to evaluate regional displacements in human optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary tissue (PPT) in response to acute IOP elevations, and their correlations with morphological characteristics of the posterior eye. Cross-sectional (2D) images of the ONH and PPT in 14 globes of 14 human donors were acquired with high-frequency ultrasound during whole globe inflation from 5 to 30 mm Hg. High-frequency ultrasound has a spatial resolution of tens of micrometers and is capable of imaging through the ONH and PPT thickness. Tissue displacements were calculated using a correlation-based speckle tracking algorithm for a dense matrix of kernels covering the 2D imaging plane. The ONH was manually segmented in the ultrasound B-mode images acquired at 5 mmHg based on echogenicity. The lamina cribrosa (LC) boundaries were visible in eight of the fourteen eyes and the LC region was segmented using a semi-automated superpixel-based method. The ONH had larger radial displacement than the PPT in all tested eyes and the difference increased with increasing IOP. A significant negative correlation was found between ONH-PPT displacement difference and PPT thickness (p < 0.05), while no significant correlations were found between ONH-PPT displacement difference and other morphological parameters including PPT radius of curvature, scleral canal size, LC thickness and anterior LC surface depth. Within the ONH, the radial displacement decreased in the region anterior to and across LC but not in the region posterior to LC. Finite element models using simplified geometry and material properties confirmed the role of LC in reducing the overall ONH radial displacements, but did not predict the displacement gradient change observed experimentally. These results suggested that a thinner PPT may be associated with a larger relative posterior motion of the ONH with respect to the surrounding PPT and the LC may play a major role in preventing excessive posterior displacement of ONH during acute IOP elevations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2020.108202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655654PMC
November 2020

Ocular Pulse Elastography: Imaging Corneal Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Ocular Pulse Using Ultrasound.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020 01 30;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Purpose: In vivo evaluation of corneal biomechanics holds the potential for improving diagnosis and management of ocular diseases. We aimed to develop an ocular pulse elastography (OPE) technique to quantify corneal strains generated by naturally occurring pulsations of the intraocular pressure (IOP) using high-frequency ultrasound.

Methods: Simulated ocular pulses were induced in whole porcine and human donor globes to investigate the effects of physiologic variations in baseline IOP, ocular pulse amplitude, and frequency on corneal strains. Ocular pulse-induced strains were measured in additional globes before and after UVA-riboflavin-induced corneal crosslinking. The central cornea in each eye was imaged with a 50-MHz ultrasound imaging system and correlation-based speckle tracking of radiofrequency data was used to calculate tissue displacements and strains.

Results: Ocular pulse-induced corneal strains followed the cyclic changes of IOP. Both baseline IOP and ocular pulse amplitude had a significant influence on strain magnitude. Variations in pulse frequency within the normal human heart rate range did not introduce detectable changes in corneal strains. A significant decrease of corneal strain, as quantified by the OPE technique, was observed after corneal crosslinking. The extent of corneal stiffening (i.e., strain reduction) seemed to correlate with the initial strain magnitude.

Conclusions: This ex vivo study demonstrated the feasibility of the OPE method to quantify corneal strains generated by IOP pulsation and detect changes associated with corneal crosslinking treatment.

Translational Relevance: Integrating in vivo measurement of IOP and ocular pulse amplitude, the OPE method may lead to a new clinical tool for safe and quick biomechanical evaluations of the cornea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.1.5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255625PMC
January 2020

Three-Dimensional Inflation Response of Porcine Optic Nerve Head Using High-Frequency Ultrasound Elastography.

J Biomech Eng 2020 05;142(5)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Road, Columbus, OH 43210.

Characterization of the biomechanical behavior of the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is important for understanding glaucoma susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound elastographic technique to obtain mapping and visualization of the 3D distributive displacements and strains of the ONH and surrounding peripapillary tissue (PPT) during whole globe inflation from 15 to 30 mmHg. 3D scans of the posterior eye around the ONH were acquired through full tissue thickness with a high-frequency ultrasound system (50 MHz). A 3D cross-correlation-based speckle-tracking algorithm was used to compute tissue displacements at ∼30,000 kernels distributed within the region of interest (ROI), and the components of the strain tensors were calculated at each kernel by using least square estimation of the displacement gradients. The accuracy of displacement calculation was evaluated using simulated rigid-body translation on ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data obtained from a porcine posterior eye. The accuracy of strain calculation was evaluated using finite element (FE) models. Three porcine eyes were tested showing that ONH deformation was heterogeneous with localized high strains. Substantial radial (i.e., through-thickness) compression was observed in the anterior ONH and out-of-plane (i.e., perpendicular to the surface of the shell) shear was shown to concentrate in the vicinity of ONH/PPT border. These preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of this technique to achieve comprehensive 3D evaluation of the mechanical responses of the posterior eye, which may provide mechanistic insights into the regional susceptibility in glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4045503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104765PMC
May 2020

Corneal Hydration Control during Ex Vivo Experimentation Using Poloxamers.

Curr Eye Res 2020 02 18;45(2):111-117. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

: The purpose of this study was to develop an effective treatment method using poloxamers to restore and maintain physiological hydration in postmortem porcine and human corneas during ex vivo experimentation, and to compare corneal inflation response with or without treatment.: Corneal buttons obtained from whole globes (n = 30 porcine, n = 8 human) were treated with various concentrations of poloxamer 188 (P188, a synthetic macromolecule surfactant) for 24 hrs to identify the concentration that would return the cornea to near-physiological hydration (i.e. H = 3.2). Whole globes (n = 12 porcine, n = 16 human) were also used to monitor central corneal thickness (CCT) during deswelling treatment. Inflation testing from 5 to 30 mmHg was performed in the porcine globes and a subset of human globes to characterize the mechanical response of the cornea after treatment.: Physiological hydration was obtained after 24 hrs immersion in 3.25% P188 for porcine corneas and 4.25% P188 treatment for human corneas. CCT was stabilized and returned to physiological levels after 24 hrs of treatment in 3.25% P188 in porcine (891 ± 66 µm) and 4.25% P188 in human (574 ± 34 µm) whole globes. Corneal axial strains at 30 mmHg were significantly larger at physiological hydration than in swollen cornea in both porcine (-6.42%±1.50% vs. -3.64%±1.05%, = .004) and human (-2.85%±0.09% in vs. -1.53%±0.27%, = .031) eyes.: Our results suggest that P188 treatment was effective in restoring and maintaining near physiological corneal hydration during ex vivo testing, and hydration appeared to significantly impact corneal inflation response in both porcine and human eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2019.1663387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980502PMC
February 2020

Mechanical Deformation of Human Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Tissue in Response to Acute IOP Elevation.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 03;60(4):913-920

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Purpose: To measure the deformation of the human optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary tissue (PPT) in response to acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation.

Methods: The ONH and PPT of 14 human donor globes were imaged with high-frequency ultrasonography during inflation testing from 5 to 30 mm Hg. A correlation-based speckle tracking algorithm was used to compute tissue displacements, and the through-thickness, in-plane, and shear strains were calculated by using least-squares strain estimation methods. The ONH and PPT were segmented along the anterior-posterior direction and the nasal-temporal direction. Regional displacements and strains were analyzed and compared.

Results: The ONH displaced more posteriorly than the PPT in response to an acute IOP increase. Scleral canal expansion was minimal but correlated with ONH posterior displacement at all IOP levels. Through-thickness compression was concentrated in the anterior of both the ONH and the PPT. Shear was concentrated in the vicinity of the canal with higher shear in the peripheral ONH than the central ONH and higher shear in the PPT near the scleral canal than that further away from the canal.

Conclusions: High-resolution ultrasound speckle tracking showed a displacement mismatch between the ONH and the PPT, larger compressive strains in the direction of IOP loading in the anterior ONH and PPT, and higher shear strains in the periphery of ONH in response to acute IOP elevation in the human eye. These findings delineate the deformation patterns within and around the ONH and may help understand IOP-associated optic nerve damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-26071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402264PMC
March 2019

Regional Deformation of the Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Sclera During IOP Elevation.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 07;59(8):3779-3788

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Purpose: To measure the deformation of the porcine optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary sclera (PPS) in response to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation.

Methods: High-frequency ultrasound was used to image the ONH and PPS of 12 porcine eyes during ex vivo inflation testing from 5 to 30 mm Hg. A speckle tracking algorithm was used to compute tissue displacements in the anterior-posterior direction and expansion of the scleral canal. Through-thickness, in-plane, and shear strains were calculated within the ONH. Regional displacements and strains were analyzed and compared.

Results: The ONH and PPS showed overall posterior displacement in response to IOP elevation. Posterior displacement of the ONH was larger than and strongly correlated with the posterior displacement of the PPS throughout inflation testing. Scleral canal expansion was much smaller and leveled off quicker than ONH posterior displacement as IOP increased. Through-thickness compression was concentrated in the anterior ONH, which also experienced larger in-plane and shear strains than the posterior ONH. Within the anterior ONH, all three strains were significantly higher in the periphery compared with the center, with the shear strain exhibiting the greatest difference between the two regions.

Conclusions: High-resolution ultrasound speckle tracking revealed the full-thickness mechanical response of the posterior eye to IOP elevation. A mismatch in posterior displacement was found between the ONH and PPS, and regional analyses showed a concentration of strains within the periphery of the anterior porcine ONH. These deformation patterns may help in understanding IOP-associated optic nerve damage and glaucoma susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-24462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059763PMC
July 2018

Imaging Corneal Biomechanical Responses to Ocular Pulse Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2018 02;37(2):663-670

Imaging corneal biomechanical changes or abnormalities is important for better clinical diagnosis and treatment of corneal diseases. We propose a novel ultrasound-based method, called ocular pulse elastography (OPE), to image corneal deformation during the naturally occurring ocular pulse. Experiments on animal and human donor eyes, as well as synthetic radiofrequency (RF) data, were used to evaluate the efficacy of the OPE method. Using very high-frequency ultrasound (center frequency = 55 MHz), correlation-based speckle tracking yielded an accuracy of less than 10% error for axial tissue displacements of or above. Satisfactory speckle tracking was achieved for out-of-plane displacements up to . Using synthetic RF data with or without a pre-defined uniform strain, the OPE method detected strains down to 0.0001 axially and 0.00025 laterally with an error less than 10%. Experiments in human donor eyes showed excellent repeatability with an intraclass correlation of 0.98. The measurement outcome from OPE was also shown to be highly correlated with that of standard inflation. These results suggest the feasibility of OPE as a potential clinical tool for evaluating corneal biomechanics in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2017.2775146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826553PMC
February 2018

3D Characterization of corneal deformation using ultrasound speckle tracking.

J Innov Opt Health Sci 2017 Nov 22;10(6). Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

The three-dimensional (3D) mechanical response of the cornea to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation has not been previously reported. In this study, we use an ultrasound speckle tracking technique to measure the 3D displacements and strains within the central 5.5 mm of porcine corneas during the whole globe inflation. Inflation tests were performed on dextran-treated corneas (treated with a 10% dextran solution) and untreated corneas. The dextran-treated corneas showed an inflation response expected of a thin spherical shell, with through-thickness thinning and in-plane stretch, although the strain magnitudes exhibited a heterogeneous spatial distribution from the central to more peripheral cornea. The untreated eyes demonstrated a response consistent with swelling during experimentation, with through-thickness expansion overriding the inflation response. The average volume ratios obtained in both groups was near 1 confirming general incompressibility, but local regions of volume loss or expansion were observed. These results suggest that biomechanical measurements in 3D provide important new insight to understand the mechanical response of ocular tissues such as the cornea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S1793545817420056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5794035PMC
November 2017

Corneoscleral stiffening increases IOP spike magnitudes during rapid microvolumetric change in the eye.

Exp Eye Res 2017 12 30;165:29-34. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; Biophysics Interdisciplinary Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Factors governing the steady-state IOP have been extensively studied; however, the dynamic aspects of IOP are less understood. Clinical studies have suggested that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation may be associated with glaucoma risk. This study aims to investigate how stiffening of corneoscleral biomechanical properties affects IOP spikes induced by rapid microvolumetric change. Porcine eyes (n = 25 in total) were subjected to volumetric infusions before and after external treatment of a circular area (11 mm diameter) in either the central cornea or posterior sclera. The treated area in the control group was immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 40 min, while the treated area of the chemical crosslinking group was immersed in 4% glutaraldehyde/PBS for 40 min. A subset of the sham-treated eyes was also subjected to volumetric infusions at a raised steady-state IOP. The magnitude of IOP spikes increased after localized chemical crosslinking of either the cornea (27.5% increase, p < 0.001) or the sclera (14.3% increase, p < 0.001) with corneal crosslinking having a stronger effect than scleral crosslinking (p = 0.018). We also observed that raising the steady-state IOP from 15 to 25 mmHg resulted in marked increase in IOP spike magnitudes by 63.9% (p < 0.001). These results suggested that an increased corneoscleral stiffness could significantly increase IOP spike magnitudes at the same volumetric change. Corneal stiffness appeared to have a strong impact on the IOP spike magnitude and may play a major role in regulating rapid volume-pressure dynamics. An increase in steady-state IOP also resulted in larger IOP fluctuations due to the increased "apparent" stiffness of the ocular shell, suggesting a potential interaction between the magnitude of IOP and its fluctuations. Corneoscleral properties may represent additional pathways for understanding and managing glaucoma risk and warrant future investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2017.08.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705420PMC
December 2017

Three-Dimensional Strains in Human Posterior Sclera Using Ultrasound Speckle Tracking.

J Biomech Eng 2016 Feb;138(2):021015

Intraocular pressure (IOP) induced strains in the peripapillary sclera may play a role in glaucoma progression. Using inflation testing and ultrasound speckle tracking, the 3D strains in the peripapillary sclera were measured in nine human donor globes. Our results showed that the peripapillary sclera experienced through-thickness compression and meridional stretch during inflation, while minimal circumferential dilation was observed when IOP was increased from 10 to 19 mmHg. The maximum shear was primarily oriented in the through-thickness, meridional cross sections and had a magnitude slightly larger than the first principal strain. The tissue volume had minimal overall change, confirming near-incompressibility of the sclera. Substantial strain heterogeneity was present in the peripapillary region, with local high strain areas likely corresponding to structural heterogeneity caused by traversing blood vessels. These 3D strain characteristics provide new insights into the biomechanical responses of the peripapillary sclera during physiological increases of IOP. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and investigate the role of these biomechanical characteristics in ocular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4032124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844246PMC
February 2016

Mapping 3D Strains with Ultrasound Speckle Tracking: Method Validation and Initial Results in Porcine Scleral Inflation.

Ann Biomed Eng 2016 07 12;44(7):2302-12. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Jun Liu, 270 Bevis Hall, 1080 Carmack Rd, Columbus, OH, USA.

This study aimed to develop and validate a high frequency ultrasound method for measuring distributive, 3D strains in the sclera during elevations of intraocular pressure. A 3D cross-correlation based speckle-tracking algorithm was implemented to compute the 3D displacement vector and strain tensor at each tracking point. Simulated ultrasound radiofrequency data from a sclera-like structure at undeformed and deformed states with known strains were used to evaluate the accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of strain estimation. An experimental high frequency ultrasound (55 MHz) system was built to acquire 3D scans of porcine eyes inflated from 15 to 17 and then 19 mmHg. Simulations confirmed good strain estimation accuracy and SNR (e.g., the axial strains had less than 4.5% error with SNRs greater than 16.5 for strains from 0.005 to 0.05). Experimental data in porcine eyes showed increasing tensile, compressive, and shear strains in the posterior sclera during inflation, with a volume ratio close to one suggesting near-incompressibility. This study established the feasibility of using high frequency ultrasound speckle tracking for measuring 3D tissue strains and its potential to characterize physiological deformations in the posterior eye.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-015-1506-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4865453PMC
July 2016
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